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Coming from the Heart: African American Students, Literacy Stories, and Rhetorical Education Elaine

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EXPLANATION: The foundation of Richardson's work and conclusions center of how ... EXPLANATION: One may be African American or Black American, but he or she isn't ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Coming from the Heart: African American Students, Literacy Stories, and Rhetorical Education Elaine


1
Coming from the Heart African American Students,
Literacy Stories, and Rhetorical Education
Elaine B. Richardson
  • Kevin Robinson Ethos, Pathos

  • Invention
  • Camesha White Style Arrangement
  • Kathlyn Gwaltney Delivery Logos

2
  • My first monograph African American Literacies
    explores the use of African American Language and
    Literacy traditions in the teaching of literacy
    and composition. This point of view begins with
    the premise that African Americans have language
    and literacy traditions that are intellectually
    worthy and that represent particular ways of
    being in the world.

Elaine B. Richardson
3
Ethos Kevin R.
  • QUOTE 1 My analysis and interpretation of the
    students texts and contexts is informed by
    African American-centered language, rhetoric, and
    composition theory. (pg. 160)

4
Ethos
  • EXPLANATION The foundation of Richardsons work
    and conclusions center of how African Americans
    speak, read, and write to affect achievement,
    empowerment and change. This passage establishes
    the authors credibility by convincing the
    audience that her research is relative.

5
Ethos
  • QUOTE 2 My work extends previous work on AAVE
    discourse patterns because it analyzes students
    ways with words, as a means of figuring out how
    to use Black discourses more forcefully and
    powerfully, to help students to acquire
    vernacular discourses of the Black literacy
    tradition that helped to change this nation, and
    to develop Blackademic writing. (pg. 162)

6
Ethos
  • EXPLANATION Here, the author explains her
    research in African American Vernacular English
    and how it deals with this distinctive Black
    speech that is linked to a tradition of African
    American literature and culturally specific
    writing. Again, Richardson is showing her
    credentials as a person who has done her
    homework, and even charted new ground, in this
    area of study.

7
Pathos Kevin R.
  • QUOTE 1 Although it is a fact that many people
    of African ancestry do not identify with African
    American culture, hardly any of us can escape the
    aura of race and class issues since they are
    interwoven into the culture fabric of or society.
    (pg. 155)

8
Pathos
  • EXPLANATION One may be African American or Black
    American, but he or she isnt directly from
    Africa the individual is from America and has
    never stepped foot in Africa. Although this is
    true, society forces us to believe otherwise and
    we fall into the opinions and beliefs of others.
    This is when stereotypes begin to form.

9
Pathos
  • QUOTE 2 Another important theme circulating in
    various stories about literacy in American
    culture is reflected in a well-known childhood
    Black folk rhyme that sums up a truth that
    critical race theorists are paid great sums to
    stretch out into lengthy texts and speeches
  • If you black, get back
  • If you brown, stick around
  • If you yellow, you mellow
  • If you white, you right (pg. 156)

10
Pathos
  • EXPLANATION This saying echoes a common belief
    that African American literacy is not respected
    in America. America has a vast cultural divide,
    and Richardson pushes this emotional button with
    her audience by illuminating how the cultures of
    the different races are viewed when compared with
    the mainstream or white culture.

11
Pathos
  • QUOTE 3 Stucky (1991) makes a critical point
    when she asks if the possibility exists that the
    same tool (literacy) that has been used to
    oppress can be used to empower? To heal the scars
    of slavery, the silencing, the othering, the
    devoicing, the unnecessary cultural erasure of
    African American students, we must begin writing
    new stories of African American literacy and
    rhetorical education. (pg. 159)

12
Pathos
  • EXPLANATION Regardless of past racial
    injustices, America can possibly repair the
    damage by using literacy to help uplift and
    educate instead of to exploit and separate.
    Richardson is appealing to her readers to help
    revitalize African American literacy and rhetoric
    education.

13
Pathos
  • QUOTE 4 In reflecting on the work he put in his
    paper and the 2.0 grade he got, Mickey says, She
    said the instructor it wasnt clear. But I mean
    how could it be when it was deep? Mickeys
    words point to the complexity of living in a
    society struggling to balance the scales. The
    scales contain life, liberty, the pursuit of
    happiness (or the distribution of wealth and
    resources) on one side, and race/culture, gender,
    and class on the other. (pg. 165)

14
Pathos
  • EXPLANATION One of the students Richardson
    interviewed talked about the C grade on his paper
    due to errors in grammar and clarity. However, he
    thought that the content should have taken
    precedence over any cosmetic deficiencies. She
    used the story to illustrate the inequities of a
    society that is still separated in its cultural
    views. The author makes it personal by putting a
    face and feeling to her point.

