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Title: LUBRICATION BASICS NUC MEC LUB 1001


1
LUBRICATION BASICS NUC MEC LUB 1001
2
TERMINAL OBJECTIVE
  • Upon completion of this lesson the student will
    be able to identify greases and oils, describe
    the purpose for using greases and oils, properly
    use greases and oils in preventative and
    corrective maintenance, and correctly obtain oil
    samples.

3
ENABLING OBJECTIVES
  • Identify classifications of lubricants.
  • Describe the purpose of lubrication.
  • Identify types of friction.
  • Describe the properties of lubricants.
  • Identify additives and their uses.
  • Describe the characteristics of a successful oil
    analysis program.

4
ENABLING OBJECTIVES
  • Identify methods or techniques that most
    effectively obtain representative equipment or
    system oil samples.
  • 8. Explain how various factors can alter oils
    fluid properties including effects on
    performance.
  • 9. Identify the most common oil contaminants
    and their potential effects.
  • 10. Describe storage/handling practices that
    minimize the possibility of oil contamination.

5
TYPES (CLASSIFICATIONS) OF LUBRICANTS
  • Liquid
  • Mineral oils and oils derived from vegetable and
    animal fats.
  • Semi-solid
  • Greases
  • Solid
  • Forms of metals or solid chemicals
  • Gas
  • Typically inert, e.g. nitrogen

6
INDUSTRY RIDES ON AN OIL FILM OF ABOUT 10 MICRONS
Lubricating Oil Functions
Friction Control
Separates Moving Surfaces
Wear Control
Reduces Abrasive Wear
Corrosion Control
Protects Surfaces From
Corrosive Substances
Temperature Control
Absorbs and Transfers Heat
Contamination Control
Transports Particles and Other
Contaminants to Filters/Separators
Power Transmission
In Hydraulics, Transmits Force
and Motion
7
FRICTION
Sliding friction
Rolling friction
Fluid friction
8
SLIDING CONTACT LUBRICATION
  • Film thickness varies depending on speed,
    viscosity and load (5-200 microns).
  • At low speeds, starts and stops boundary
    conditions exist (metal-to-metal contact).
  • Particle and moisture contamination corrupt
    lubricant film.
  • Example applications include worm gearing,
    journal bearings, piston-bore contacts and
    sliding cam contacts.

Hydrodynamic Oil Film
Load
Shaft
Bearing
Oil wedge provides hydrodynamic lift
Increasing Oil Film Thickness speed ups, oil
cooling, load reduction
Decreasing Oil Film Thickness coast downs, oil
heating, load increase
9
ROLLING CONTACT LUBRICATION
Contacts
Rolling element bearings, cam rollers, pitch-line
gear contacts.
Load
Ball Bearing
Roller Bearing
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
  • Rolling element and mating surface (race)
    elastically deform to enlarge contact area.
  • Oil film usually less than 1 micron
  • High contact pressures (up to 500,000 psi) turn
    oil into solid.
  • Particle and moisture contamination.

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
Definition of Elastohydrodynamic lubrication The
lubrication principles applied to rolling bodies,
such as ball or rolling bearings, is known as
elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication.
10
Wear
Operation of journal or sleeve bearings (shown in
the picture sequence to the right) is an example
of hydrodynamic lubrication. When the journal is
at rest, the weight of the journal squeezes out
the oil film so that the journal rests on the
bearing surface. As rotation starts, the journal
has a tendency to roll up the side of the
bearing. At the same time, fluid adhering to the
journal is drawn into the contact area. As the
journal speed increases an oil wedge is formed.
The pressure of the oil wedge increases until the
journal is lifted off the bearing. The journal is
not only lifted vertically, but is also pushed to
the side by the pressure of the oil wedge. The
minimum fluid film thickness at full speed will
occur at a point just to the left of center and
not at the bottom of the bearing.
11
OIL FILM THICKNESSES IN MACHINE DYNAMIC CLEARANCES
Component
Clearance
  • Roller Element Bearings
  • Journal Bearings
  • Gears
  • Engines
  • Ring/Cylinder
  • Rod Bearing
  • Main Bearings
  • Piston Pin Bushing
  • Valve Train
  • Gearing
  • Pump, Gear
  • Tooth to Side Plate
  • Tooth Tip to Case
  • Pump, Vane
  • Vane Sides
  • Vane Tip
  • Pump, Piston
  • Piston to Bore
  • Valve Plate to Cylinder

