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Linking rural health facility to the internet using packet radio in developing countries OAUNet a ca

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Title: Linking rural health facility to the internet using packet radio in developing countries OAUNet a ca


1
Linking rural health facility to the internet
using packet radio in developing
countries (OAUNet a case study)
  • by
  • O.O. Abiona O.A. Adewara
  • Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
  • Nigeria.

2
We shall consider
  • What is packet radio
  • Choice of packet over other mode
  • Component of a packet station
  • Distance limitation of packet radio
  • Channel Sharing
  • What is AX.25
  • The OAUNet

3
Continue..
  • Problems in rural community
  • Services for rural connectivity
  • Conclusion

4
What is packet radio
  • A particular digital mode of amateur radio
    communication which corresponds to computer
    telecommunication.
  • The telephone modem is replaced by a magic box
    called a Terminal Node Controller (TNC)
  • Telephone is replaced by an amateur radio
    transceiver.

5
Continue...
  • The phone system is replaced by the free
    amateur radio waves.
  • Packet radio takes any data stream sent from a
    computer and sends that via radio to another
    amateur radio station similarly equipped.

6
Why packet over other modes
  • Transparency
  • Error correction
  • Automatic control.

7
Components of a packet station
8
Terminal Node Controller (TNC)
  • A modem
  • A computer processor
  • Associated circuitry to convert communication b/w
    your computer(RS-232) and the packet radio
    protocol in use.

9
Function of a TNC
  • Assembles a packet from data received from the
    computer.
  • Computes an error check for the packet.
  • Modulates it into audio frequencies.
  • Transmit the packet over the connected radio.
  • It also reverses the process

10
Computer or Terminal
  • A computer running terminal emulation program or
    a dumb terminal.
  • E.g hyperterminal, procomm, X-Talk, Pacterm

11
A Radio
  • For 1200/2400bps UHF/VHF packet.
  • Commonly available narrow band FM voice radio.
  • For HF packet 300bps data is used over single
    side band modulation.
  • For high speed packet (starting at 9600bps)
    special radio or modified FM radio are used.

12
Distance limitation of packet radio
  • It is used at higher radio frequencies (VHF), the
    range of the transmission is some what limited.
  • Limited to unobstructed line-of-sight
  • For two meter packet (144-148MHZ) the range could
    be 10 - 100miles

13
Channel Sharing
  • Can support multiple conversation on the same
    frequency at the same time.
  • Multiple conversation are possible in a managed
    time shared fashion.
  • It uses the AX.25 to accomplish this shared
    channel.

14
What is AX.25
  • Is the communication protocol used for packet
    radio.
  • Is based on the wired network protocol X.25.

15
The OAUNetObafemi Awolowo University Network
16
Obafemi Awolowo University
  • Academic Network Project
  • OAUNET - Current Design
  • Present load estimates
  • Overview of Network

17
INFRASTRUCTURAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
  • ProblemAnalogue exchange necessitating
    Solution Store and forward / VSAT Internet
    connectivity since January 1999.
  • Problem Unreliable Power Supply
  • Solution Back-up-- UPS Generators

