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Feudal Warfare and the Renaissance and the Military Art

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Forbade the use of the crossbow. CHARLES THE GREAT: CHARLEMAGNE ... Make it less worth for them. Pick your battles. Defense and fortifications. Feudalism 800-1200 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Feudal Warfare and the Renaissance and the Military Art


1
  • Feudal Warfare and the Renaissance and the
    Military Art

LtCol Mitchell Spring 2006
2
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Trace the development of the Franks and the
    Battle of Tours
  • Know Charlemagne and the beginning of Feudalism
  • Comprehend the Battle of Hastings
  • Know the influence of religious and technological
    factors on the Crusades
  • Trace the decline of mounted knights, calvary and
    crossbow and the emergence of the longbow, pike
    and gunpowder

3
Byzantium
4
The Decline of the Empire7th Century
  • In the East were the Persians, eager to gain
    control of the trade routes
  • Byzantines responded with limited counterforce
  • On the Northern Frontier were the Slavs
  • Byzatines responded with a strategy of
    annihilation.
  • The Slavs were temporarily halted
  • A long war with Persia
  • Depopulated their most dependable recruiting
    grounds

5
Islamic Invaders7th and 8th Centuries
  • 11 Moslem invasions in 65 years
  • Aftica, Syria and 1/2 of Turkey lost by 800 A.D.
  • 717 and 718 Defense of Constantinople against a
    Moslem siege save Christian Europe from Moslem
    invasion

6
Arab Conquests
7
FRANKS
  • GERMAINIC BARBARIAN TRIBES THAT MIGRATED INTO
    GAUL IN THE 5TH 6TH CENTURIES
  • INFANTRY AMONG MOST FORMIDABLE ADVESARIES OF
    ROMANS
  • RELIED MORE ON HARD FIGHTING THAN TACTICS

8
Franks
  • Arms
  • Wore no body armor
  • Used javelins, swords, daggers and the francisca
    (battle axe that was thrown just before contact
    with the enemy)
  • Successes on the battlefield were due in large
    part to their size and vitality
  • Also the degeneration of the military art among
    their enemies

9
The Battle of Tours
  • overview

10
General details
  • Considered part of the Islamic conquests
  • Fought Oct. 10, 732 near tours, France
  • Combatants
  • Frankish army under Charles martel
  • Umayyad caliphate under abd er rahman
  • Relative strengths
  • Franks 15,000 75,000
  • Arabs 60,000 400,000
  • Result decisive victory for franks. Prevents
    Muslim conquest of western Europe beyond Iberian
    peninsula.

11
Battle Details
  • Charles led a phalanx of mostly unarmored
    infantry
  • Chose location and conditions and waited six days
  • Did not want to move out into the open
  • Counted on Arabs impatience to fight
  • Charles infantry withstood a superior cavalry
  • Frankish scouts sent to loot Arab camp from
    behind and draw away a portion of the force.
  • Arabs retreated during the night

12
Related maps
13
Aftermath
  • The historical significance of halting Muslim
    expansion into western Europe cannot be
    overstated
  • Tours was the first in a string of campaigns that
    won Iberia back for Christianity (to be formally
    completed by Charles grandson, Charlemagne)

Source http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_tou
rs
14
BATTLE OF TOURS
  • CAVALRY MOSLEM VS FRANK
  • USE OF INFANTRY
  • MOSLEM/FRANK TACTICS
  • Moslems were more offensive minded attack!
  • Charles formed a Phalanx
  • Rahman charged with cavalry several times
  • Phalanx held
  • Eudo Flanked and hit the camp
  • Rahman was killed and the Moslems fled
  • Charles did not pursue
  • RESULT
  • MOSLEM EXPANSION THWARTED AND EVENTUAL DYNASTY
    UNDER CHARLEMAGNE

