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Archery

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... had none of the frills that you might see on a crossbow, with a ... the adapter which is placed into a shaft to make a nock or arrow point fit the shaft. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Archery


1
Archery
2
History
  • 1879 AD -  The First Tournament of the National
    Archery Association held in Chicago, USA
  • 1900 AD - Archery in Olympic Games - also in
    1904, 1908 and 1920. Women were allowed to
    compete in the Archery event in 1904 and 1908.
  • 1931 AD - FITA (International Archery Federation)
    is formed.
  • 1972 AD - Archery reappears in the Munich Olympic
    Games for both Men and Women.
  • 1988 AD - Olympic Games held in South Korea. The
    Teams Event was added into the Archery
    Competition
  • 2008 AD - Developments in materials technology
    will see the production of lighter and stronger
    bows as well as lighter and stronger arrows.
    Arrow speed will increase giving better accuracy
    over the longer distances.

3
Equipment
Compound Bow
Recurve Bow
Cross Bow
Yellow-9, Red- 7, Blue-5, Black -3, White-1
4
Bows
  • The bow and arrow is a weapon consisting of two
    parts the bow is made of a strip of flexible
    material, such as wood, with a cord linking the
    two ends of the strip to form a tension from
    which is propelled the arrow the arrow is a
    straight shaft with a sharp point on one end and
    usually with feathers attached to the other end.
  • Longbow
  •   The longbow was first accepted as a formal
    military weapon in 1252. The longbow has a very
    narrow limb and a thick core. The longbow is
    extremely stable and can be easily shot when
    canted or tilted. These bows can be made to shoot
    varying draw weights and are surprisingly fast
    shooters. Longbows are light in weight and
    generally hand made. They are shot without
    sights.
  •    Longbows were not as elaborate as other
    weapons of the time, especially those commonly
    used by the wealthier members of society such as
    the nobles. Swords, axes, shields c. were built
    to last, and were often elaborately decorated. An
    archer, on the other hand, would generally work
    through several bows during his life, and at most
    may have painted his bow, or attached some carved
    nocks to keep the bowstring in place. Younger
    archers were usually more likely to decorate
    their bows than were the grizzled veterans, and
    occasionally a wealthier archer would have some
    extra armor, or maybe even a full set of armor,
    but his bow was never significantly fancier then
    the rest.
  •    A longbow was usually full of knots and bends.
    A great deal of patience had to be put into
    tapering these imperfections to produce a usable
    bow. Every knot and knobble had to be either
    followed carefully to eliminate weak spots, or
    raised without causing any weakening of the
    bow. Although the longbow was a work of great
    artistry, it had none of the frills that you
    might see on a crossbow, with a complicated
    mechanism to fire the arrow, a fancy grip, and a
    fancy arrow-plate to prevent the arrow from
    wearing a groove.
  •    Longbows were generally self-nocking, meaning
    that the nocks for the string were an integral
    part of the bow. Some of the fancier bows had
    horn or ivory nocks fastened to the end, but
    otherwise the nock was part of the wood of the
    bow. The bowstrings were generally made of good
    quality flax or linen, and were impregnated with
    beeswax to repel rain and dew. The bowman would
    watch his string carefully and if it showed signs
    of fraying, especially at the loops, he scrapped
    it before it broke. With a good yew bow, a broken
    string often meant a broken bow. Spare strings
    were always carefully broken in at practice - a
    new string never shot at first in the same way as
    the old one archers were required to carry two
    spare bowstrings
  • Recurve Bow
  •    Recurve bows are very similar to the longbow.
    The main difference is that the tips of the
    recurve bow are bent forward.
  •    A recurve bow is a bow that, in contrast to
    the simple bow longbow has ends that curve away
    from the archer when the bow is held in shooting
    position. An unstrung recurve bow can have a
    confusing shape and many north American
    aboriginal (Indian) weapons were incorrectly
    strung and destroyed when attempts were made to
    fire them.
  •     The recurve shape in effect can reduce
    loading at full draw (let-off) and will impart
    more energy to the arrow than a longbow The
    longbow of similar top draw weight. A recurve
    will permit a shorter bow than the simple bow for
    a given arrow energy and this form was preferred
    by archers who were forced into environments
    where long weapons could be cumbersome e.g. in
    brush and forest terrain, on horseback, etc
  • Composite Bow
  •    Around 2800 B.C., the Egyptians developed the
    "composite bow." Using this device, archers
    mounted on light chariots became a devestating
    military force. A composite bow is made of
    various materials (wood, horn, sinew) glued
    together so as to increase their natural strength
    and elasticity. The composite bow gives superior
    accuracy, velocity, and distance in comparison to
    the longbow. Using a modern bow, target archers
    of equal skill can score an average 30 to 40
    percent higher than they can with the longbow.
    The modern composite bow shoots farther than the
    longbow a maximum distance of more than 850
    yards has been obtained with it, compared to
    about 300 yards for the longbow. The efficiency
    (the percentage of energy in a fully drawn bow
    that is transferred to the arrow at the moment of
    loose) of the modern bow doubles that of the
    longbow, the velocity of the arrow with the new
    bow reaching 212 feet (65 m) per second as
    opposed to 150 feet per second.
  • Compound Bow
  •    One of the biggest advantages to the compound
    bow is that the shooter does not have to hold the
    "pull weight" when the bow is fully drawn. This
    is a result of eccentric cams. The benefit is
    that the hunter can hold the bow at full draw for
    a longer period of time. This gives the compound
    bow a mechanical advantage over other bows.
  •    A modern compound bow or composite bow is a
    special type of bow made of laminated wood,
    plastic, and fibreglass. It is affected little by
    changes of temperature and humidity and gives
    superior accuracy, velocity, and distance in
    comparison to the classic longbow

