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Security Issues

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Title: Security Issues


1
Security Issues Paradigmsin Mobile Computing
Science Networking
  • Michel Riguidel
  • Tel 33 1 45 81 73 02
  • riguidel_at_enst.fr

2
Les exigences de QoS, mobilité et de
configurabilité
3
Information Technology evolution
  • Before 80 Middle Age, Computing Sc. belongs to
    fiefs (IBM, ), no network
  • All proprietary, no flow All is parchment or
    proprietary spreadsheet
  • 80s All is transparent for a computer scientist
  • All is file UNIX (/dev/null, /dev/lpr, ...)
  • a file is a set of characters which can be
    manipulated by C language
  • 85s All is readable on a desk (or a PC) for
    anybody
  • All is document (no more interoperability
    transparency)
  • 95s All is an available object on the network
    for communication
  • All is document, readable everywhere (HTML page)
    or executable everywhere (Java)
  • Privilege to information access kiosk, server
  • 00s All is a digital, fluid live stream
    distributed over networks
  • Nomadic user, virtual presence (user or
    sw/content move), Virtual Machine JavaBeans
  • Ubiquitous IT (networked planet grid) Mobile
    computing infrastructure (Xeo satellites)
  • 05s All is program, alive on ad hoc networks
  • An entity on the network is a Java Program (Jini
    Concept)
  • Intentional architecture

4
The new Paradigm of IT
Towards a Convergence Telecom - Multimedia -
IT For a seamless IT with mobility,
configurability in zero-administration within an
heterogeneous world
Hardware
Distributed Multimedia Data
end-user Profile, smart card software object,
Agent Application, Service Telephone, Set Top
Box, PDA PC, Server, Printer Trusted Third
Party Router, Switch Home Network, Local
Network Virtual Private Network
for Businesses, Internet
Software
Middleware Infrastructure of dynamically
configurable distributed IT
Content
Individuals
Communicating, autonomous, configurable, mobile,
automatically plugged ENTITIES onto an
interoperable secured, Plug Play, scaleable
dynamically INFRASTRUCTURE, All being
distributedly managed by various Actors,
according several point of view
5
Infrastructure of a ISUrbanization of an
Information System
Infrastructure with QoS, mobility security
Multimedia Hyperdocument
New Services Intelligent Routers
Switchers Configurability Active Ad hocNetworks
Mobile/fix, wired/wireless Extra/Inter/Intranet
Mobile Terminals Network Computers
New Services Usage biometric Authentication Adap
tive multi-modal Human Interface Speech
recognition Adaptability customization of
applications according terminal configuration
end-users services
New Services Indexation by content Protection
of digital Objects Navigation, Search
engine information filtering
6
Software Intensive SystemArchitecture is a key
issue
Broadcast Access
System Architecture
New OSI Layers
Usage, cooperation teleworking,
videoconference, real time negotiation
information documents
performance QoS interoperability security mobility
heterogeneity distribution dependability maintain
ability
applications configurable, downloadable
distribution services M2M, P2P Middleware,
XML, Corba mobile Code
communication convergence IP ATM
Multimedia Cross media, video, image, mobile
code, hyperdocument
transmission wired wireless
Content
Communication
Properties
7
Urbanization Versatility in Access
NetworksHeterogeneity, Global roaming, QoS,
Value Added Services
Access / Intermediation
IPv6
8
Global Interconnection  seamless Heterogeneit
y, Multimedia, macroMobility
Common challenges to be solved . Plug play .
Configurability . Management . Quality of
Service . Upgradeability . Adaptability .
Security, privacy . Stability, safety . Costs
LANs
Interconnection of Local Networks
Private
Internet Connections
Enterprise
Telecom Operators Internet
Cooperation
Cooperative Work
Mobiles
Remote Access
  • More Heterogeneity
  • Interoperability through different networks
  • No Esperanto W-Corba, JavaRMI, J2EE, agents,
    do not fit
  • M2M (middleware to middleware)
  • Selectivity, Resource management,

Public Networks Connections
Global Roaming
9
Dynamic Links heterogeneity mobility
WAP
GSM
Telecom Operators Internet
  • More Dynamicity
  • Changes depending upon
  • Policy, Traffic,
  • Opportunities, locations, context, resource

Global Handover
10
New Services, Contents, Middleware,Network
Service ProvidersClient-server gt intermediation
architecture
Multimedia Content-based Search Engine, Agent
Platform, etc
Content Provider
Achilles
Barbara
Personal Area Network
  • More Content Rich Content Cross-Content
  • VoIP, "QoS" real time, critical flows,
    audio-video streaming
  • Content processing (searching, watermarking, )