0.1-3 Microns 0.5-100 0.1-1 0.3-7 0.5-20 0.8-50
0.5-15 0.0-1.0 0.0-1.5 0.5-5 0.5-5 5-13 0.5-1 5
-40 0.5-5 130-450 18-63 1-4 50-250
0.001 inches 25.4 microns
12
COOLING ACTION OF LUBRICANTS
13
LUBRICANTS DAMPEN SHOCK
14
LUBRICANTS PROVIDE CORROSION CONTROL
  • To secure the reliability of critical company
    assets, parts and equipment must be protected
    from corrosion.
  • Introducing corrosion inhibitors and
    supplementing the system with mist-lubrication or
    a mist circulating system are several ways to
    accomplish this.
  • There are three basic phases
  • Liquid Phase
  • Vapor Phase
  • Surface Coatings

15
OIL PROPERTIES
  • Viscosity
  • Viscosity Index
  • Flash Point
  • Fire Point
  • Pour Point
  • Oxidation Resistance
  • Emulsification

16
VISCOSITY
  • Viscosity is considered to be the single most
    important characteristic of a lubricating oil.
    Equipment manufacturers usually base their own
    lubrication recommendations on viscosity. The
    term viscosity refers to the thickness of a
    liquid. A thin fluid like water has a low
    viscosity. Molasses, which is much thicker than
    water, has a higher viscosity. In other words,
    the LOWER the viscosity, the thinner the liquid.

17
FLASH POINT
  • The flash point of an oil is the temperature to
    which an oil has to be heated until sufficient
    flammable vapor is given off to flash when
    brought into contact with a flame.

18
FIRE POINT
  • The fire point of a lubricant is the higher
    temperature required to form enough vapor from
    the lubricant to cause it to burn steadily.

19
POUR POINT
  • The pour point of an oil is the lowest
    temperature at which the oil will barely flow
    from a container.

20
OXIDATION
  • Oxidation occurs when oxygen attacks petroleum
    fluids. The process is accelerated by heat,
    light, metal catalysts and the presence of water
    acids, or solid contaminants

21
EMULSIFICATION
  • An emulsion is a mixture of oil and water. If it
    is left standing, the oil and water will not
    separate readily. For most lubricating
    applications, an emulsion is highly undesirable
    because it has such poor lubricating qualities.

22
OIL BASES
  • Paraffin-base oil
  • Napthenic-base oils
  • Asphaltic-base oils
  • Mixed-base oils

23
PARAFFIN-BASE OILS
  • Paraffin-base oils usually contain varying
    amounts of the wax-like material called paraffin.
    This is the kind of crude oil produced in
    Pennsylvania.
  • Paraffin-based oils have a high natural viscosity
    index. This means that they are less likely to
    change viscosity with temperature changes. At
    the same time, such oils have a higher pour point
    because the paraffin thickens the oil faster as
    the temperature drops.

24
NAPTHENIC-BASE OILS
  • Napthenic-base oils contain a high percentage of
    a compound called naptha, and comes from
    California and the area around the Gulf of
    Mexico. Napthenic-base oils have a low viscosity
    index and also a low pour point. Such oils are
    used for lubricating in refrigeration equipment
    because they contain so little wax, if any, that
    the oil flows freely at low temperature.

25
ASPHALTIC-BASE OILS
  • Asphaltic-base oils contain a considerable number
    of asphaltic compounds, which are heavy tar-like
    materials. This is where asphalt for road
    surfaces comes from.

26
MIXED-BASE OILS
  • Mixed-base is the term now used to describe oils
    which contain both wax and asphaltic material.
    The mixed-base description fits most oils. After
    the various refining processes have been
    completed, oils may be combined to obtain a
    desired result. Usually, the idea is to blend
    oils to get particular viscosity specifications.
    Although the blending is normally done with oils
    having the same base, oils having different bases
    can also be combined. An example is the blending
    of high-viscosity napthene-base oils and
    low-viscosity paraffin-base oils.