5
Arrows
  • Arrow weight has a great deal to do with the
    penetration qualities that are inherent in the
    broadhead. That does not mean that a heavier
    arrow will always have better penetration. An
    arrow needs to be "spined" to match a bow. Most
    compound bows can shoot a lighter arrow than
    other bows of the same draw weight and retain
    true flight.
  • If you have ever watched an arrow as it is
    released from a compound bow, you can see that
    the arrow will warp or almost buckle as it is
    fired and then straighten itself out. So, the
    initial thrust on a relaxed compound bow is not
    the value of the full thrust to come. For this
    reason, the arrow released from a compound bow
    doesn't need to be as stiff as a standard bows
    arrow.
  • The arrow is made up of five basic parts
  • Arrowhead -- This is the part that hits the
    target and does the damage.
  • Inserts/Outserts -- This is the part where the
    arrow and the arrowhead are fastened.
  • Shaft -- This is the body of the arrow.
  • Fletching -- These are the feathers which keep
    the arrow stable in the air.
  • Nock -- This is the piece which holds the arrow
    to the bowstring.
  • Arrow Nochs
  •     The proper fit of a noch is that when it is
    seated on the string, the arrow will just hang
    from the string by its own weight, but is on firm
    enough so the arrow will not slide on the string.
  •     There are four main materials used for the
    shaft portion of arrows. They are wood,
    fiberglass, aluminum and carbon or graphite.
  • Wood Arrow Shafts
  •     Wood is the original material used for making
    arrows. Wood shafts were used by the earliest
    hunters and they were also used as weapons.
    Finding quality wood arrows today can be
    difficult. If you want to use wood arrows, you
    will need to learn about weight, grain, spine and
    straightness. Wood arrows will very a great deal
    in these attributes from one arrow to another and
    from one set to another. Wood is however a very
    durable material to shoot from a bow. It will
    take some abuse from rocks and stumps before
    breaking or other damage. If you plan to use
    wood, do your homework.
  • 28 Cedar Wood Shaft Archery Arrows from Satellite
    ArcheryTM- 72 Arrows
  • Features include 3 Feathers Metal Points Price
    is for 72 arrows There is no actual image of this
    item. The image shown is representative only. The
    actual item will have a cedar wood shaft.
  • Economy Wood Arrows (Pack of 12) from Cajun
    Archery, Inc.
  • Mill run grade 5/16 shafts. 2 1/4 feathers and
    snap nocks, with lightweight crimp-on target
    point. Spined up to 30 lbs.
  •     The wooden arrows used by archers for
    millennia have been replaced by ones made from
    aluminum-alloy or fibreglass tubing, and plastic
    fins have replaced feathers.
  • Fiberglass Arrow Shafts

