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Advocacy tools

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... old adolescents reported to be sexually active (Malaysia, 1994-95) ... Other people 'experts' experience-interview. Printed materials. Mass media, INTERNET ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Advocacy tools


1
Advocacy tools Assessment techniques Stakeholder
analysis Packaging and delivery of
information Persuasion techniques Media relations
N. Assifi UNFPA/CAT, Bangkok
2
Assessment techniques
Needs assessment helps identify and measure gaps
between what is and what ought to be.
The needs assessment process includes
1
Gathering data
2
Analyzing the data
3
Establishing priorities for addressing the needs
3
Methods for assessing needs
Demographic data
Focus group
Needs
Utilization data
Community survey
Small area analysis
Direct observation
Survey and pools
Use of key informants
Community forum
Individual interview
4
Advocacy Tools Stakeholder Analysis
5
Who are the stakeholders of advocacy?
Stakeholders Analysis
  • Decision makers
  • Allies and partners
  • Resistant groups (Adversaries)

6
Stakeholders Analysis
Decision makers
  • Size, (number), location, sex etc.
  • Knowledge about the advocacy issue
  • Channels for reaching the decision maker
  • Special skills i.e. good speaker, good
    negotiators
  • Political standing of the decision maker on the
    issue
  • Is the decision maker supporting the issue? If
    not, why?
  • Is the decision maker willing to speak in support
    of the issue in public or through mass media?

7
Stakeholders Analysis
Allies and partners
  • Size, (number), location, sex etc.
  • Knowledge about the advocacy issue
  • Networks, size of population covered
  • Special strengths i.e. media relations, community
    mobilization
  • Past experience , expertise in the area of
    advocacy
  • Willingness to share experience, expertise,
    resources
  • Expectations from joining the partnership

8
Stakeholders Analysis
Resistant group (adversaries)
  • Size, (number), location, sex etc.
  • Knowledge about the advocacy issue
  • Reason for resistant/opposition
  • How to reach the opposition group?
  • Whom they consult or get advice from?

9
Advocacy Tools Packaging and Delivery of Advocacy
Messages
10
Advocacy Message What it is.
  • It is a short, concise and persuasive statement.
  • It relates to your goal and sums up what you want
    to achieve.
  • Its purpose to create action you would like your
    audience to take.

11
Key Parts of an Advocacy Message
  • What is the issue or problem?
  • How big is the issue or how serious is the
    problem.
  • What is the adverse effect of the problem on a
    particular group of people?
  • What can stakeholders do to solve the problem?

12
Key Parts of an Advocacy Message What is the
issue or problem?
  • Example
  • High rate of teenage pregnancy in South-East
    Asia

13
Key Parts of an Advocacy Message How big is the
issue or how serious is the problem?
  • Example
  • Between 1 to 1.4 million adolescent women have
    abortions in developing countries each year.
    About half of adolescents interviewed considered
    premarital sex as normal behaviour and 23 of
    13-19 year old adolescents reported to be
    sexually active (Malaysia, 1994-95). In
    Indonesia, 28.8 of newly married couples had
    engaged in premarital sex (University of Islam
    Indonesia in Yogyakarta). Of these women, 12.6
    were pregnant before their marriage. 18 (2.5
    million) of Filipinos aged 15-24 have engaged in
    premarital sex. 74 of these do not use any
    method to prevent pregnancy

14
Key Parts of an Advocacy MessageWhat is the
adverse effect of the problem on a particular
group of people?
  • Example
  • Pregnant adolescents may be denied important
    opportunities such as education, employment and
    consequently, better quality of life. For young
    men, early fatherhood can also disrupt
    educational plans and increase economic
    responsibilities.

15
Key Parts of an Advocacy MessageWhat
stakeholders do to reduce teenage pregnancy?
  • Example
  • Promulgation of laws/policies on incorporation of
    sexuality education in the school curriculum
  • Allocation of resources for establishing
    counselling services for adolescent on ARH issues
  • Policies to increase accessibility of information
    and contraceptive for adolescents.

16
SEE Approach to Message Design
S
Write a simple STATEMENT
E
Provide EVIDENCE with facts
E
Give EXAMPLE with a story or analogy
17
Advocacy message styles
  • Emotional Vs Rational Appeals
  • Positive Vs Negative Appeals
  • Mass Vs Individual Appeals
  • Definite Conclusion Vs Open Conclusion
  • Repetitive Vs One time Appeals

18
Packaging the Message
  • Presentation is key to message delivery.
  • A successful presentation is appealing and
    attractive.
  • Packaging includes print, audio or audio-visual
    materials.
  • Support packaging with simple illustrations,
    graphs and photos.