15
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16
CHARLES THE GREATCHARLEMAGNE
  • Grandson of Charles Martel
  • Carolingian dynasty
  • KING OF THE FRANKS (768-814 A.D.)
  • CHARLEMAGNES CONQUESTS
  • Ebro to the Danube
  • Ended three centuries of chaos and built up the
    first adequate system of defense in the West
    since the fall of the Rome
  • HE ESTABLISHED A LOGISITICAL ORGANIZATON
  • Based on supply trains vice foraging and plunder
  • Stopped the local unrest of people being
    plundered
  • Kept his forces together not dispersed, foraging
  • Precluded supply shortages in the army in the
    field

17
CHARLES THE GREAT CHARLEMAGNE
  • Church trying to limit warfare
  • Peace of God Pax Dei
  • Protect buildings, clerics, pilgrams, women and
    peasants from the ravages of war
  • Religious sanctions, excommunication and
    interdict
  • They branded the aggressor the culprit
  • Men of wealth could afford armor
  • War was placed on an aristocratic footing
  • Missile warfare was restricted
  • Casualties were reduced
  • Battles were sharp weapons tournaments were
    ransom was the prize
  • Forbade the use of the crossbow

18
CHARLES THE GREAT CHARLEMAGNE
  • A new epoch in the art of war Romantic
  • Age of Chivalry
  • Christian Knight of chivalry
  • For his spread of the Christian faith, two forces
    were needed
  • Spiritual already existed
  • Secular came about by accident
  • Pope Leo III proclaimed him The Consecrated Lord
    of Christendom
  • Central event of the Middle Ages

19
CHARLES THE GREAT
  • Army
  • Well equipped with sword, spear and bow
  • Each Count was compelled to provide his horsemen
    with shield, lance, sword, dagger and bow

20
THE ORIGINS AND RISE OF FEUDALISM
  • CHARLEMAGNE REFORMED THE INFANTRY LEVY
  • CHARLEMAGNES DEATH
  • Empire disintegrated

21
FEUDALISM
  • Vassalage- a system where land is offered in
    return for protection or service.
  • Charlemagne required newly conquered lands to
    provide soldiers to his army dependent on the
    size of the area of the townships.
  • Similar to electoral votes, soldiers instead of
    senators.

22
VIKING RAIDS
  • 799 A.D.
  • Vikings
  • From the sea
  • Looting not occupation
  • Hard to catch
  • Forced the use of cavalry (Knights) in Europe
  • England built a fleet and defeated them at sea
  • Infantry was still main arm of the army
  • Used terrain very well
  • Vikings usually prevailed
  • Finally given Normandy and stopped raids
  • FORTIFICATION, MAILED CAVALRY BETTER SOLDIERS

23
Magyar Raids
  • Light Cavalry from the steppes
  • Plunder, not conquer
  • Speed to avoid battle
  • Small bands
  • Defense in depth was adapted
  • Reduced the yield
  • Major defeat by Otto I in 955 ended the raids
    and indirectly. Otto was crowned by Pope John
    XII, beginning the Holy Roman Empire

24
Defeating the Raiders
  • Much like Fabius in Italy against Hannibal
  • Be patient
  • Make it less worth for them
  • Pick your battles
  • Defense and fortifications

25
Feudalism 800-1200
  • Political system of the middle ages
  • In England William couldnt keep people from
    rebelling, couldnt defend all of the land
  • Fifes given out for services and loyalty to
    nobles, nobles give out to lesser nobles, lesser
    nobles give right to work land to serfs
  • Brought control and stability in an age when
    central government was weak.

26
Feudalism 800-1200 (1500)
  • Castling arose
  • Defeated by cannon
  • Went

27
Knighthood
  • Mercy towards the poor and oppressed.
  • Humility
  • Honor
  • Sacrifice
  • Fear of God
  • Faithfulness
  • Courage
  • Utmost graciousness and courtesy to ladies

28
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29
A War of Religions
30
General Information
  • Crusades - were a series of several military
    campaigns usually sanctioned by the papacy that
    took place during the 11th through 13th
    centuries.
  • Originally, they were Roman Catholic Holy Wars to
    recapture Jerusalem and the Holy land from the
    Muslims
  • Some were directed against other Europeans, such
    as the Fourth Crusade against Constantinople, the
    Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars of
    southern France and the Northern Crusades.