18
Services Provided
  • Basic E-mail
  • Web access
  • File Transfer
  • Remote access

19
OAUNET - Main Network Diagram
VSAT Earth Station 64 Kbps
WaveLan 2Mbps
Main HUB
Dial up MODEM 14.4 Kbps
Key sc - sciences tech - Technology cs - Computer
Science usb - Secretariat chs - Health
Science Agric- Agriculture NC - NACTEM TH - OAU
Teaching hospital
First Generation
sc
tech
cs
Second Generation
chs
agric
usb
CERD Breezecom LAN 2-3 Mbps (FHSS)
Third Generation
NC
Breezecom Lan 2-3 (FHSS)Mbps
Packet and HF radio links to rural Health
establishments in the area
TH
20
Main HUB or network
WLAN Antenna
Inter Subnet Router
Mail Server
WEB Server
Terminal Equipment
Comm. Server
Backup Server
Proxy
Firewall
CISCO router
Pentium II PCs
10 base 2 Ethernet Backbone (Server Bus)
21
Architecture of Most SubnetsUsing ATT Wireless
915 MHz Antenna
2 Mbps link to Main network
HUB
One or more client computers Running Windows or
Linux GUI Provide Print services, and telnet.
Clients are Auto- configured through DHCP
Ethernet
22
Sciences Subnet
2 Mbps link to Main network
WavePoint Radio
HUB
Server for Physics Dept. Electronics Dept.
One or more client computers Running Windows or
Linux KDE Provide Print services, and telnet
clients Auto- configured through DHCP Located in
Public access rooms and Private offices and
Laboratories
23
Computer Science Subnet
24
Library Subnet
2 Mbps link to Main network
WavePoint
Windows 95 Netware clients and other Library
catalog system Pegasus Mail Clients
Linux Router With Netware Emulation
Novell Netware 4 Server with TCP/IP Mecury MAIL
Server
25
  • CONTENTS FOR THE INTERNET
  • Observatories/Data banks
  • Science Database, Water Resources and Rural
    Development
  • National Databank, Raw Materials Research Council
    Databank

26
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27
Monthly Growth of Users
28
Percentage Level of Awareness
29
1
2
3
30
(No Transcript)
31
(No Transcript)
32
Other Services Provided
  • Consultancy services to Educational Institutions.
    This entails
  • -Network site survey
  • -Structured Cabling
  • -Computer hardware Installations and Repairs
  • -Web enabling services
  • -Internet Services (system configuration)
  • Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA)
    ,University of Lagos, Yaba, Lagos State
    University, Badagry, University of Agriculture,
    Abeokuta,University of Ilorin,Dept. of Physics,
    University of Ibadan and the College of
    Education, Ikere-Ekiti

33
Antenna types (1)
SPECIFICATIONS Antenna Antenna Gain 24
dBi Frequency Range 2.4 to 2.5 GHz Impedance 50
Ohms Polarization Vertical or horizontal Dimensi
ons 24" x 36" x 15" 610 x 915 x
381mm Weight 5.4 lbs 2.43 kg
SPECIFICATIONS Antenna Antenna Gain 8
dBi Frequency Range 2.4 to 2.5 GHz Impedance 50
Ohms Polarization Vertical Dimensions 17"
length 43 cm Weight .45 lbs 205 g
34
915 MHz Antenna types (2)
35
Problems of rural Community
  • They lack well developed telecommunication
    infrastructure.
  • Lack of constant electricity supply.
  • Lack of good road network.
  • Lack of portable water supply
  • etc...

36
Services for rural Connectivity
  • E-mail services.
  • Ftp. (minimal)
  • Www (minimal or hardly used).

37
The established link
OAUNet
Radio
Radio
TNC
TNC
38
Cost estimation for high speed Packet radio Link.
  • S/N Description Amount
  • 1. 2 Nos of TNC _at_ 200.00 400.00
  • 2. 2 Nos of Radio _at_ 100.00 200.00
  • 3. 2 Nos of Antenna _at_ 50.00 100.00
  • 4. Accessories 50.00
  • Total 750.00
  • Low Cost Implimentation
  • S/N Description Amount
  • 1. 2 Nos of TNC _at_ 00.00 00.00
  • 2. 2 Nos of Radio _at_ 100.00 200.00
  • 3. 2 Nos of Antenna _at_ 50.00 100.00
  • 4. Accessories 50.00
  • Total 350.00

39
Conclusion
  • In view of the problems facing the rural
    community and developing nations in general,
    coupled with the problem of funds to acquire high
    speed connectivity, Packet radio could be a way
    out for developing countries to spread internet
    connectivity to rural communities.
  • We want to thank ICTP for making this possible
    for OAU, Ife and Nigerian Universities at large.

40
END
  • Thank You.
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