6
Shooting steps
  • "Take your stance
  •   feet in line with target (toes and shoulders
    facing a side wall)
  •   legs shoulder width apart
  •   knees soft
  •  
  • "Nock your arrows
  •   bring arrow over the bow
  •   arrow should be on the same side of the bow as
    your arm
  •   make sure cock feather is facing away from bow
  •  
  • "Grip the string
  •   very little of three fingers - no thumb or
    baby finger
  •   one finger above arrow and two below
  •  
  • "Raise your bow
  •   push bow away so arm is quite straight
  •   keep shoulders facing side wall
  •  
  • "Draw to anchor

7
Vocabulary
  • AMO Speed RatingThe Archery Manufacturer's
    Organization set this standard for evaluating
    arrow speed. To discover the AMO Speed a bow is
    set at 60 pounds, with a 30-inch draw and
    shooting arrows that weigh 540 grains. For
    today's compounds, speeds over 240fps are
    considered fast while anything under 220fps are
    relatively slow.
  • Anchor You should draw the bow and hold the
    string in the same location every
    time--(anchoring) the bowstring. Many people who
    shoot with fingers use the corner of their mouth
    as an anchor point.
  • Archer's Paradox Describes the movement of the
    arrow as it bends and flexes around a riser when
    released.
  • Armguard Placed on the arm that holds the bow,
    an armguard protects your arm from being slapped
    by the bow string on release.
  • Arrow LengthArrows are cut to a specified
    length. Measured from bottom of nock to the end
    of the arrow shaft.
  • Arrow nock The notch at the end of the arrow
    designed to fit around the bowstring and hold the
    arrow in place on the string.
  • Axle The axles are the shafts on which a
    compound bow's cams rotate.
  • Axle-to-Axle Length The distance from one axle
    of a compound bow to the other. This is an
    important number because it tells you two things
    1) Generally if you want a finger bow, it should
    have an axle-to-axle length of at least 42 inches
    to avoid drastic finger-pinch. 2)A really short
    axle-to-axle length makes the bow more extreme
    and a little more difficult to shoot but may make
    it faster.
  • Blunt An arrow tip that is not pointed. Usually
    used to hunt small game or to stump shoot.
  • Bow Press A device used to hold the bow in a
    bent position so you can work on the bow or
    remove its string.
  • Bow Square Used to measure brace height or to
    align nocking points.
  • Brace HeightIs the length of a direct line from
    the back of the grip to the string of a bow.
    Generally, the lower the brace height, the faster
    the bow is. It is faster because the shorter
    brace height means that the power stroke is
    longer. But, because a shorter brace height
    provides a longer power stroke it can be much
    more difficult to shoot accurately.
  • Broadhead Arrow tips meant for hunting big-game.
    They generally feature at least one-inch of
    cutting diameter and may be fixed blades or
    expandables (mechanicals).
  • Brush ButtonFor recurves and longbows, these
    rubber round items are placed on a bowstring to
    prevent brush from catching between the bowstring
    and the bow.
  • Cable GuardHolds the cables to the side to
    ensure arrow clearance.
  • Cable Slide Fits on the cable guard and helps
    the cables move smoothly across the cable guard.
    New Teflon cable slides are said to add speed to
    your bow because they reduce the friction
    greatly. Pure Teflon is a clear or milky white
    color. If the slide is not white, it's not
    Teflon.
  • Center ServingThe center portion of the
    bowstring is wrapped (or served) to protect the
    bowstring from damage, either from the release
    aid or from the string hitting the cable guard.
  • Center Shot Is the point that places the arrow
    shaft directly in line with the string grooves on
    compound eccentrics or the center of the limb
    tips on recurves or longbows.
  • Creep The arrow moving away from the wall or
    your anchor point as you aim or get ready to
    release.

