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PPT – Metric System PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 22ae2-NWEyN

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Topics

- Metric System
- Conversions
- Dimensional Analysis

If you show a good knowledge of the English

measurement system, you can skip all test

questions related to the metric system.

CHALLENGE

FRUIT DRINKS

If these are one quart each, how many gallons are

here?

Strawberries and other fruits are often sold in

one quart containers. Are these quarts the same

size as a quart of strawberry juice?

Dry Quart vs. Liquid Quart

Dry Quart 1.07 Liquid Quarts

What does 8 quarts of strawberries make?

1 PECK

An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

- How many ounces of gold does it take to make a

pound?

12 troy ounces make 1 troy pound.823 lbs

avoirdupois

These are 16 oz gloves. How many pounds do each

weigh?

The standard (Avoirdupois) pound of the United

States is equivalent to the weight of 27.7015

cubic inches of distilled water at 62o

Fahrenheit, the barometer being at 30 inches, and

the water weighed in the air with brass weights.

Apothecary System used in medicine

- Based on the weight of one grain of wheat.
- 20 grains make a scruple
- 3 scruples make a dram
- 8 drams make a ounce
- 12 ounces make a pound (troy pound)

MARS CLIMATE ORBITER

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Dec. 11, 1998

Sept. 23, 1999

- The loss of the the Mars Climate Orbiter on

September 23, 1999, was a most unfortunate and

highly avoidable event. - The cause of the mishap has been traced to a

mix-up over units. Preliminary findings indicated

that one team used English units (e.g., inches,

feet and pounds) while the other used metric

units for maneuvers required to place the

spacecraft in the proper Mars orbit. - The 'root cause' of the loss of the spacecraft

was the failed translation of English units into

metric units. - For nearly three centuries, engineers and

scientists have been struggling with English

units.

In weightlessness 454 grams is still 454 grams

however, 1 pound will be zero pounds in zero

gravity.

- What is the English unit for mass?

In the English system the unit for mass is the

slug.

One slug sitting in Earths gravity has the

weight of 32 pounds.

Newtons second law of motion

f ma

f 1 slug x 32 ft/sec per sec (22 mph per sec) 1

lb ? slugs x 32 ft/sec per sec 32 lbs 1 slug

x 32 ft/sec2

Weight versus Mass

Something has mass if it is affected by gravity.

These methods wont work in the weightlessness of

space.

If the girls push with the same strength, one can

measure the distance the two cars moved after 5

seconds and calculate mass.

Mass resists change in motion

On level ground, gravity has no effect on the

difficulty of overcoming the mass of the cars.

Air conditioner rated at 18,000 BTU per hour.

What does BTU stand for and what does it measure?

British Thermal Units Energy to raise or lower

1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit

Seabiscuits races like most horse races goes for

10 furlongs. How far is that?

1 furlong 1/8 mile

What if gallons were different sizes in different

cities?

What if clothing sizes weredifferent in

different cities?

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In his first annual message to Congress (1790

January), President George Washington pressed for

uniformity in currency, weights, and measures.

Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson urged

Congress to reduce the existing separate systems

of dry and liquid measures to one set of measures.

Jefferson

Washington

- Over 200 years later, we still have separate

systems. For example, our dry quart is larger

than our liquid quart, so four cups of flour and

4 cups of milk should be measured with separate

measuring devices-which differ in size! - Jefferson's second plan put before Congress was

to reduce every branch of measurement to the

same decimal ratio already established for coin,

and thus bring the calculations of the principal

affairs of life within the arithmetic of every

man who can multiply and divide plain numbers. - Congress took no action. Washington urged action

again in his second annual message to Congress

(1790 December 08) and the House referred the

matter to the Senate, whose committee in this

matter declined (1791 March 01) due to

negotiations in progress with the French and

British Governments to obtain an international

standards of measurements.

Currency is based on 10.

In the same year of 1790 King Louis XVI of France

was also weary of the inconsistencies of

measurement that was hurting trade. He ordered a

new system of measurements be developed.

Earlier in that century, Fahrenheit and Celsius

used water as the basis of their thermometers.

Their thermometers were calibrated using water,

which everyone had access to. This made their

thermometers useful.