27
LUBRICANTS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
28
ADDITIVES WHAT THEY ARE
Percent of Oil Volume
Machine
Common Additives Used
Engines
Anti-oxidant, corrosion inhibitor, Detergent/dispe
rsant, anti-wear, anti-foam, alkalinity
improver Anti-oxidant, corrosion inhibitor,
anti-emulsifier, anti-foam Anti-wear,
anti-oxidant, anti-foam, sometimes corrosion
inhibitor, extreme pressure Extreme pressure,
anti-oxidant, corrosion inhibitor, fatty
acids Anti-oxidant, anti-wear, anti-foam,
corrosion inhibitor, pour point depressant,
viscosity index improver
10 - 30
  • Organic and inorganic compounds dissolved or
    suspended (as solids) in the oil
  • Can represent from 0.1 to 30 of formulated oil
    volume
  • Monitoring additive health is an important goal
    of oil analysis

Steam turbines, compressors
0.5 - 5
Gears, spiral, bevel or hypoid
1 - 10
Gears, worm
3 - 10
Hydraulic systems
2 - 10
Additive Roles
Enhance Existing Base Oil Properties
Suppress Undesirable Base Oil Properties
Impart New Properties to Base Oils
Antioxidants Corrosion Inhibitors Antifoam
Agents Demulsifying Agents
Pour Point Depressants VI Improvers
EP Additives Detergents Metal Deactivators Tackine
ss Agents
29
ANTI-OXIDANTS/OXIDATION INHIBITORS
Role of Anti-Oxidants
How They Work
Common Types
To prevent the formation of acids, varnish,
sludge and high viscosity that normally results
from oxidation
Anti-oxidants decompose reactive hydroperoxides
and free radicals before they lead to oxidation
Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) Peroxide
Decomposer Hindered Phenols Chain
breaking Aromatic Amines Radical Trap
30
VISCOSITY INDEX IMPROVERS
Description
Materials Used
Long-chain organic molecules mixed into base oils
at concentrations as high as 10. Used to
increase VI for multi-season viscosity/temperature
performance.
  • Ethylene propylene copolymers
  • Polymethacrylates

Viscosity 100C
10
14
single grade no VI improver
VI improved multi-grade
SAE 30
SAE 10W40
summer
winter
Pour Point C VI
-23
-18
150
100
31
CORROSION INHIBITORS
Rust Inhibitors form a polar adherent film to
steel and cast iron surfaces. The film repels
water which inhibits rust formation. Common Rust
Inhibitors
Corrosion Inhibitors protect copper, tin and lead
based bearing materials by neutralizing acids and
by sealing surfaces from contact with water and
corrosive acids. Common Corrosion Inhibitors
  • Engines Sulfonates (over-based)
  • RO Industrial Lubricants Phosphoric acid
    derivatives and long chain fatty acids
  • Over-based detergents, water suspending
    dispersants and chelating compounds of imidazole,
    benzotriazole and ZDDP.

Dispersants are effective emulsifying agents for
water and acids compounds
Polar head (metallophilic)
Oleophilic/ Hydrophobic tail
H2O
Over-based detergents neutralize acids
H2O
H2O
H2O
H2O
Rust Inhibitor
Chelating additive forms surface protective
barrier between acids/water and bearing
Iron or Steel Surface
32
DETERGENTS
Description
Materials Used
Detergents work in the combat zone of the engine
(rings, pistons, liners and valves) to keep
surfaces free of deposits, especially at ring
grooves. Detergents are also over-based to
neutralize harmful acids generated by combustion.
Organo-metallic soaps of barium, calcium and
magnesium.
Functions 1. Deposit control 2. Acid
Neutralization
Blow-by
33
GREASE
  • Grease is a solid or semi-solid lubricant made up
    of a thickening agent in a liquid lubricant.
    Grease has three main elements.