8
Vocabulary continued
  • Cresting The colored designs on the end of an
    arrow shaft. Cresting tools are available.
  • Deflex Design where limbs or riser are angled
    toward the archer. Deflex designs are generally
    slower but easier to shoot accurately than reflex
    designs
  • Draw LengthThe distance at full draw from the
    nocking point to the back of the grip. The AMO
    draw length is the distance from the nocking
    point to a point 1 3/4 inches past the back of
    the grip.
  • How to Determine Draw LengthYour Draw Length is
    used to determine your Actual Peak Bow Weight for
    recurve bows, and to select the proper draw
    length setting for compound bows. To determine
    your Draw Length, use a lightweight recurve bow
    with an extra-long arrow and have someone mark
    the arrow at the back (far side) of the bow while
    you are in a comfortable full-draw position. Your
    Draw Length is the distance from the mark to the
    bottom of the nock groove.
  • Draw Weight The amount of force in pounds
    required to draw the bow.
  • How to determine Actual Peak Bow Weight for
    RecurveActual Bow Wight (maximum of "peak" bow
    weight) of a recurve or longbow is the force (in
    pounds) to pull your bow to your full Draw
    Length. See "Determining Draw Length" information
    above. Then measure the force required to pull
    your bow to your Draw Length ( most pro shops
    have a bow scale). The AMO-standard bow weight is
    usually marked on the lower limb or handle.
  • How to determine Actual Peak Bow Weight for
    Compound BowTo shoot properly, the maximum draw
    length of a compound bow must be set to your Draw
    Length. A compound bow reaches its maximum or
    peak bow weight before reaching maximum draw
    length and then "lets off" in draw weight 50 to
    80. This reduced weight at full draw is called
    the "holding weight." The Actual Peak Bow weight
    of your compound bow can be determined on a bow
    scale at your archery pro shop.
  • Eccentric The cam or part of the bow that is
    designed to control the stored energy of the bow.
  • Efficiency The amount of kinetic energy of the
    arrow just as it leaves the bow divided by the
    potential energy that went into drawing it,
    multiplied by 100.
  • Fletch The plastic vane or feather that is at
    the end of the arrow used to stabilize the arrows
    flight path.
  • Grain The measure of weight usually used when
    weighing arrows or arrow tips. 7000 grains make a
    pound.
  • Helical refers to the way fletching is laid on
    an arrow. Rather than straight, helical fletching
    curves slightly around the arrow shaft.
  • IBO Speed Rating The International Bowhunter's
    Organization has a speed rating that is generally
    measured with a bow set at 70 pounds, 30-inch
    draw and shooting a 350-grain arrow. Today's
    fastest bows will shoot over 310fps using the IBO
    rating.
  • Insert the adapter which is placed into a shaft
    to make a nock or arrow point fit the shaft.
    Outserts are the opposite, they fit around the
    shaft. Some people believe outserts make an arrow
    fly less true, but if all other factors are the
    same, outserts shouldn't effect an arrow's flight
    much.