19
Packaging materials for different target groups
Message for Decision- makers
1. Issue/Problem
2. Size of issue or problem
Message for Partners and Allies
3. Effects
4. Action
Message for Resistant Groups
20
Advocacy Tools Persuasion Techniques
21
Persuasion techniques
  • Informing/sensitizing
  • Making presentation
  • Lobbying
  • Petitioning
  • Pressuring
  • Negotiating (conflict resolution)
  • Debating

22
Informing/sensitizing
Informing Introducing a topic or a problem
Sensitizing Presenting issues scrounging the topic
  • Methods
  • Presentation
  • Radio/television/print
  • Poster, leaflet
  • Methods
  • Seminar
  • Conference
  • Meetings

23
Making Presentation
Presentation is Expressing ideas, presenting
information and arousing feelings compelling the
listeners to further inquiry and thought
24
Making Presentation
  • To be an effective presenter, you must have a
    balance between knowledge of subject and skills
    in organization and presentation.
  • Knowledge of a subject can hardly be
    overemphasized, yet knowledge without skills in
    presentation accomplishes little.

25
Analyzing the Presentation Occasion
  • What is the purpose of the occasion?
  • What is the likely size of the audience?
  • What physical conditions will prevail?

26
Analyzing the Audience
  • Determine audience interests
  • Primary interest
  • Secondary interests
  • Momentary interests
  • Determine facts about the audience
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Education, Knowledge
  • Occupation
  • Social status/ background
  • Determine audience attitude towards the subject
  • Favorable attitude
  • Hostile attitude
  • Apathetic attitude

27
Selection, Sequencing and Classification of the
Content
  • 1. Selecting a Title
  • Select a title in keeping with occasion
  • Select a title applicable to your subject
  • Select a provocative title
  • Select a brief title
  • 2. Sources of Materials
  • Your own experience
  • Other people experts experience-interview
  • Printed materials
  • Mass media, INTERNET
  • Observation of a process, activity, etc.

28
Selection
  • 3 Selection of Content
  • Is the content in keeping with the intellectual
    capacity of your audience?
  • Is the content adapted to your time limit?
  • Is the content appropriate for the size of your
    audience and the prevailing physical conditions?
  • 4. Sequencing Content
  • Logical order
  • Problem-centred order
  • Simple to complex order
  • Job performance order

29
Identifying Support Materials
  • Definitions
  • Visual aids
  • Accurate and effective use of statistics
  • Effective use of examples
  • Effective use of testimony
  • Repetition and restatement

30
Organizing the Presentation
  • Introduction
  • To create favorable atmosphere for the
    presentation
  • To stimulate interest in the subject
  • Clarify and partition the topics
  • The body of the Presentation
  • Develop the central idea
  • Develop main divisions, subdivisions and
    organizational pattern

Support the Issues Explanation Statistics Examples
Testimony The Conclusion
31
Preparing for Delivery
  • Rehearsing
  • Reading from manuscript
  • Official statements
  • Research reports
  • Speeches prepared for radio
  • Speaking from memory
  • Speaking with help of presentation notes
  • Speaking with help of an outline
  • Effective use of microphone

32
Presentation Notes
  • MORE THAN 50 OF THE WORLD IS BELOW THE AGE OF 25
    OF WHOM MORE THA 80 LIVE IN DEVELOPING
    COUNTRIES. THE LESS ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPED THE
    COUNTRY, THE YOUNGER THE POPULATION. FOR
    EXAMPLE, IN KENYA, 70 OF THE POPULATION IS UNDER
    25 AS COMPARED WITH 34 IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.
    ABOUT ONE FIFTH OF THE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD, MORE
    THAN ONE BILLION, ARE ADOLESCENT. THE WORLD IS
    RAPIDLY URBANIZING. IN 1950, 17 OF PEOPLE IN
    DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LIVED IN URBAN AREAS. BY
    THE YEAR 2000 THE FIGURE IS EXPECTED TO BE OVER
    45, AN INCREASE OF MORE THAN 250, AND STILL
    ACCELERTING.

33
Presentation Notes
  • More than 50 of the world is below the age of
    25, of whom more than 80 live in developing
    countries.
  • The less economically developed the country, the
    younger the population.
  • For example, in Kenya 70 of the population is
    under 25 as compared with 34 in the
    United Kingdom.
  • About one fifth of the people of the world,
    more than one billion, are adolescent.
  • The world is rapidly urbanizing, In 1950,
    17 of people in developing
    countries lived in urban areas.