34
OIL
  • Oil is the basic element, and is the most
    important because it has the greatest influence
    on the behavior of the grease

35
THICKENING AGENT
  • The most common type is a soap formed by
    combining fatty materials (animal or vegetable)
    with a form of metal or mineral. Barium,
    lithium, and calcium are examples.

36
ADDITIVES
  • An additive is a compound that enhances some
    property of, or imparts some new property to, the
    base fluid.

37
THREE QUALITIES OF A GREASE ARE ESPECIALLY
IMPORTANT. THESE ARE
  • Base Bases are the thickener used in a grease,
    and are what determines the general physical
    properties of a grease and where it will be
    applied.
  • Dropping point The dropping or melting point is
    important because that is the temperature at
    which grease will melt and become a fluid.
  • Penetration Penetration, a measurement of grease
    hardness, refers to the consistency or firmness
    of a grease.

38
GREASE GUNS
39
GREASING PROCEDURE
  • First locate all the fittings to be greased on
    the component.
  • After locating a fitting, clean it with a lint
    free cloth.
  • Apply the correct amount of the specified
    lubricant. (Be careful of the amount you apply,
    too much will cause excessive heat in the bearing
    and strain the grease retainers, while too little
    is ineffective.)
  • Wipe all excess grease from around the fitting.
  • If a fitting is found damaged or will not take
    grease, take appropriate action to repair or
    replace.

40
EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES
Maintenance Strategy
Action Required
RCM-Based Application
Run-to-failure (reactive)
Repair or replace upon failure Repair or replace
on time or in cycles. Employs condition
monitoring to detect early stage failures.
Replacement or repair is scheduled
on-condition. Changes in hardware, loading or
procedures. Condition monitoring detects the
presence of root causes of failure. Deploy active
shared-load or stand-by redundant systems.
Non-critical. Costs to control or detect failure
exceeds benefits. Asset has a well documented
MTBF and a small standard deviation. Asset fails
randomly. Critical nature justifies early
detection techniques. Objective is to reduce the
failure rate for a given time period. Mission
critical assets for which no other approach is
acceptable.
Scheduled discard or restoration (preventive)
On-condition maintenance (predictive)
Redesign and condition-control (proactive)
Redundancy
41
THE P-F CURVE
  • P-F interval is the time between detectability of
    a potential failure and the occurrence of the
    failure
  • Employ the condition monitoring techniques that
    maximize P-F interval time

42
LUBRICANT-RELATED FAILURE MODES
Some Lubricant-Related Failure Modes
  • Sudden volumetric loss
  • Low levels
  • Wrong lube
  • Degradation
  • Particle contamination
  • Moisture contamination
  • Fuel/chemical dilution
  • Coolant contamination
  • Additive depletion
  • Foaming
  • Under/over greasing
  • etc.

43
(No Transcript)
44
WHAT OIL ANALYSIS CAN TELL YOU
Root Cause Detection
Incipient Fault Detection
Problem Diagnosis
Failure Prognosis
Post Mortem
When something is occurring that can lead to
failure- root cause conditions
What Oil Analysis is Telling You
When an early-stage fault exists that is
otherwise going unnoticed e.g., abnormal wear
  • What the nature of a problem is that has been
    observed.
  • Where is it coming
  • from?
  • - How severe is it?
  • - Can it be fixed?

That a machine is basically worn out and needs to
be fixed or replaced
What caused the machine to fail? Could it have
been avoided?
What You Monitor
Particles, moisture viscosity, temperature
additives, oxidation, TAN/TBN, soot, glycol,
FTIR, RBOT
Wear debris density, temperature, particle count,
moisture, elemental analysis, viscosity,
analytical ferrography
Wear debris, elemental analysis, moisture,
particle count, temperature, viscosity,
analytical ferrography, vibration analysis
Elemental analysis, analytical ferrography,
vibration analysis, temperature
Analytical ferrography, ferrous density,
elemental analysis
Maintenance Mode
Proactive
Predictive
Predictive
Run-to-Failure
Run-to-Failure
Relative Savings
10
6
3
2
1
45
COMMON OIL ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS
  • Industrial gear boxes
  • Circulating bearing oils
  • Compressor and chiller lubricants
  • Power train gear oils (transmission,
    differential, final drive)
  • Hydrostatic drives
  • Diesel and gas engines
  • Process pumps (bearing lubes)
  • Boiler feed water pumps
  • Industrial and mobile hydraulics
  • Condenser pumps
  • Pulverizer gearing and bearing lubes
  • Stationary motor bearing oils
  • Paper machine oils
  • Rolling mill bearing and gear oils
  • Hydraulic couplings
  • Gas, combustion and steam turbine oils
  • Electo-hydraulic controls
  • Generator bearing and seal oils

