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Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior

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... that allows the consumer to express the nature of their attitude ... If Holiday Inn were... a celebrity who would it be? an automobile what would it be? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior


1
Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior
  • MKT 750
  • Dr. West

2
Agenda
  • These slides are to help as you go over Chapters
    11 in the book.
  • Before printing the slides view the slideshow on
    the website so that you can watch the commercials
    on your own.

3
Consumer Attitudes
  • An attitude is an enduring response to some
    aspect of our environment or construct in the
    mind.
  • It represent what we like and dislike
  • It can be characterized as how we think and feel
    about an attitude object
  • Attitudes contain motivational, emotional,
    perceptual, and cognitive processes
  • They influence our tendency to act toward an
    attitude object

4
Attitude Components
5
How Attitudes Influence Actions
  • Attitudes
  • Preferences
  • Intentions
  • Behavior

Social Norms
6
How Attitudes Influence Actions
  • While attitudes represent a consumers
    orientation toward an object, they influence
    action through judgment and choice
  • Attitudes affect our preference, which is a
    consumers evaluation or judgment of one object
    in relation to another object (e.g., I prefer
    Diet Coke to Diet Pepsi)
  • In turn, consumer preferences affect our
    intention to act and ultimately our behavior
  • Social norms, or how we perceive others will
    respond to our actions, can either stimulate a us
    to take an action that is preference inconsistent

7
How Attitudes Influence Actions
  • Just because consumers prefer the taste of
    Kelloggs Frosted Flakes doesnt mean they will
    necessarily buy them
  • They may think it is a cereal for kids and worry
    that other will think they havent grown up.

CLICK ON PACKAGE TO VIEW COMMERCIAL
8
How to Measure Attitudes
  • Attitudes vary in direction, intensity, and the
    degree of confidence with which they are held
  • To measure consumer attitudes a scale should be
    used that allows the consumer to express the
    nature of their attitude appropriately
  • How do you feel toward Dell Computers?
  • Dislike ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Like very
  • very much much

Neutral Point
Negative vs Positive
Intensity
9
Measuring Attitudes
  • To understand consumer attitudes you have to dig
    deeper than simply asking how much they like an
    objectyou should ask them to report their
    beliefs, feelings and intentions
  • Here is a sample of how to measure beliefs about
    specific attributes using Semantic Differential
    Scales
  • Please tell us how you would rate Diet Coke by
    answering the following
  • Strong taste Mild
    taste
  • Low priced High
    priced
  • Caffeine free High
    in caffeine
  • Distinctive in
    Similar in taste totaste
    most colas

10
Measuring Attitudes
  • To understand consumer attitudes you have to dig
    deeper than simply asking how much they like an
    objectyou should ask them to report their
    beliefs, feelings and intentions
  • Here is a sample of how to measure consumer
    feelings toward a product using Likert scales
  • Please tell us how you feel about Diet Coke by
    answering the following
  • Strongly Neither agree
    Strongly
  • Disagree Disagree nor disagree Agree
    Agree
  • I like the taste
  • It is my favorite soft drink

11
Measuring Attitudes
  • To understand consumer attitudes you have to dig
    deeper than simply asking how much they like an
    objectyou should ask them to report their
    beliefs, feelings and intentions
  • Here is a sample of how to measure consumer
    intentions and actions
  • Please answer the following questions about your
    soft drinking habits
  • The last soft drink I consumed was ____________
  • I usually drink ____ soft drinks per week
  • What is the likelihood you will buy Diet Coke ?
    Definitely will buy
  • the next time you purchase a soft drink?
    ? Probably will buy
  • ? Might buy
  • ? Probably will not buy
  • ? Definitely will not buy

12
Measuring Attitudes
  • What questions would you like to ask current and
    potential fans about their attitude toward
    baseball in general and the Columbus Clippers in
    particular?
  • Remember that you should be thinking about
    measuring the cognitive (beliefs), affective
    (feelings), and behavioral (intention actions)
    components.

13
Multi-Attribute Model
(ei) (bi) (Ao) (BI) (B)
Evaluation of Product Attributes
Overall Product Evaluation
Intention to Buy
Brand Beliefs
Behavior
Social Norms
n Ao S bi ei SN i 1
14
Running Shoes
Beliefs (bi)
Brand Brand Brand Attribute
Evaluation (ei) A B C
Shock absorbent 2 2 1 -1 Price less
than 50 -1 -3 -1 3 Durability
3 3 1 -1 Comfort 3 2 3 1 Desired
color 1 1 3 3 Arch support
2 3 1 -2 Total score
15
Running Shoes Ordered by Importance
Beliefs (bi)
Brand Brand Brand Attribute
Evaluation (ei) A B C
Durability 3 3 1 -1 Comfort
3 2 3 1 Shock absorbent 2 2 1
-1 Arch support 2 3 1 -2 Desired
color 1 1 3 3 Price less than 50
-1 -3 -1 3 Total score
16
Running ShoesComputing Expected Brand Rating
Beliefs (bi)
Brand Brand Brand Attribute
Evaluation (ei) A B C
  • (3) (-3)
  • (6) (9) (3)
  • (2) (-2)
  • (2) (-4)
  • (3) (3)
  • (3) (3) (-3)