15
Style Camesha W.
  • QUOTE 1 Music, such as the blues, jazz, and Hip
    Hop, represents forms of creativity within free
    yet definite patterns that transmit meaning
    through sound. (pg. 158)

16
Style
  • EXPLANATION Instead of just words, there is a
    beat added, or a tune. Imagine a jingle or a
    commercial as if someone just simply read the
    words/script to you. It wouldnt be as
    entertaining or the point wouldnt get across to
    you because you wouldnt just simply turn the
    channel. We all have our own style bottom line
    it gets the point across.

17
Style
  • QUOTE 2 What I am referring to here as closet
    speaking/writing is equivalent to fronting. A
    related if not similar strategy is
    racelessness. Fordham defines this strategy as
    one that high-achieving students use as a
    survival strategy in environments that are based
    in dominant monocultural ideologies. (pg. 160)

18
Style
  • EXPLANATION Here the individual has no identity,
    or I would say that there is a fake identity
    portrayed. One is only attempting to please
    society by choosing a style that is acceptable to
    society. The individual is choosing the
    safe/harmless way out.

19
Style
  • QUOTE 3 Once students realize that writing their
    words is not acceptable, stereotype threat sets
    in and they get caught between two worlds,
    writing something that is neither AAVE nor
    academic English but something else, referred to
    by interlanguage. (pg. 163)

20
Style
  • EXPLANATION When one begins to realize that they
    cannot write what they want, it somewhat cramps
    their style. It is also true that no one wants to
    give in to the stereotype. So therefore one finds
    them self unsure and caught between the two
    styles. While being caught w/in the two, a new
    style is then created.

21
Style
  • QUOTE 4 Mickey tries to validate his ideas and
    perspective by incorporating language from the
    register of research in his use of the terms data
    and found, terms associated with objectivity and
    credibility. He mixes the Black style with the
    research register in this way because use of the
    Black style is usually elevated as emotionality
    rather than rationality. (pg. 165)

22
Style
  • EXPLANATION He searches for an accepted way of
    stating his point. He mixes his style w/societys
    style with hopes that it will make his paper seem
    more balanced/collected and less passionate.

23
Arrangement Camesha W.
  • QUOTE 1 There is a lot to be said about an
    academic system that encourages instructors to
    reward structure over originality. In the Black
    rhetorical tradition, students are challenged to
    do they own thang with the form. (pg. 167)

24
Arrangement
  • EXPLANATION Most schools would prefer that
    things be done the correct way, the accepted
    way. Arranging things your way isnt exactly the
    best way to get an A. However, students do feel
    as if doing things their way will give them a
    better chance at being more persuasive.

25
Arrangement
  • QUOTE 2 After students were trained to recognize
    two mainstream patterns of text organization and
    two vernacular-based organization patterns,
    students preferred vernacular-based organization
    patterns (narrative interspersion and
    circumlocution) in both academic and
    conversational tasks. (pg. 162)

26
Arrangement
  • EXPLANATION After being introduced ... the
    students would rather use a dialect that is more
    common and everyday instead of going along with
    the attitudes and practices of others. When being
    vernacular, there is little thought, you can just
    simply go with the flow. The students prefer an
    indirect approach.

27
Delivery Kathlyn G.
  • QUOTE 1 In fact, literacy stories permeate the
    history of Black people in the twentieth century.
    In the enslavement era, those stories concerned
    laws against Africans learning to read and write,
    and they were transmitted by word of mouth and
    through enslavement narratives. (pg. 156)

28
Delivery
  • EXPLANATION During slavery, Africans told their
    stories orally, sidestepping laws against
    teaching slaves to read and write. African
    American literacy stories grew from this early
    form of delivery to the oral discourse and
    printed word you see today.

29
Delivery
  • QUOTE 2 The experiences of slavery and
    oppression and retention and reinterpretation of
    African cultural forms in the American context
    influence these orientations. One example of a
    distinct African orientation to knowledge can be
    found in sound culture. Pleas conveyed through
    sound span the entire spectrum of African
    American experience. Specific examples can be
    found in Black discourse practices such as tonal
    semantics. (pg. 158)

30
Delivery
  • EXPLANATION Another way to deliver or pass down
    African American culture was through music. Song
    became another way of expressing culture. Today,
    hip hop (or rap music), for example, has
    influenced Black discourse in our times.