 QoS 
11
The digital World Architecture Urbanization
  • Ubiquity of computing storing resources
  • communication anytime, anywhere, anyhow
  • concept of datagrid (metacomputing)
  • Externalization of General resources
  • Mips
  • Storage
  • Trust content (secret keys available everywhere)
  • Communicating Objects Subjects
  • Objects are dynamically connected
  • Devices are permanently connected (IP v6)
  • Subjects have representations over the network
    (avatars)
  • Customization of its own Virtual Private Network
    Community

Key technology Cellular Mobile Telecommunications,
Mobility, roaming Internet, Data Grid, Cache
Architecture Satellite, Broadcast
12
The digital WorldArchitecture Urbanization
  • Customization
  • of its own Virtual Private Network Community
  • Subjects have representations over the network
    (avatars)
  • Devices are permanently connected (IP v6)
  • Layer 2 Data link
  • Communicating Objects Subjects
  • Objects are dynamically connected
  • Communication anytime, anywhere, anyhow
  • Versatile medium access
  • Layer 7 Bottom of Application Layer
  • Ubiquity of computing storing resources
  • concept of datagrid (metacomputing)
  • Externalization of General resources
  • Mips, Storage, Trust content (secret keys
    available everywhere)
  • Semantic socket,  pluget 
  • Quality of communication (QoS, Security)
  • Nature of content
  • Negotiated resources

13
The past emergence of new context
  • Information on Years 80s 90s
  • Simple and it works
  • Not enough mips
  • Proprietary
  • Dedicated entities with specific intelligence
    engine
  • Assumptions which are no more verified for Years
    00s
  • Catalogues of fix Applications
  • Bill Gates' concept is obsolete
  • Dedicated Infrastructure
  • Need of Global Interoperability Roaming
  • For "Beyond 3G networks", Routes do not exist any
    more
  • The OSI model is no more "the" reference
  • Herzian spectrum static allocation by ranges
  • Spectrum must be shared differently (new rules,
    UWB, )

14
The Future Open, Smart Configurable Networks
  • Non Functional Properties are essential
  • Policy aware networks
  • Mobility, QoS, interoperability, security
  • Configurability changes versus time space
  • Management issues, proactive reactive mgt
  • Potential solution
  • Virtualization
  • Openness
  • Hw Trivial (not simple !) Sw Virtual
  • More Intelligence in the network
  • Pros Cons
  • Performance
  • Business models
  • Technological issues
  • Complexity reduction
  • Software engineering does not follow

15
Long Term Vision
  • Vision
  • Hw Sw separation and independence
  • Smart intelligence within the open network
  • Radio block (General Management of the Radio
    Resource)
  • Lower layers (UMTS MAC layer)
  • Upper Layers Downloadable Applications
  • Relationship between the layers
  • Articulation between the architecture styles
  • Implementation of these architectures are
    different
  • Management
  • subsidiarity
  • Orientation
  • Open Network (Next seism in Computing
    networking)
  • Software radio, software Terminal, "Software
    Network" Ad hoc Active Networks
  • New Architectures P2P, M2M,

16
Convergence Virtualization Externalization
  • Wireless
  • Mobility autonomy
  • Adaptation, Configurability
  • Depending of the context
  • Ambient Networks
  • Embedded Internet, Desegregating terminals
  • Disappearing computing, pervasive computing
  • ubiquity of access
  • communicating objects and devices
  • remote work (medicine, surgery)
  • Augmented reality
  • Data Grid MetaComputing
  • Global computation (Genomes, cryptography,
    astrophysics, )
  • Managing securing Chain Value

17
Conclusions
  • Convergence / Divergence dialectic
  • Merging wired wireless
  • high date rate core networks
  • diversity of access to the network
  • New Content multimedia, art creation
  • exploration of the content cosmos
  • Different Scales heterogeneity
  • Bluetooth, WLan (802.xx), UMTS, Internet
  • Decentralization
  • Not a revolution but smooth permanent changes
  • migration of standards
  • IPv4 versus IPv6
  • de facto Windows towards Linux (open software)
  • GSM to GPRS
  • Etc.