Durability 3 3 1 -1 Comfort
3 2 3 1 Shock absorbent 2 2 1
-1 Arch support 2 3 1 -2 Desired
color 1 1 3 3 Price less than 50
-1 -3 -1 3 Total score 29 22 - 6
17
Importance-Performance Grid
Attribute Our
Competitors Simultaneous Importance Performance
Performance Result
Neglected Opportunity Competitive
Disadvantage Competitive Advantage
Head-to-head competition Null Opportunity
False Alarm False Advantage False
Competition
Poor Good Poor Good Poor Good Poor Good
HIGH LOW
POOR GOOD POOR GOOD
18
Benefits of Multi-attribute Model
  • It offers diagnostic power by examining WHY
    consumers like/dislike your product
  • It can be used to segment consumers based on
    attribute importance
  • It is useful for competitive analysis purpose
    because you know where your brand is strong and
    weak relative to its competitors
  • It can also be used for forecasting sales, new
    product development, provides insights for
    changing attitudes

19
Implications for Attitude Change
  • The multi-attribute model offers routes for
    persuasion by changing the cognitive component of
    consumers attitudes
  • Change beliefs (bi) about your brand or the
    competition
  • Cadillac (Heritage Reborn)
  • Change attribute importance (ei)
  • Airbags Safety, Antibacterial soap
  • Add a new attribute
  • Carbohydrates in beer?

20
CLICK ON PICTURE TO VIEW COMMERCIAL
21
Changing Attitudes
  • The next several slides contain print ads
  • As you view each ad ask yourself what is the
    message?
  • How is the ad trying to shape consumer attitudes?
  • Which cognitive route to persuasion is being
    used?

22
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23
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24
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26
The rest of the story
  • Whats missing from Fishbeins Multiattribute
    Model?
  • Attitudes F(Beliefs, Evaluations, Social
    Norms)
  • Where do our attitudes come from?
  • Friends and family
  • Personal experience
  • Observation
  • Media Advertising

27
How are attitudes formed?
  • Attitudes are shaped through the various touch
    points associated with the brand
  • By adopting a customer-centric perspective we
    can gain a deeper understanding of how consumers
    think and feel about our brand and why.
  • Consumers are exposed to more than our products
    and the ads we run
  • It is important to ask them their impressions and
    strive to understand where they came about

28
Examining Touch Points
29
Measuring Consumer Perceptions
  • Oftentimes consumer attitudes are based on
    associations of the brand that are difficult to
    uncover even through carefully designed
    questioning
  • Alternative ways to get at how consumers perceive
    your brand include free-association tasks or
    projection tasks

30
Free-Association Tasks
  • Ask a respondent to write down everything that
    comes to mind in an ordered list when you mention
    the brand or company name
  • This ordered list is a reflection of how
    information about the brand is stored in memory
  • Those things that are mentioned first represent
    the strongest associations with the brand,
    whereas later words are less directly connected
    to the brand
  • As you compare lists among different respondents
    you can get an idea a better idea of how people
    perceive your brand, some of the mentions may be
    idiosyncratic and shouldnt be given too much
    attention but if you hear the same things
    mentioned by multiple people then it is important

31
Associative Network for Fast Food
hungry food energy junk
food convenience fast food
take-out hamburger the Colonel
fried chicken Burger McDonalds
Kentucky King Fried Chicken Ronald
french McDonald fries
hearty meal greasy fast
clean service
32
Associative Network for Perfume
33
Projection Task
  • Ask respondents
  • If (brand or product name) were a (noun) what
    would it be?
  • For example
  • If Holiday Inn were
  • a celebrity who would it be?
  • an automobile what would it be?
  • an animal what would it be?
  • a magazine what would it be?
  • a vegetable what would it be?

34
Implications for Attitude Change
  • Weve already looked at ways to change the
    cognitive component of attitudeshow about the
    affective part?
  • Classical conditioning can be used to build
    favorable associations with your brand
  • Examples include using familiar music or faces
    (celebrity endorsers) that tend to evoke positive
    feeling
  • Mere exposure to the brand can breed liking too

35
Implications for Attitude Change
  • Many tricks can be used to influence the
    behavioral component of attitudesincluding
  • Principle of Reciprocity by doing a favor or
    giving someone a token gift they will feel
    indebted and want to reciprocate.
  • Scarcity everyone want something thats hard
    to get
  • Authority - expert endorsers

36
Implications for Attitude Change
  • Many tricks can be used to influence the
    behavioral component of attitudesincluding
  • Commitment by getting someone to commit to a
    small thing they are much more likely to agree to
    a large request
  • Liking/compliments persuade by using a likeable
    message source and showing an interest in the
    person
  • Social validation cite statistics showing how
    many others have adopted the product

37
Summary
  • Better serving your customers requires
    understanding
  • What people currently think about your brand
  • How they feel toward the brand and why
  • Finally, what their intentions and what can be
    done to stimulate desire and encourage favorable
    actions toward the brand
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