Celsius

Fahrenheit

Everyone has access to the Earth, so this new

system was to be based on the size of the Earth.

The idea was to measure a part of Earths surface

over a few degrees, then calculate distance from

Equator to North Pole.

A survey team was suppose to measure the distance

between Barcelona, Spain going through Paris and

up to the English Channel.

By dividing the distance from the equator to the

north pole by 10 million, a convenient length was

defined.

Meter

Equator to North Pole

10,000,000

It was a little longer than a yard, and the name

would be from the Greek word, Metron, meaning to

measure.

40,000,000 meters

40,000 km

1 kilometer1,000 meters

10 million meters 10 million meters 10 million

meters 10 million meters

The motto for the metric system was For all

people, for all time

Based on 10 using Arabic Numerals

- Since the number system in use was no longer

Roman Numerals, but the decimal number system

borrowed from the Arab worlds and from India, the

measurement system should also be based on 10 to

make conversions easy.

- Since we have 10 fingers, a number system

based on 10 was developed.

Place Value

- Roman Numerals did not take advantage of place

value. X in Roman Numerals meant ten. XXX meant

thirty. It didnt matter where the X was placed

it always had the value of 10

Modern number systems use place value. In other

words, a numeral has a different value depending

where its placed.

2222.0

4/20/01

0.5 versus 5

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Multiplying Dividing by 10

- Because of place value, we can multiply by ten by

moving all digits to the left (or you can look at

it as the decimal point moving to the right.) - 25. x 10 250.
- Dividing by 10 isjust the reverse.

Decimal

- The word decimal from from Latin decimalis

meaning of a tithe A tithe was traditionally

one tenth of income, so deci- meant one tenth. - The new measuring system should also be based on

tens and tenths.

Metrics Earth, water, and fingers

10 million meters 10 million meters 10 million

meters 10 million meters

Cubits Yards Miles Nautical Miles Feet Hands Inch

es Leagues Chains Furlongs

METER

sq. milessq. yardssq. ft.sq. in.acres

SQUARE

METER

BarrelCubic inchesCubic feetCubic

yardsMinimsDrops

Gallons, imperial gallons, quarts, pints, fluid

ounces, pecks, bushels

Cubic decimeter

CUBIC

LITER

METER

1 gram defined as the mass of one cubic

centimeter of water (or one milliliter mL of

water_.

cubic centimeter

cubic decimeter

milliliter

LITER

cubic decimeter

LITER

Liter from Litron Measure of capacity

One liter of water has a mass of one kilogram

Force

- Push one kilogram pushed to so that it reaches

the speed of one meter per second. - Newton

You are not changing the size, just the name.

CONVERSIONS

Convert 0.15 meters to centimeters

equal

Starting amount

End Amount

centimeters

0.15 meters

1 centi

.01

0.15 meters 15 meters

15 centimeters

100

If saying 15 hundredths, just say 15 centi-

Convert 5234 millimeters to meters

equal

Starting amount

End Amount

meters

5234 millimeters

0.001

milli

5234 millimeters 5234 meters

1000

Convert 5234 millimeters to centimeters

equal

equal

Starting amount

End Amount

centimeters

centi

5234 millimeters

0.001

milli

0.01

5234. millimeters

523.4 centimeters

Convert 5234 millimeters to inches

Units match

equal

equal

Starting amount

End Amount

1 inch2.54 cm

2.54 cm1 inch

inches

centi

5234 millimeters

0.001

milli

0.01

I wonder how many pennies are in 1 mega buck?

Units Match!

1 M

1 x 108

cents

Convert 21 grams per liter (21 g/L) to milligrams

per milliliter (mg/mL)

equal

equal

Starting amount

End Amount

21 gramsLiter

milli0.001

mgmL

0.001milli

Convert 21 mg per liter (21 g/L) to grams per 100

cc

equal

equal

equal

Starting amount

End Amount

21 mgLiter

0.001milli

0.10.1

g 100cc

1L1000cc

0.00021

Examples

Metric facts 1 cubic centimeter 1 milliliter

(1 cc1mL)Liter 1 cubic decimeter 1,000

cubic centimeters 1,000 millilitersLower case

m stands for meter or milli. Capital L for

liter.