31
Time Period
  • 1st Crusade - 1096
  • 2nd Crusade 1146 to 1149
  • 3rd Crusade 1189 to 1192
  • 4th Crusade - 1202
  • Albigensian Crusade - 1209
  • Childrens Crusade - 1212
  • 5th Crusade - 1215
  • 6th Crusade - 1228
  • 7th Crusade - 1243
  • 8th Crusade - 1270
  • 9th Crusade - 1271

32
Background
  • Pope Gregory VII propagated these ideas
  • Restoration of the Eastern Church to Roman
    obedience
  • Acknowledgement of the kings of Christendom as
    liege servants to the church
  • Crusade against Islam
  • Supply by sea, defense by castles
  • Two religions stood face to face

33
Background
  • Rise of Christianity
  • Church becomes most powerful
  • Feudalism - refers to a general set of reciprocal
    legal and military obligations among the warrior
    nobility of Europe during the Middle Ages,
    revolving around the three key concepts of lords,
    vassals, and fiefs.
  • - Brought a semblance of stability and avoided
    anarchy
  • - 1st time since the decay of Rome that Europe
    is powerful enough to take the offensive against
    the Muslim east
  • Fall of Byzantine Empire
  • - Battle of Manzikert, 1071

34
Background
  • Rise of Christianity
  • Church becomes most powerful
  • Feudalism - refers to a general set of reciprocal
    legal and military obligations among the warrior
    nobility of Europe during the Middle Ages,
    revolving around the three key concepts of lords,
    vassals, and fiefs.
  • - Brought a semblance of stability and avoided
    anarchy
  • - knights
  • Fall of Byzantine Empire
  • - Battle of Manzikert, 1071

35
Background
  • The Reconquista in Spain, which occupied Spanish
    knights and some mercenaries from elsewhere in
    Europe in the fight against the Islamic Moors.
  • The Normans were fighting for control of Sicily.
  • Pisa, Genoa and Aragon fighting Islamic
    strongholds in Mallorca and Sardinia
  • Muslims regain holy land of Palestine in the 7th
    century
  • Fatimid caliph of Cairo, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah,
    had the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem
    destroyed in 1009.
  • - many stories began circulating in the West
    about the cruelty of Muslims toward Christian
    pilgrims, which helped rally the crusaders later
    in the century

36
The 1st Crusade
  • Byzantine emperor Alexius I called for help with
    defending his empire against the Seljuk Turks, in
    1095
  • Pope Urban II called upon all Christians to join
    a war against the Turks
  • - a war which would count as full penance.
  • Crusader armies marched to Jerusalem, sacking
    several cities on their way.
  • Nicaea in May 1097
  • In 1099, they took Jerusalem and massacred the
    population.
  • As a result of the First Crusade, several small
    Crusader states were created, notably the Kingdom
    of Jerusalem.

37
The 1st Crusade
38
The 2nd Crusade
  • Second Crusade St Bernard of Clairvaux preached
    it and Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of
    France executed it.
  • - fall of the County of Edessa
  • - first of the crusades to be led by European
    kings
  • United with Baldwin III and lay siege to Damascus
    (failed in 1148) leads to third crusade
  • Second Crusade was a failure
  • Ignorance of strategy and siegecraft
  • Jealousies and quarellings
  • Four topographic regions in Syria and Palestine
  • Three lines of communications
  • Franks failed to control the most important

39
The Crusades
  • 1100s great infighting in the Moslem world
  • Saladin wanted to reunited Islam
  • First step 1171 he abolished the Fatimid
    caliphate and brought Egypt under the caliph of
    Baghdad
  • Franks were concerned that they would lose
    everything and rightfully so
  • Sept 17 1176 beginning of the end to the Franks
    in Islam. Byzantines were defeated by the
    Syrians near Myriocephalum
  • 1183 Saladin was at the height of his power