34
Tips for Effective Presentation
  • You may need to be more enthusiastic about the
    subject. You cannot expect audience interest
    unless you show enthusiasm yourself.
  • You may need to change the rate, volume or pitch
    of your voice. A monotonous presentation invites
    inattention.
  • Make your materials more interesting by relating
    it to the interests of your listeners.
  • You may need to define and explain technical term
    or be less abstract.
  • You may need to use bodily action to help express
    yourself.
  • Using the language accurately and effectively.
  • Developing an adequate speaking voice.
  • Analyzing audience reaction.

35
Political lobbying
It is a technique of advocacy involving repeated,
meetings, office calls, letters, media
interventions to achieve public policy goals
Political lobbying often target one or a small
group of political leaders
36
Political lobbying
It is used to achieve public policy goals
Points to remember
  • It is more effective when there is a need for
    something specific from the legislative system
  • Identify the key parliamentarians you want to
    reach, be they individuals or a committee dealing
    with the issue
  • Be focused. Stick to just one issue for each
    communication

37
Political lobbying
Points to remember
  • Find out the parliamentarians position
    and background on the issue
  • Make a personal connection. If you have a
    colleague or friend in common with the
    parliamentarians, let him/her know about it
  • Tell the truth. Giving false or misleading
    information is counter productive
  • Lobbying needs to be carried out continuously
    over a period of time

38
Petitioning
  • It is a written and formal way of
    making your point
  • Represents a collective perspective, and not just
    that of individuals and a particular group
  • It is a very short and clear statement on what
    the issue is and what action needs to be taken
    followed by names and addresses of a large number
    of individuals who support those statements

39
Negotiating
Negotiation helps to develop mutually beneficial
solutions in situation of conflict.
Ways of coping with conflict
Competition
Compromise
Collaboration
Accommodation
Avoidance
40
Negotiation skills
Three key elements of negotiation
  • Listening
  • Attentively
  • Acceptably
  • Assistingly
  • Alertly
  • Actively
  • Respectfully
  • Observing
  • Fully
  • Tactfully
  • Empathetically
  • Objectively
  • Telling
  • By using simple, non-threatening words
  • By saying and using words that the listener wants
    to hear
  • By avoiding objection words
  • By using visual materials
  • By being accurate and complete
  • By being considerate

41
Negotiation skills
The negotiator must be in SHAPE
S Sincere/Sensitive H Honest/Humorous A Attentive/
Articulate P Proficient E Enthusiastic/Emphatic
42
Debating
  • It is used when there are two or more differing
    opinions about a particular issue
  • It is an opportunity to highlight the positive
    and negatives aspects of all the opinions
  • There is a moderator who leads the discussion and
    controls the amount to time each persons is
    permitted to speak
  • Each person in the debate is given the
    opportunity to speak in the beginning, and than
    questions are asked by the moderator or by the
    audience

43
Techniques and Tactics
44
Advocacy tools Media Relations
45
How to involve media?
  • Establish personal relation
  • Letters, telephone calls, office calls
  • Invitation to high profile events
  • Orientation seminars
  • In-country site visits
  • Arranging interviews with
    high-profile people
  • Regular dissemination of
    up-to-date information/data

46
Features of a story that attracts media
  • Issues that are controversial, sensational,
    moving or inspiring
  • New discoveries, new ideas, inventions
    (especially when they affect
  • lots of people directly)
  • Events dealing with
  • competition, challenges etc
  • Miscarriage of justice, unfair
  • decisions etc
  • Unusual or odd events
  • Celebrities

47
Message formats for media
  • Press release
  • Fact sheets/ background sheets
  • Press kit/media packets
  • Press conference
  • Editorials
  • Letters to editor

48
Press Releases
  • Keep the press release brief two pages at most.
  • However, make sure it has all the facts with the
    main point in the lead paragraph and headline.
  • Begin your article with a dramatic statement.
    Write simply.
  • Ex. More than 15 Million girls aged 15-19 give
    birth each year with a risk of maternal mortality
    and morbidity, including infection from HIV/AIDS.

49
Press Releases
  • Send your press release using your letterhead
    with Press Release printed on it.
  • Always include the Contact Person and contact
    number for verification.
  • Accompany your press release with a photograph.

50
Fact Sheet
  • Divide the subject matter into small bite-size
    sub-topics for easy understanding
  • Discuss one sub-topic at a time.
  • Keep the multiple uses of a fact sheet in mind
    (as a press release, a teaching material, part of
    a press kit)
  • Support your information with simple charts,
    graphics, photos, statistics, tables
  • Write simply use simple language

51
Press kit
It is a compilation of facts, data, examples,
case studies, illustrations, photos, video tapes
etc. to give journalists easy access to facts and
information on a given subject.
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