Incoming Lubricants
Stored Lubricants
Cradle-to-Grave Process Control
New Lubricant Charge
Used In-Machine Lubricants
Recycled, reclaimed, reconditioned lubricants
46
SAMPLING
Three Objectives to Good Sampling
Sampling Considerations
  • Maximize data density
  • Minimize data disturbance
  • Proper frequency
  • Sampling location
  • Sampling hardware
  • Sample bottle
  • Sample procedure

47
SAMPLING LOCATION WET SUMP CIRCULATING SYSTEMS
Filter
Sample after pump and before filter
Primary Sampling Point
Pump
Applications
  • When drain or return lines are inaccessible
  • Total loss systems
  • Multiple return lines no manifold
  • When oil drips/falls straight to sump

Typical examples Diesel engines, circulating
gearing, circulating compressors and hydrostatic
drives.
48
SAMPLING LOCATION DRY SUMP CIRCULATING SYSTEM
Applications
  • Pressurized returns or drains
  • Unpressurized drains or returns using vacuum
    sampler
  • Return or drain lines that manifold before
    entering tank

Sample drain line/ Return line header
Pump
Typical examples Hydraulic systems, steam
turbines, paper machine bearing oils and EHC
system
49
SAMPLING POINTS FOR A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM WITH
RETURN LINE FILTER
Hydraulic Motor
S
S
S
P
Pump
P
S
S
50
LIVE ZONE SAMPLING
DO
DONT
  • Sample from live fluid zones
  • Sample from turbulent zones such as elbows
  • Sample downstream of bearings, gears, pumps,
    cylinders and actuators
  • Sample from dead pipe legs or hose ends
  • Sample from laminar zones
  • Sample after filters or from sumps
  • Sample when machine is cold or not operating

Not Good If
  • Laminar flow large particles in boundaries
  • High flow velocity particle fly-by

Good
51
OPTIONS FOR SAMPLING FROM PRESSURIZED LINES
Ball Valve
Portable Female Quick Connect
Helical coil for high-pressure sampling
Minimess Tap Sampling
Minimess
Portable High-Pressure Tap Sampling
Ball Valve Tap Sampling
Probe-on Bottle
Portable Minimess Tap Sampling
Female Quick Connect
Probe-on Bottle
52
MINIMESS SAMPLING VALVESBENEFITS
SS Tube
  • Dead volume is minimized
  • Easy flushing
  • External threaded dust cap
  • Dual seal
  • For vacuum pump or pressure probe sampling
  • Low cost of hardware and installation
  • Instrument interface
  • Pressure diagnostics

Minimess
Vacuum Sampler
Unpressurized
Pressurized Line
53
DRAIN LINE OIL SAMPLING TRAPS
Oil Supply
  • Partially full bearing drain lines
  • For effective bearing fault detection
  • Representative bearing wear metals and moisture
    levels
  • Live zone sampling

Vacuum Sampler
54
SIX OPTIONS FOR SAMPLING SPLASH/BATH LUBRICATED
MACHINES
B
Off-Line Sampling
C
C
Drop Tube Static Sampling
Drain-Port Sampling
Drain Plug
A
Probe-on Static Sampling
Filter-In Bypass
SS Tube
Ball Valve
A
A
C
Drain-Port Tap Sampling
Probe-on Drain-Port Sampling
Drain-Port Sampling
55
DROP-TUBE VACUUM PUMP SAMPLING
BEST APPLICATIONS
WORST APPLICATIONS
  • Tank and reservoir sampling (when required)
  • Crankcase oils, if a live zone sampling port is
    not available
  • Applications where particle count, large wear
    debris and moisture trends are not required
  • Gearbox and bearing sumps
  • Large reservoirs with poor circulation
  • Critical applications
  • Where reliable trends for particle count, large
    wear debris and moisture are required.