18
Computing /or Networking
Computer
Network
Management of Time/Space I/O
Management of Space I/O
Semantic Turing Machine
Semantic Store Forward
Bandwidth
Router Switch
PC Server
Erlang Data rate QoS
Mips Gigabytes
Bottleneck I/O
Bottleneck the last Mile, , centimeter
Space not x,y,z but structured addresses
19
Gilders versus Moores law
2x/3-6 months
1M
1000 x
WAN/MAN Bandwidth
10,000
Log Growth
Processor Performance
100
2x/18 months
97
9
9
01
03
05
07
Greg Papadopoulos, Sun Microsystems
20
Mobile Context Digital World
  • More Mobility
  • Nomadic people (with terminals)
  • Mobile services, content (caches), infrastructure
    (satellite constellation)
  • Downloading applications, agent framework, liquid
    software, VHE,

Personalization
Mobility
Ambience Contextualization communication
infrastructure, equipment, environment
Localization
21
Evolution of mobile networks from vertical to
horizontal segmentation
Today Specific Network with unique service Old
Binding services with communication technology
Tomorrow Multi-service/client-server Network New
SP competition over open Infrastructure
Services
Portal Servers
Content
Content

Mobile Internet
High rate Internet
backbone network by packets
Data/IP Networks
PLMN
PSTN/ISDN
CATV
Mobile Access by packets
High rate Packets Access
Circuit Access 2G/RTC/ISDN
Clients
Access Network, Transport Switch Network
From Ericsson
22
Dynamic Provision of Services to Users
End user Private
Value Added Service Provider
Directory Services
Calling Services
Voice Services
Value Added Services
Information
Shopping
Banking
Telecom Operator ISP
Culture
Entertainment
Automation
Devices
Services
23
Quality of Service
  • QoS defined by UIT-T E.800 norm

Ease of use
Accessibility
Degree of satisfaction of the service user
Audrey
Continuity
Service Logistics
Security
Integrity
24
Information Flows, Streams Cachesefficiency of
the whole Loop Content Delivery Networks, ...
More Intelligence at the periphery of IS
More Knowledge and reactivity in the Loop
STREAMS
STREAMS
EXECUTION
MANAGEMENT
TRANSMISSIONS
TRANSMISSIONS
More irrigation in IS by differentiated
Information Flows
Data
lt Data Fusion Broadcast gt
Sensors Actuators
Synthesis
25
The ecology of networks
  • Social networks
  • who knows who gt Virtual Private Communities
  • Knowledge networks
  • who knows what gt Knowledge Management
  • Information networks
  • who informs what gt à la Internet
  • Work networks
  • who works where gt GroupWare
  • Competency networks
  • what is where gt Knowledge with time and space
  • Inter-organizational network
  • organizational linkages gt Semantic
    Interoperability

26
Mobility InfospheresEvolution of Spaces
regular intelligent
PAN-Bluetooth-WLan-UMTS-Internet
From K. M. Carley CMU
permanent links through IPv6
As spaces become intelligent individual's
infospheres grow, changes occur in the and in
which people are embedded.
Infospheres circles interaction bold
lines knowledge network dashed line
27
The Seven OSI Layers
Dynamic
Multimode
Browser Players
Between TCP UDP, there are thousands of upper
transport protocols
Active Networks computation within Nodes Ad hoc
Networks moving nodes, No fix Routes
Turbocode
Wireless Optics
28
Communication Infrastructure Client-server is
dead gtPolicy Aware Networks
Horizontal unbalance of the semantic distribution
in networks network entities are efficient
lifts for the OSI layered model extremities
(client server) bearing the whole intelligence
Connection between A and B secure interoperable
protocols Pab Pba with adaptive QoS
A client
Towards Active Ad hoc Networks
Network infrastructure
More intelligence memory, visibility,
flexibility
B server
29
Active Network Model
APIs
Application Program Interfaces
  • Execution Environment
  • Execution Machine
  • Interfaces to program the network

EE 1 Java (Capsule)
EE 2 (IPv4)
EE 3 (IPv6)
EE 4 Asm Intel
  • Open Operating system (Node OS)
  • Resource management
  • Open APIs towards EEs
  • Infrastructure for Security Functions

Trivial Hw (Physical Resource)
30
Réseaux actifs défis
  • Ouvrir le réseau aux (fournisseurs de) services
  • Modification dynamique du comportement du réseau
  • par les utilisateurs, applications, et opérateurs
  • Définir une interface (API) de programmation des
    réseaux

Un réseau programmable est un réseau de
transmission de paquets ouvert et extensible
disposant d'une infrastructure dédiée à
l'intégration et à la mise en uvre rapide de
nouveaux services Réseau extensible qui offre des
facilités pour changer dynamiquement son
comportement (tel quil est perçu par lusager)
Ouvrir le réseau Virtualiser les
composants Configurer dynamiquement
Le Réseau devient une machine virtuelle
programmable
31
Active Networks
  • To keep the Network proprietary ! over an Open
    Infrastructure
  • To distribute intelligence within the Network
  • DiffServ is a straightforward Active Network !
  • The Java Packet program is a constant (flow
    header)
  • MPLS is an elegant simple Active Network !
  • The program is a stack of constant (shim header)
    which is run over the entry and exit nodes to
    create Tunnels
  • More to come
  • Filtering,