40
The Crusades
  • Reynald of Chatillon raided Mecca and Medina
  • Muslem world was consolidated against the Franks
  • 1186 Saladin proclaimed a Fihad
  • Culiminated in the Battle of Hattin in 1187
  • ON the Horn of Hattin the greatest army that the
    kingdom had ever assembled was annihilated. The
    Holy Cross was lost. And the victor was the lord
    of the whole Moslem world
  • Crusades never recovered

41
The 3rd Crusade
  • Jerusalem recaptured by Saladin (Sultan of Egypt)
    in 1187.
  • Third Crusade - was an attempt by European
    leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.
  • Called by Pope Gregory VIII and led by Europe's
    most important leaders
  • - Philip II of France (left after capturing
    Acre)
  • - Richard I of England
  • - Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
    (Drowned,creating instability between English
    and French)
  • Inability of the Crusaders to thrive in the
    locale due to inadequate food and water resulted
    in an empty victory
  • Richard left the following year after
    establishing a truce with Saladin (captured and
    held for kings ransom by Austrians

42
The 3rd Crusade
  • Crusaders never conquered the land
  • Only occupied parts of it
  • Crusaders armor was superior
  • The rise of Saladin
  • Great Character of the middle ages
  • Fanatically anti-Christian
  • Cautious Strategest rather than a tactician
  • Careful of his men, generous and kindly
  • Incredible administrator
  • Possessed great chivalry

43
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44
The Crusades
  • The third Crusade was a disaster 1189-1192
  • Richard the Lionhearted
  • 4th Crusade turned on itself and conquered
    Constantinople
  • Crusaders for the next century united Europe
  • France and England became powers
  • Spain and Portugal rose
  • 7 Crusades in all

45
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47
Military Advantages
  • IN EUROPE THE ARMORED RIDER WAS SUPREME
  • THE BAPTISM OF THE SLAVS AND MAGYARS HAD OPENED
    UP A LAND ROUTE TO JERUSALEM
  • SEA POWER FAVORED THE CRUSADERS
  • A POTENTIAL ALLY IN EAST ROMAN EMPIRE
  • CONSTANTINOPLE PROVIDED A BASE BOTH FOR LAND AND
    WATER OPS

48
Historical Costs
  • By the 14th century the old concept of
    Christendom was fragmented
  • Development of centralized bureaucracies (the
    foundation of the modern nation-state)
  • -Decline of Feudalism
  • European castles became massive stone structures,
    as they were in the east, rather than smaller
    wooden buildings as they had typically been in
    the past.

49
Lessons Learned
  • Chief lesson was the advantage of a combined arms
  • Realized need for infantry support
  • - Bowmen used to counter Saracen missiles
  • - Offer shelter for cavalry to after a charge
  • Building of new castles similar to ones built in
    the east

50
Battle of Crecy, 26 August 1346
  • French forces numbered approximately 36,000.
  • English forces numbered approximately 12,000 of
    which 7,000 were archers.
  • The battle line was approximately 2,000 yards
    wide
  • The English army, occupying the top of a gentle
    ridge near the town, consisted of three groups of
    men-at-arms and spearmen, with archers placed on
    their sides. The archers formed ranks resembling
    an outward V.