Plunger draws oil into bottle by suction
56
DROP-TUBE VACUUM SAMPLING OF RESERVOIRS AND TANKS
Drop-Tube
  • In circulating systems, sample as close to the
    return line as possible. Always in the short
    circuit.
  • In static tanks sample at the mid-point between
    oil level and bottom, away from walls.
  • Use weight or rod to achieve a consistent
    measured standoff.
  • Sample during typical operating conditions.

Twisty
Rod
Return
Twisty
Not Acceptable
Measured Standoff
Suction
Sampling Inlet
Acceptable
Ideal
Sludge Line
Not Acceptable
57
TIPS TO EFFECTIVE DROP-TUBE VACUUM SAMPLING
  • Use clean oil sampling procedure with zip-lock
    bag.
  • Do not re-use tubes. Flush tubes thoroughly with
    oil be be sampled.
  • For viscous gear oil, use vacuum pumps that
    accommodate large diameter tubes.
  • For crankcase dip-stick samples, cut tube about
    10 longer than dip-stick. Insert tube about ½
    shorter than length of dip-stick.
  • When bottle is ¾ full, loosen bottle to release
    vacuum and stop flow.
  • After sampling, invert pump (with bottle removed)
    to allow oil in tube to drain back to sump.
  • In crankcase and sump sampling, cut end of tube
    at an angle to reduce risk of sampling sludge.
  • Never let oil enter pump cylinder. If this
    happens, clean thoroughly with kerosene, mineral
    spirits or dry cleaning solvent.

Keep vacuum pump horizontal during sampling
  • Unlike this picture
  • Dispose of used tubes
  • Keep clean bottle threaded into cavity to protect
    it from dirt
  • Store in a zip-lock bag

58
PROPER SAMPLING OF LUBRICANTS IN STORAGE
  • Bottom sample identifies additive floc, sludge,
    water, rust and bacteria
  • With proper baseline, top zone sampling
    identifies additive stratification
  • Use a drum roller prior to sampling to measure
    actual concentrations of water, dirt, floc and
    other insolubles
  • Use measured standoff for storage stability
    trending

Drum and Tote Sampling
Bulk Tanks
Bottle Thief
Measured distance from bottom
1¼ lb. lead weight
59
FACTORS INFLUENCING FREQUENCY OF SAMPLING
  • Environmental (dust, water, etc.)
  • Duty Cycle
  • Load
  • Radiation
  • Temperature
  • Vibration Levels
  • Safety
  • Criticality
  • Down-Time Cost
  • Repair Cost
  • Fluid Age
  • Lubricant Quality

60
SUMMARY OIL SAMPLING BEST PRACTICES
Bulls-eye Data
Garbage Data
  • Machines running in application
  • Live zone sampling on the run
  • Upstream of filters, downstream of machine
    components
  • Flushed sampling valves and sampling devices,
    clean bottles
  • Sampled at proper frequency
  • Machine, oil, filter status
  • Samples forwarded immediately to lab
  • Sampling cold systems
  • Drain-port sampling
  • Drop-tube sampling
  • Changing sampling methods and points
  • Dirty sampling pathway
  • Sampling after oil changes
  • Cross-contamination of sampling devices
  • Waiting days or weeks before sending samples to
    lab

61
HIGH OIL TEMPERATURES ACCELERATES OIL DEGRADATION
For every 18F (10C) increase in oil operation
temperature, oil life is cut in half.
Dont push down the thermal accelerator!
62
THE CAUSES OF OIL VISCOSITY CHANGES
  • Non-correctable change
  • Correctable by removal of the contaminant if
    feasible