32
Spontaneous Device Networking self-organizing,
ad-hoc
  • Wireless no route
  • Access control ?
  • Net etymology mesh, graph
  • How to find his own way ?
  • Some Issues
  • Service discovery
  • Spectrum coexistence
  • Management
  • Security

33
Ad hoc Networks
  • Each node can be a router and/or a terminal
  • Astrid cannot talk to Charlotte (hidden nodes)
  • Basil potential collisions
  • C can reach the cell A via B

A
B
C
D
Radio range
34
Ad hoc Networks
  • No more Routes
  • No more Topology
  • Blind search
  • Search with Reminiscence
  • Extension to Self organizing Network

35
Zimmermanns open interconnection model
End-to-end
Application
Application
Presentation
Presentation
Session
Session
Top-down
Transport
Transport
Network
Network
Link
Link
QoS
Physics
Physics
QoS
QoS
  • From top to bottom and from A to B
  • Seven layers model isotropic, no time and space
  • Homology to win interoperability
  • Vertical software engineering
  • To shred any content into packets, datagrams,
    frames, and finally bits
  • We ignore content semantics

36
Theory of communicationShannon Weaver model
(1949)
  • Linear unidirectional model
  • Neither the relationship between the actors nor
    the situation are taken into consideration
  • Eliminate semantics
  • J Lacan (seminar II, 1954), R Barthes (ethos,
    logos, pathos)

message
37
Les exigences de sécurité dans un univers mobile
38
Security issues in a mobile world
  • Specification of policies compatible with the
    Content and the Container
  • Set up of a context-oriented, plural,
    configurable policy
  • Design of new encryption protocols
  • Placing cryptology and steganography in
    perspective
  • Introducing security in an open world

39
Challenges
  • Years 2001
  • Distorting reality prism with
  • Internet (asynchronous messages meshes of
    routers) and
  • GSM (voice content cellular architecture with
    Base stations)
  • Security mobility
  • Use of infrastructures
  • Need of geographical references
  • Need of protecting the spatial structure
  • Fix infrastructure articulation of mobile part
    and fix part via a cryptographic protocol
  • Mobile part (ad hoc networks) search for
    invariant structures
  • Use of history of movements
  • Traceability of moving objects and subjects
  • Building alibis
  • Ontologies are moving in these virtual spaces
  • Identification and then confirming their
    existence in a defined location using alibis

40
New situation no more deterrence
  • Before 11th September (QQ33N)
  • Symbolic attack no more
  • undetectable or discrete attack
  • balance between investment protection cost risk
    to lose assets
  • After 11th September (QQ33N)
  • The whole communities can lose confidence
  • Security against on cyberwar
  • at a greater scale for large infrastructure
  • Main threat
  • Denial of service for a long time with multiple
    accidental coincidences
  • Basic security
  • Audit, accountability (identification
    authentication)

41
Classical Security solutions
  • PKIs, Certificates (X509), SSL, IPSec, Firewalls
  • Security classical cryptography model
  • Audrey Basil share a secret
  • can be used to scramble the message
    (cryptography)
  • can be used to insert a subliminal mark in order
    to leave a trace (steganography)

Point to point
Cryptography
Trusted third party
42
Security Solutions IT today 2 focal key points
S/MIME
PGP
Security with proxy
Content Security
P3P
FIPA security
WAP security
XML
SSL/TLS/LIPKEY
Articulation distributed security Infrastructure
Network Boundary
IPsec
IP
IKE/ISAKMP
BitStream Ciphering
Route Security
A lot of standard solutions Utilization often
complex One protocol does not eliminate all the
threats
43
Digital era vulnerability customized security
Buyer
01000011
011000101100
1100101001010101000011
01010101000011
00101100
01001010101000011
order
110010100101000011
Seller
0101100
1100101001010
vulnerable
1011000011101001
Mobile
only clones
payment
Bank
Intelligent can be adjusted and personalized
44
Mobility within a Convergence world
  • Open or closed ?
  • Both Möbius ribbon
  • Historical world footprint witness
  • We must authenticate the scene, the situation
  • We must trust a witness located at t t0 and at
    x x0
  • Audrey Basil know each other
  • Local confidence
  • Mobility introduces new threats
  • a subject S is going to travel trajectory x(t)
  • S is not alone
  • S leaves traces, depends upon the  ambience 
  • S wants to trust the object O
  • S and O are going to create alibis depending upon
    time and space
  • Alibis
  • are trusted relationships between the
    infrastructure, S O
  • E.g. the individual is going to sign with the
    station base that he/she was present in this cell

