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SURVEY OF BIOCHEMISTRY Carbohydrates

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Sugars formed from CO2 and H2O. Roles. Energy in diet. Mediating intercellular communication. Structural support (e.g. cell walls) 3. Classification ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SURVEY OF BIOCHEMISTRY Carbohydrates


1
SURVEY OF BIOCHEMISTRYCarbohydrates
2
What are Carbohydrates?
  • Generic Formula of Simple Carbs
  • (CH2O)n
  • Sugars formed from CO2 and H2O
  • Roles
  • Energy in diet
  • Mediating intercellular communication
  • Structural support (e.g. cell walls)

3
Classification
  • Monosaccharides
  • Aldoses
  • Ketoses
  • Polysaccharides (Glycans, Glycosides)
  • Glycoproteins sugars bound to proteins
  • N-linked Oligosaccharides
  • O-Linked Oligosaccharides

4
Aldoses Ketoses
Sugars made from aldehydes form aldoses
Sugars made from ketones form ketoses
5
Important Aldoses To Study
6-C sugars
5-Csugar
All begin with CHO group
6
Important Aldoses To Study
6-C sugars
5-Csugar
All end with group
7
Important Aldoses To Study
6-C sugars
5-Csugar
Most names end with -ose suffix
8
Important Ketoses To Study
3-Csugar
5-Csugar
6-Csugar
Most names all end with -ulose suffix
9
Important Ketoses To Study
3-Csugar
5-Csugar
6-Csugar
Ketoses begin with group
10
Important Ketoses To Study
3-Csugar
5-Csugar
6-Csugar
Most ketoses end with group
11
Important Ketoses To Study
3-Csugar
5-Csugar
6-Csugar
Several ketoses end with -ulose suffix
12
Structures of Monosaccharides
  • Isomers and Epimers
  • Enantiomers
  • Anomeric Carbons
  • Ways to Draw Monosaccharides
  • Fischer Projection
  • Haworth Projection
  • Chair form

13
Isomers
  • Isomers are different compounds that have the
    same chemical formula

C6H12O6
14
Epimers
  • Epimers are sugars that differ only by the
    configuration around one carbon atom.

Only difference
15
Enantiomers
See Section 4-2 for help
Know this structure
Most sugars are found in the D-stereoisomer.D-Gly
ceraldehyde is the most simple aldose.
16
Cyclization of MonosaccharidesAnomeric Carbons
AnomericCarbon
17
Cyclization of MonosaccharidesAnomeric Carbons
AnomericCarbon
Conformations Position of -OH Group on Anomeric C
Down Up
18
Ways to Draw Monosaccharides
  • Fischer Projection - linear
  • Haworth Projection - cyclic
  • Chair - cyclic

19
Cyclization of Monosaccharides
20
Cyclization of Monosaccharides
21
Polysaccharides
  • Disaccharides 2 sugars
  • Lactose Glucose Galactose
  • Sucrose Glucose Fructose
  • Maltose Glucose Glucose
  • Oligosaccharides 3-12 sugars
  • Polysaccharides 13 sugars
  • Glycogen homopolysaccharide of glucose
  • Glycosaminoglycans heteropolysaccharides

22
Polysaccharides
Monosaccharides can be linked to form
oligosaccharides,and ultimately polysaccharides
via glycosidic bonds.
SUCROSE
Glycosidic Bond
23
Polysaccharides
Monosaccharides can be linked to form
oligosaccharides,and ultimately polysaccharides
via glycosidic bonds.
LACTOSE
Glycosidic Bond
24
Glycosidic Bonds in RNA
25
Starch in Plants
26
Starch in Plants
27
Glycoproteins N-Linked
28
Glycoproteins O-Linked
29
PRS
  • When comparing two enzymes, the optimal catalytic
    activity can be determined by_______.
  • The smallest Km
  • The largest KM
  • The smallest Vmax
  • The smallest kcat/KM

30
PRS
  • Which class of enzyme catalyzes group elimination
    to form double bonds?
  • Transferases
  • Isomerases
  • Lyases
  • Ligases

31
PRS
  • Which of the following proteins is involved in
    muscle contraction?
  • Trypsin
  • Troponin
  • Chymotrypsin
  • Hemoglobin

32
PRS
  • Which of the following is a ketose?
  • Glucose
  • Fructose
  • Ribose
  • Galactose
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