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Privacy Policy, Law and Technology History and Philosophy of Privacy

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All projects have final paper, presentation, and poster as deliverable ... Hidden cameras. Web cams. Satellite images. Privacy History References. Robert Ellis Smith. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Privacy Policy, Law and Technology History and Philosophy of Privacy


1
Privacy Policy, Law and Technology History and
Philosophy of Privacy
  • September 2, 2008

2
Course project
3
Project overview
  • Individual or small group (up to 3 students)
  • Pick your own project or one that I suggest
  • All projects have final paper, presentation, and
    poster as deliverable
  • Some projects may have other deliverables such as
    software, user interface designs, etc.
  • http//cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa08/
    project.html

4
Past projects
  • http//cups.cs.cmu.edu/courses/privpolawtech-fa07/
    poster.html
  • http//lorrie.cranor.org/courses/fa05/poster.html
  • http//lorrie.cranor.org/courses/fa04/poster.html
  • Several past projects have been turned into a
    thesis or published paper
  • The Real ID Act Fixing Identity Documents with
    Duct Tape. I/S A Journal of Law and Policy for
    the Information Society, Fall/Winter 2005 (Serge
    Egelman).
  • How Technology Drives Vehicular Privacy. I/S A
    Journal of Law and Policy for the Information
    Society, 2(3), Fall 2006, 981-1015 (Aleecia
    McDonald).
  • Scrubbing Stubborn Data An evaluation of
    counter-forensic privacy tools. IEEE Security
    Privacy, September/October 2006 (Matthew
    Geiger).
  • Peripheral Privacy Notifications for Wireless
    Networks. In Proceedings of the 2005 Workshop on
    Privacy in the Electronic Society, 7 November
    2005, Alexandria, VA (Braden Kowitz).
  • Privacy in India Attitudes and Awareness. In
    Proceedings of the 2005 Workshop on Privacy
    Enhancing Technologies (PET2005), 30 May - 1 June
    2005, Dubrovnik, Croatia (Ponnurangam
    Kumaraguru).
  • PANAMA Privacy Assured Name-Addressable
    Messaging Architecture For Unlinkable Instant
    Message Conversations. INI Thesis 2005 (Ryan
    Mahon).

5
Selecting a research topic
6
Selecting a research topic
  • Brainstorm
  • What are you interested in?
  • What would you like to learn more about?
  • What topics might be relevant to your thesis
    work?
  • What topics might be relevant to your future
    career?
  • Select a small number of candidate topics (Sept
    30)
  • Read
  • How much information seems to be available?
  • Is this topic over done?
  • What open questions are there?
  • Do you still find this topic interesting?
  • Do you have the skills necessary to pursue this
    topic?
  • Focus (October 9 - one paragraph description)
  • Select a topic
  • Define a focused research question
  • Read some more
  • Conduct a literature review
  • Adjust your topic as needed
  • Write a project proposal (October 23)

7
Finding information with search engines
8
Finding info with search engines
  • General purpose search engines
  • Google, Yahoo, Altavista, A9, etc.
  • Clustered searching
  • Vivisimo, Dogpile
  • Search CS research literature
  • http//portal.acm.org
  • http//citeseer.ist.psu.edu/
  • http//ieeexplore.ieee.org/
  • http//scholar.google.com/

9
Advanced searching
  • Boolean searching
  • Operators AND, OR, NOT, NEAR
  • Implied operators AND is often implied
  • Parentheses for grouping
  • Wildcards
  • Quotes
  • Getting to know the ins and outs of your favorite
    search engines
  • Many search engines do not use pure boolean
    searching
  • Most search engines have some special syntax
  • Search engines use different algorithms to
    determine best match

10
Conceptualizing privacy
11
Concept versus right
  • Privacy as concept
  • What is it
  • How and why it is valued
  • Privacy as right
  • How it is (or should be) protected
  • By law
  • By policy
  • By technology

12
Hard to define
  • Privacy is a value so complex, so entangled in
    competing and contradictory dimensions, so
    engorged with various and distinct meanings, that
    I sometimes despair whether it can be usefully
    addressed at all.
  • Robert C. Post, Three Concepts of Privacy, 89
    Geo. L.J. 2087 (2001).