45
Security policy depending upon space time
  • User point of view
  • he/she defines his/her own security policy for
    comfort
  • Service access if the user in inside a perimeter
  • One restricts on his own our mobile phone usage
    inside a given zone for a certain period of time
  • One asks for a control from the telecom operator
  • Secret shared with the operator
  • Service Provider point of view
  • Creation of a cryptographic protocol to sign the
    user ID with the location ID (here the base
    station name)
  • Buyer may be anonymous but one knows that he was
    here at t t0
  • It is no more a virtual world

46
Object traceability
  • Trust model
  • Content security (end-to-end)
  • Container security (depending upon operator,
    Internet, etc)
  • The whole system has a memory
  • Audit function (.log files to record events)
  • Historical signature
  • Digital signature of the content integrity
  • Digital signature of the traces
  • Labeling, watermarking
  • Ephemeral watermarking

47
Security functions in a mobile universe
  • Identification
  • Biometry, smart card, trusted entity
  • Anonymous
  • need to find a witness for the situation
  • capture a secret depending upon the situation
  • Authentication
  • Of the scene
  • to exchange a secret with someone that we will
    see again
  • Audit
  • History of the objects /subjects trajectory
  • Ephemeral watermarking
  • Data Protection
  • Both Cryptography steganography

48
Architecture Projection of constraints
  • Architecture
  • Expression of constraints
  • Design Projection of the specification onto an
    implementation
  • The expression of the constraints (QoS, Security,
    mobility, interoperability) must be incarnate and
    instantiate through
  • The network architecture
  • The protocol specification
  • The applications
  • Some expressions will be through markers
  • In a clear world

49
Reconstruction of space, time and trust
  • Network models
  • Anarchical model
  • Internet, WLAN, WPAN
  • Master-slave
  • WLAN
  • Hierarchical
  • Cellular networks
  • Semantics of protocols
  • Oligarchic
  • PKIs
  • Architectures of Applications
  • Client server architecture model
  • Audrey Basil are living in an isotropic world
  • Producer consumer of content
  • Administration
  •  management  very often a bureaucracy
  • Others

50
The new paradigms the focal point is not IP
  • Computation ubiquity (bottom of layer 7)
  • Horizontal software engineering (M2M, P2P),
    Agents
  • XML metalanguage
  • To find an Esperanto (interoperability)
  • Allows to describe policies, rules, intentions,
    predicates
  • Metacomputation  grid 
  • Swarm of computers (10 6) running one single
    application
  • Issue the semantical socket at the bottom of
    the application layer
  • Access ubiquity (layer 2 MAC)
  • Vertical software engineering
  • High data rate Internet (digital divide)
  • Urbanization
  • Construction of an Harlequin mantle (802.11,
    802.15, UMTS, )
  • Dialectic of usages

51
Remedies to mobility vulnerabilities
  • Distribution
  • Trusted hierarchy by subsidiarity
  • One can distribute secrets which are longer
  • Intelligence everywhere
  • Inside the network
  • Network have a better throughput
  • Capillarity larger larger
  • Security hopping (security evasion)
  • Classical cryptography immutable world
  • To zap one billions of security policy
    implementations
  • 1 single security policy but 10 9 implementations
  • Each solution is fallible but the whole is highly
    secure
  • Secret contents
  • Delivery Content Network (DCNs), Storage Area
    Networks
  • Flood the network with machines able to compute
    secrets
  • Secret Content Networks huge repository of keys

52
Conclusion
  • Lurbanisation des systèmes de communication
  • Ubiquité, universalité
  • Complexité Structure, Architecture, Urbanisme
  • Les nouvelles exigences dans les futurs réseaux
  • QoS, mobilité, configurabilité, sécurité
  • Le seuil de la complexité des architectures
  • Performance versus intelligence
  • Les points de vue
  • opérateurs, manufacturiers, fournisseurs de
    services et utilisateurs
  • La complexité projetée dans lurbanisme,
    larchitecture, les protocoles, les extrémités et
    la subsidiarité (management réparti)
  • Le rythme des ruptures et des évolutions
  • dans le cadre de la convergence et
  • des réajustements de la tectonique des 3 plaques
  • Télécoms, Informatique, Audiovisuel
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