9
Vocabulary continued
  • Kisser Allows you to anchor consistently by
    placing the kisser on the bowstring and making
    sure it touches the same part of your lips each
    draw.
  • Nocking loop Loop placed around nocking point.
    This protects your string from being damaged by
    the release aid but the downside is, it reduces
    speed slightly and some people find it difficult
    to quickly attach their relase aid to it when
    "the big bucks a' comin"
  • Nocking PointLocation where arrow sits on the
    bowstring.
  • Nocking Points Objects placed on the bowstring
    used to keep the arrow in place and keep the
    nocking point consistent.
  • Peep Sight used as the rear sight of a gun is
    used. The peep sight is placed on or in the
    bowstring and the sight pins and target aare
    viewed through the peep. Sight pins should be
    centered in the peep. Small peeps help you gain
    accuracy but don't let a lot of light in. Hunters
    generally apt for larger diameter peeps.
  • Quiver Holds arrows, the most popular for
    bowhunting is the bow-quiver which holds arrows
    on the bow. But some say that makes the bow too
    heavy and makes it harder to hold the bow steady
    in the wind. Other options are hip quivers and
    back-quivers.
  • Recurve a bow design which features limbs that
    bend away from the archer at the tips.
  • Reflex Riser Features a grip which is closer to
    the archer than the ends of the riser. This
    results in a short brace height and a longer
    power stroke. Thus creating a faster bow but
    generally more difficult to shoot than deflexed
    risers
  • Shelf The part of the riser that is cut out and
    where the arrow rests.
  • Power Stroke Refers to the motion of the
    bowstring after it is released. The longer it is,
    the faster the arrow leaving it. But the llonger
    the power stroke, the longer the archer must hold
    steady after releasing the string.
  • Serving JigTool used to wrap center serving.
  • Shoot-around RestRest which features the arrow
    shaft sitting on the rest and as it is released
    it bends around the rest.
  • Shoot-through RestShooters using release aids
    use shoot-through rests. These feature two prongs
    holding the srrow shaft. when the arrow releases,
    the cock vane flys through the two prongs.
  • Spine Refers to the strength of the arrow shat
    and its ability to resist bending and to recover
    after bending or experiencing archer's paradox.
  • Stabilizer Placed on a bow for the purpose of
    reducing torque and shock after releasing the
    arrow. Also, it helps level out the bow and hold
    it steady prior to releasing.
  • Tiller To measure the tiller is to measure the
    perpindicular distance from the bowstring to the
    points where the riser and limbs meet. The tiller
    is the difference in these two measurements.
  • Torque is to turn the bow to one side when
    aiming or releasing the arrow.
  • Valley When at full-draw, the area between a
    compound's wall and the point where the let-off
    ceases to exist.
  • Wall Term used to describe the back of the
    drawing motion of a bow. A solid or hard wall is
    when the drawing motion comes to a sudden and
    precise end. If the back of the drawing motion is
    nondescript, it is called a soft or mushy wall. A
    solid wall is usually preferred because it makes
    it easier to anchor consistently. Now, some bow
    companies offer a draw-stop that helps make the
    wall more solid.

10
Worksheet
  • Describe in detail what the four different types
    of Bows used in Archery are.
  • Describe in detail what the seven shooting steps
    used in Archery are.
  • What are the point values for the target.
  • Define twenty-five of the fifty one vocabulary
    words.
  • What are the five parts of an arrow?
  • What are arrows made from?
  • List the shooting steps.

11
Work cited
  • http//www.centenaryarchers.gil.com.au/history.htm
    190020-20Present20Day
  • http//www.cabelas.com/cabelas/en/templates/index/
    index-display.jsp?idcat602590navActionjumpnavC
    ount1cmCatperfparentTypecategoryparentIdcat
    21424
  • http//www.3riversarchery.com/Product.asp?c37s1
    75p0i7842X
  • http//www.3riversarchery.com/Product.asp?c1s41
    p0i4033X
  • http//schools.cbe.ab.ca/b628/Physical20Education
    /Archery20Steps20in20Shooting.htm
  • http//tucsonarchery.com/Archery_Terms.php
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