51
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55
Charles VIII and the end feudal war
  • King of France (148398 )
  • Decided to conquer Naples (1495)
  • More of parade
  • Cautious tactics commical
  • Italian states and HRE leagued against him
  • Battle of Fornovo
  • After the battle Italian Marquis came to ransom
    friends and relatives shocked they were all dead
  • Modern artillery vs. Infantry
  • Nation state vs. limited interest city states

56
SWISS INFANTRY
  • THE PHALANX
  • THEY USED LONG PIKES (18-21 FT)
  • USED THE HALBERD
  • HIGHLY TRAINED AND DISCIPLINED
  • SOUGHT AFTER AS MERCENARIES

57
16th Century Weapons
  • Naval Weapons
  • Ship of the line under Henry VIII
  • Increased length to beam to improve
    maneuverability and handling
  • Portholes allowed heavy guns to be maintained
    below the center of gravity of the ship
  • Ships built for combat
  • Harness gun recoil to permit quick reloading
  • Broadside technique
  • Permanent Fighting Instructions
  • Formalized tactics

58
16th Century Weapons
  • Naval Weapons
  • Ship smashing Guns
  • Breach loaded
  • Muzzle loaded
  • Cannon heavy iron (50 lbs) at medium range
  • Culverin light iron (17 lbs) at long range
  • Demi-cannon 32 lb shot
  • Demi-culverin 9lb shot
  • Saker 5 lb shot
  • Minion 4 lb shot

59
The impact of Gunpowder and Firearms
  • THE DISCOVERER OF GUNPOWDER IS UNKNOWN
  • 14TH CENTURY
  • THE EARLIEST FIREARMS WERE INNACURATE, SHORT OF
    RANGE, SLOW TO FIRE, HEAVY, AWKWARD, AND
    DANGEROUS
  • THE COST

60
Gun Powder and Firearms
  • Gunpowder first appeared written about before
    1249
  • First written documentation was in 1304
  • pot-de-fer dart-throwing vase
  • Siege of Metz in 1324
  • Edward III in Scotland in 1327
  • 1339 firearm called the ribauldequin
  • Primitive iron tubes fired simultaneously (12)
  • Edward III against France
  • Firearms developed rapidly in the 14th century
  • Cannons were used at Calais by Edward III

61
Gun Powder and Firearms
  • 1391 iron shot introduced
  • 25 inch bombards were used
  • Hand-guns in 1364
  • Small cannon on small stock fired by a single man
  • 10 lbs and was fired by applying a match to a
    touch-hole
  • Lead bullets

62
Gun Powder and Firearms
  • Match-lock
  • Cock that held the match and a trigger that would
    bring it down to a pan with a primer
  • German invention hakenbusche
  • Spanish arquebus
  • England cavilar
  • First infantry firearm

63
Gun Powder and Firearms
  • Valor gave way to mechanical art
  • Social class did not matter if you had the
    superior weapon
  • All men are now alike on the battle field
  • Gave life to the Renaissance
  • Shattered medieval order physically and morally
  • War was a means to a political end
  • Power was the deciding factor
  • Foot soldier was the strong arm of the military
    again
  • War can be won by industry than actual clash of
    arms

64
16th Century Weapons
  • Spanish introduced the musket with a range of 300
    yards
  • Heavier
  • Complex operation
  • 2-3 shots per minute
  • Accepted because it was
  • More accurate
  • Great range
  • Knock down power
  • Arquebus was still used by skirmishers

65
16th Century Weapons
  • To date firearms required two hands
  • Match plus weapon
  • Cavalry at a disadvantage
  • Wheellock 1515 allowed the cavalry to use one
    hand
  • Cavalry carried three weapons
  • Two in holsters and one in the right boot
  • Fire all three, drop the last and draw sword or
    retire to reload (needed both hands)

66
16th Century Weapons
  • Wheellock for muskets and arquebuses was having
    mechanical problems
  • Spring weakened after time
  • Rough handling ruined the wheel
  • Matchlock remained the prevailing weapon for
    another century

67
THE CAVALRYMANS EFFORT TO DEFEND
  • CHAIN MAIL WAS REPLACED BY PLATE ARMOR
  • THE WEIGHT OF A KNIGHTS ARMOR INCREASED
  • THE ARMOR PROTECTION OF HORSES INCREASED
  • BY THE END OF THE 14TH CENTURY
  • MOBILITY
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