63
SYSTEM EFFECTS OF WRONG VISCOSITY
VISCOSITY TOO HIGH
VISCOSITY TOO LOW
  • Heat generation oxidation, varnish, sludge
  • Cavitation
  • Inadequate flow to bearings, etc.
  • Oil whip in journal bearings
  • Energy consumption losses
  • Poor defoaming and demulsifying characteristics
  • Fluid backup in bearing drain lines
  • Poor cold start pumpability
  • Oil film loss, boundary lubrication, excessive
    wear
  • High mechanical friction, energy losses
  • High mechanical friction, heat generation,
    oxidation, etc.
  • Internal or external leakage
  • Increased system sensitivity to particle
    contamination
  • Oil film failure at high temperatures, low speed
    and/or high load

64
SEPARATION ADDITIVE DEPLETION
Additives are Separated Out of Oil (Mass Transfer)
Condensation Settling additive becomes
insoluble and settles
Filtration solid or condensed additives are
filtered out of the oil
Aggregate Adsorption Adsorptive media removes
polar additives
Evaporation Vacuum dehydrators evaporate
additives
Centrifugation High gravity organo-metallic
additives become separated under high centrifugal
forces
65
ADSORPTIVE ADDITIVE DEPLETION
Particle Scrubbing Particle traps additive in
filter or drags it to sump floor
Surface Adsorption Polar additives adhere to
machine surfaces
Water Washing Water drags additives to sump
floor
Rubbing Contacts Polar EP and AW additives
form soap-like boundary films
Additives take a Ride on Particles or Water
Droplets or Adhere to Machine Surfaces
66
CONTAMINATION CONTROL BUILDING RELIABILITY
Solids (particles)
Moisture
Air
Radiation
Heat
Fluid contamination analysis targets the primary
cause of wear and lubricant failure forming the
central strategy of a proactive maintenance
program
Antifreeze
Fuel
67
DAMAGE CAUSED BY OIL CONTAMINATION
Changes Oil Chemistry
Changes Physical Properties of Oil
Chemically Attacks Machine Surfaces
Mechanically Destructs Machine Surfaces
Solids
Oxidation -------- Additive depletion
Viscosity effects
Adherent Varnish
Abrasion ------- Surface fatigue
Water
Oxidation -------- Additive depletion
Viscosity effects
Acidity Destruction ------- Rust
Cavitation ------- Scuffing
Fuel
Additive depletion ------- Aromatics
Lowers flash -------- Lowers viscosity -------- In
crease vapor pressure
Sulfuric acid
Film strength loss
Glycol (antifreeze)
Oxidation ------- Sludge
Viscosity increase
Acidity increase
Film strength loss
Rust Corrosion
Air
Oxidation
Oxidation
Cavitation
Thermal degradation ------- Oxidation
Heat
Viscosity increase
Varnish ------- Acidity
Film strength loss
68
PARTICLE CONTAMINATIONBOTH CAUSE AND EFFECT OF
WEAR
Reliability and maintainability are a function
of contamination control and contamination
control leads to long life.
General Electric
Contamination is the greatest single cause of
lubricant malfunction and subsequent excessive
wear of parts.
Mobil
Oil
69
SKF SPEAKS OUT ON CONTAMINATION
Bearings can have an infinite life when
particles larger than the lubricant film are
removed. SKF
70
OIL PUMP OR DIRT PUMP?
Dirt (lbs.) (C)
50 lb. bags
Relative Pump Life
At ISO 21/18, this hydraulic system passes 136
50-lb. bags of dirt through the teeth of the pump
in one year.
Filter (A)
ISO Code (B)
25 micron nominal
21/18
6784
136
1
19/16
1809
36
1.9
10 micron nominal
10 micron absolute
16/13
211
4.2
4.4
14/11
53
1
8.8
6 micron absolute
12/9
14
0.28
15
3 micron absolute
All figures are approximations
At ISO 14/11, only one 50-lb. bag of dirt passes
through the pump.
71
WHERE DOES PARTICLE CONTAMINATION COME FROM?
72
WATER CONTAMINATIONTHE SCOURGE OF LUBRICATING
OILS
  • Best Practices
  • Restrict its ingression
  • Recognize its presence
  • Analyze its state and concentration
  • Remove it