31
Logos Kathlyn G.
  • QUOTE 1 I do not mean here to suggest that White
    teachers who practice bashing Black cultural
    learning styles damage Black students. I mean
    that all teachers who have not had training in
    linguistic diversity and literacy education lack
    the skills necessary to support culturally
    relevant learning. (pg. 158)

32
Logos
  • EXPLANATION The author says that if teachers
    dont have a background in AAVE or African
    American literacy education, they will logically
    fall short in educating Black students. This has
    been the basis for the argument for some school
    districts who wanted to include Ebonics in their
    language curriculums.

33
Logos
  • QUOTE 2 Woodson held that omitting the
    linguistic history of the broken-down African
    tongue (i.e., AAVE) from the curriculum teaches
    the African American to despise her mother
    tongue. Furthermore, Black students were directly
    taught to hate Black speech, which indirectly
    taught them to hate themselves. Thus, the African
    American-centered approach to literacy research
    and education seeks to advise and revise the
    story of miseducation in Black students literacy
    education. (pg. 161)

34
Logos
  • EXPLANATION Traditionally, African Americans
    and Whites who wanted Blacks to assimilate into
    the mainstream disparaged Black speech in favor
    of the speech patterns of white society.
    Unfortunately, that form of self-hate did more to
    damage Black self esteem than uplift. Today, it
    holds that integrating AAVE into literacy
    education respects the culture as well as informs
    the student.

35
Logos
  • QUOTE 3 Aint nothing new under the sun.
    Everything you did has already been done. What I
    am calling African American-centered literacy
    practice is really nothing more than bringing to
    the center that which has been common knowledge
    in traditional African American ways of knowing
    but not in mainstream classrooms. Many African
    Americans exploit the tradition of Nommo the
    connection among language use, rhetorical
    posture, and ideological stance. (pg. 169)

36
Logos
  • EXPLANATION Culturally, African Americans
    inherited the power of storytelling and
    influential speech from Africa. Thus, the
    movement toward African American literacy is a
    means of going back to the future. If you
    recognize African traditions for speech, literacy
    and writing then you will understand how it is
    linked to the identity of the African American.
    This concept is often missing from mainstream
    education.

37
Invention Kevin R.
  • QUOTE 1 While one of the goals of the study
    presented here was to make visible vernacular
    discourse/rhetorical patterns and strategies in
    students texts, the scope of identified
    strategies and policies is broader. this essay
    focuses attention on the academic personas
    acquired by two African American students. (pg.
    155)

38
Invention
  • EXPLANATION The authors research sought to go
    beyond highlighting the distinct patterns of
    African American speech, writing or literacy. She
    wants to show the results of inclusion and
    exclusion in mainstream versus cultural specific
    literacy. Her method of research enhances the
    usefulness of the knowledge by making it fresh
    and particular to this discourse.

39
Invention
  • QUOTE 2 The two students discussed here are a
    male and female, Mickey and Rhonda . They were
    selected from demographic surveys distributed to
    a beginning writing class that had as its focus
    the literatures of many ethnic groups I
    interviewed the students twice individually and
    once together. I asked both participants the
    same set of questions but left them free to
    change topics I observed their classes over the
    semester and analyzed pieces of their writing.
    (pg. 159)

40
Invention
  • EXPLANATION Richardson was careful to make her
    research thorough and objective, allowing for
    scientific selection of the subjects involved but
    offering some latitude in their responses. Her
    audience will accept her conclusions because of
    the work involved to conduct unbiased data
    gathering.

41
Invention
  • QUOTE 3 A fundamental aspect of African
    American rhetorics and AAVE-oriented research
    has been to identify and define Black discourse
    styles or Black rhetorical patterns as these
    manifest themselves in AAVE speaking students
    texts. Most of this research has sought to
    explore and expand the literacies of
    AAVE-oriented students by having a deeper
    understanding of what informs the students
    approaches to literacy. (pg. 161)

42
Invention
  • EXPLANATION Researchers like Richardson who have
    sought information concerning culturally specific
    Black speech, writing and literacy usually focus
    on academic papers. Ultimately, this research
    seeks to enhance AAVE literacy by identifying
    what motivates African American students when
    they engage in literary pursuits. Richardson not
    only told her audience how she researched but she
    identified her goal. This helps her readers
    connect with her point of view.

43
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