13
Some definitions from the literature
  • Personhood
  • Intimacy
  • Secrecy
  • Contextual integrity
  • Limited access to the self
  • Control over information

14
Limited access to self
  • the right to be let alone
  • Samuel D. Warren and Louis D. Brandeis, The
    Right to Privacy, 4 Harv. L. Rev. 193 (1890)
  • our concern over
  • our accessibility to others the extent to which
    we are known to others, the extent to which
    others have physical access to us, and the extent
    to which we are the subject of others attention.
  • - Ruth Gavison, Privacy and the Limits of the
    Law, Yale Law Journal 89 (1980)

Being alone. - Shane (age 4)
15
Control over information
  • Privacy is the claim of individuals, groups or
    institutions to determine for themselves when,
    how, and to what extent information about them is
    communicated to others.
  • …each individual is continually engaged in a
    personal adjustment process in which he balances
    the desire for privacy with the desire for
    disclosure and communication….
  • Alan Westin, Privacy and Freedom, 1967

16
Realizing limited access and control
  • Limited access
  • Laws to prohibit or limit collection, disclosure,
    contact
  • Technology to facilitate anonymous transactions,
    minimize disclosure
  • Control
  • Laws to mandate choice (opt-in/opt-out)
  • Technology to facilitate informed consent, keep
    track of and enforce privacy preferences

17
Westins four states of privacy
  • Solitude
  • individual separated form the group and freed
    form the observation of other persons
  • Intimacy
  • individual is part of a small unit
  • Anonymity
  • individual in public but still seeks and finds
    freedom from identification and surveillance
  • Reserve
  • the creation of a psychological barrier against
    unwanted intrusion - holding back communication

18
Westins four functions of privacy
  • Personal autonomy
  • control when you go public about info
  • Emotional release
  • be yourself
  • permissible deviations to social or institutional
    norms
  • Self-evaluation
  • Limited and protected communication

19
Soloves privacy taxonomy
  • Information Collection
  • Surveillance
  • Interrogation
  • Information Processing
  • Aggregation
  • Identification
  • Insecurity
  • Secondary Use
  • Exclusion
  • Information Dissemination
  • Breach of Confidentiality
  • Disclosure
  • Exposure
  • Increased Accessibility
  • Blackmail
  • Appropriation
  • Distortion
  • Invasion
  • Intrusion
  • Decisional Interference

20
Information vs. decisional privacy
  • Information privacy concerns the collection, use,
    and disclosure of personal information
  • Decisional privacy concerns the freedom to make
    decisions about one's body and family

21
Multiple facets of privacy
  • How can posting personal information about myself
    on my web site result in a reduction of my
    privacy? How can it result in an increase in my
    privacy?

22
Privacy as animal instinct?
  • Is privacy necessary for species survival?

Eagles eating a deer carcass http//www.learner.or
g/jnorth/tm/eagle/CaptureE63.html
23
History
24
Information privacy
  • In 17th century America, colonists began to
    collect information about each other
  • Census, birth and death records, school records,
    tax records
  • Informants reported people who behaved badly
  • Disorderly children, nightwalkers, Sabbath
    breakers, atheists, drunks

25
Privacy of personal space
  • Historically, depended a lot on the type and
    proximity of available housing
  • In 18th century Europe, most people lived in
    cities where houses were close together, but
    small number of people lived in each house
  • In 18th century America, people lived far away
    from each other but many people lived in each
    house and even shared beds

26
Communication privacy
  • When all communication was oral, communication
    privacy depended on
  • Communicating without someone overhearing
  • Communicating with people who wouldnt tell
    others
  • Written communications brought new opportunities
    for privacy violations
  • In 18th century America, postal mail was not
    necessarily private
  • Sealing wax, basic encryption used to increase
    privacy
  • 1782 - Congress made it illegal to open other
    peoples mail
  • Later the invention of the adhesive envelope
    increased communications privacy

27
Telegraph
  • In the late nineteenth century the telegraph
    became a popular means of long distance
    communication
  • Messages could be coded, but you could not
    recover damages due to transmission errors if the
    message was coded
  • Telegraph operators were supposed to keep
    messages confidential
  • Occasional subpoenas for telegraph messages

28
Cameras
  • Cameras, especially portable snap cameras
    (1888), raised new privacy concerns
  • Telephoto lenses
  • Video cameras
  • Hidden cameras
  • Web cams
  • Satellite images

29
Privacy History References
  • Robert Ellis Smith. 2000. Ben Franklins Web
    Site Privacy and Curiosity from Plymouth Rock to
    the Internet. Providence Privacy Journal.
  • Alan Westin. 1967. Privacy and Freedom. New York
    Atheneum.
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