Too Often it is Ignored as a Primary Root Cause
73
WATER CONTAMINATIONMACHINE EFFECTS
Whats Happening
Water Related Problem
Corrosion
Water in oil gives acid greatest destructive
potential. Water is the central promoter of rust.
Film Strength Loss
Water in elastohydrodynamic contacts (e.g.,
rolling element bearings) cause film strength
failure and hydrogen embrittlement. Water
flash-vaporization in hydrodynamic contacts
causing bearing failure.
Cavitation
Water is the leading cause of hydraulic pump
cavitation (vaporous cavitation).
Silting and Filter Plugging
Water causes poor filterability and valve
stiction.
74
HEAT CONTAMINATIONTHE HIGH PRICE OF HIGH OIL
TEMPERATURES
Hot Running Oil
Advantages
Disadvantages
Current Oil Temperature
Twice-the-Life Oil Temperature
  • Good water shedding
  • Lower foaming tendency
  • Lower aeration tendency
  • Improved particle settling rate
  • Water vaporization
  • Fuel vaporization
  • Additive depletion
  • Oxidation
  • Thermal degradation
  • Varnishing/coking
  • Hydrolysis
  • Loss of film strength (viscosity thinning)
  • Base oil and additive volatilization
  • Increased corrosion
  • Seal failure
  • Cost of synthetic base oil

300F (149C) 275F (135C) 250F (121C) 225F
(107C) 200F (93C) 175F (79C) 150F
(65C) 125F (52C)
282F (139C) 257F (125C) 232F (111C) 207F
(97C) 152F (83C) 157F (69C) 132F
(55C) 107F (41C)
75
AIR CONTAMINATIONSTATES OF CO-EXISTENCE
dissolved air
entrained air
76
IS THERE A FOAM PROBLEM HERE?HOW ABOUT AIR
ENTRAINMENT?
77
FOAM IN RESERVOIR
78
WHEN IS FOAM A PROBLEM?
Its a Problem When
  • The oil level in the sump or reservoir becomes
    impossible to control.
  • The oil spills onto the floor creating a safety
    hazard.
  • The foam leads to air locks and inability to
    effectively supply oil to lubricated components.
  • The foam inhibits heat transfer and encourages
    oxidation and thermal failure of the oil.
  • The equipment is lubricated with foam instead of
    oil.

ANALYSIS
Air Release (ASTM D3427 or IP 3B Test Method)
Foam Stability (ASTM D892 or IP 146)
Mechanical Problem (excessive aeration)
Same as new oil
Same as new oil
Air Detrainment Problem (oil doesnt release air
bubbles)
Same as new oil
Increase from new oil
Depleted or ineffective defoamant
Increase from new oil
Increase from new oil
79
LUBE STORAGETHINGS TO AVOID
80
OIL CANS AND TOP-UP CONTAINERSTHINGS TO AVOID
81
OUTDOOR DRUM STORAGE
Red Drum is Tilted for Water Drainage but What is
Wrong?
82
TANK AND SUMP VENTILATION
83
MODERNIZATION OF VENTS AND BREATHERS
Out With The Old
In With The New
84
PORTABLE FILTRATION
Applications
Benefits
  • Wet sump lubrication
  • Splash/bath lubrication
  • Flushing
  • Dispensing of new oil
  • Not dedicated to any single machine
  • Constant flow
  • Optional water removing elements
  • Can be used for sampling

85
FULL FLOW FILTERS HIGH PERFORMANCE
Pressure (supply) Line
Return (discharge) Line
86
ENABLING OBJECTIVES
  • Identify classifications of lubricants.
  • Describe the purpose of lubrication.
  • Identify types of friction.
  • Describe the properties of lubricants.
  • Identify additives and their uses.
  • Describe the characteristics of a successful oil
    analysis program.

87
ENABLING OBJECTIVES
  • Identify methods or techniques that most
    effectively obtain representative equipment or
    system oil samples.
  • Explain how various factors can alter oils fluid
    properties including effects on performance.
  • Identify the most common oil contaminants and
    their potential effects.
  • Describe storage/handling practices that minimize
    the possibility of oil contamination.

88
Summary
  • REVIEW OBJECTIVES
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