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Pancreatic Cancer: Highlights from the 42nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncol

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Title: Pancreatic Cancer: Highlights from the 42nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncol


1
Pancreatic Cancer Highlights from the 42nd
Annual Meeting of the American Society of
Clinical Oncology, 2006
Muhammad Wasif Saif, M.D.Associate
ProfessorYale University School of MedicineNew
Haven, CT, USA
2
Abstract
  • Despite advances in our understanding of the
    molecular and genetic basis of pancreatic cancer,
    the disease remains a clinical challenge.
    Gemcitabine, the standard chemotherapy for
    pancreatic cancer, offers modest improvement of
    tumor-related symptoms and marginal advantage of
    survival. New approaches, alone and in
    combination with gemcitabine, are being developed
    to combat this cancer. Combination chemotherapy
    trials incorporating gemcitabine, cisplatin,
    5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, or irinotecan
    generally show improved outcomes in objective
    response rates but with little or no improvement
    in survival in phase III trials. In this article,
    the author describes the key studies presented at
    the Annual Meeting of ASCO, held in Atlanta, GA
    from June 2nd to 6th. The studies discussed here
    include the following RTOG 9704 (4007),
    FFCD-SFRO study (4008), meta-analysis of
    gemcitabine plus cisplatin and gemcitabine plus
    oxaliplatin vs. gemcitabine alone (GERCOR 4003),
    and ECOG 6201 (Late Breaking Abstract 4004).
    Based on the results presented at the annual
    meeting, it comes to us that patients with
    locally advanced vs. metastatic pancreatic cancer
    should be studied separately, better
    understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer
    is mandatory and evaluation of novel agents is
    crucial. We as oncologist have to change our
    attitudes towards clinical trials and need to
    think beyond a trial design such as gemcitabine
    vs. drug of our choice. Environment within which
    research is being conducted also has to be
    changed and last but not the least, access to
    trials for patients with pancreatic cancer is the
    key step in the fight against pancreatic cancer.

3
Lessons from ASCO 2006
  • What did we know already?
  • What we learn?
  • What we miss?
  • What we do next?

4
Lessons from ASCO 2006
  • What did we know already?
  • What we learn?
  • What we miss?
  • What we do next?

5
Median Survival of Patients with Pancreatic
Cancer (Staleys Classification, 1996) 1
  • Localized/Resectable 15-19 months 10
  • Locally Advanced 6-10 months 30
  • Metastatic/Advanced 3-6 months 60

1 Staley CA, et al. Pancreas 1996 12373-80.
6
Adjuvant Chemo and Chemo-XRT
  • No clear consensus on adjuvant therapy for
    pancreas cancer
  • GITSG 2
  • 43 pts randomized into two groupsXRT/bolus 5-FU
    ? weekly 5-FU x 2 years vs. Observation
  • Median survival 20 and 11 months, respectively ?
    favoring Chemo-XRT arm
  • ESPAC 1 3
  • No benefit for Chemo-XRT (P0.24)
  • Significant overall benefit for
    Chemotherapy (Plt0.001)
  • CONKO-001 4
  • Randomize to Gemcitabine vs. Observation
  • Disease free survival 14.2 m vs. 7.5 m (Plt0.001)

2 Cancer 1987 592006-10. 3 Neoptolemos JP,
et al. Lancet 2001 3581576-85. 4 Neuhaus P,
et al. J Clin Oncol 2005, 23(16S)4013.
GITSG Cancer 1987
ESPAC-1 Lancet 2003
7
Locally Advanced Disease
  • Chemo-XRT may improve survival compared to XRT
    alone
  • Chemotherapy is equivalent to the combination of
    Chemo-XRTin randomized trials
  • No randomized trials comparing gemcitabine to
    Chemo-XRTwas available till FFCD-SFRO study
    presented at ASCO 2006

5 Moertel CG, et al. Cancer 1981 481705-10.
8
Gemcitabine Pivotal Studies Results
Rothenberg 6 Burris 7 Burris
7 Gemcitabine 5-FU Partial response 6
(9.5) 3 (5.4) 0 Stable disease 17 (27) 22
(39.3) 11 (19.3) Progressive disease 20
(31.7) 19 (33.9) 34 (59.6) Survival
median 3.9 months 5.7 months 4.4
months 6-month 31 46 31 9-month 15 24 6 12-m
onth 4 18 2 Time to progression 2.5 months 2.1
months 0.9 months Clinical benefit Response 17
(27) 15 (23.8) 3 (4.8)
(P0.0025)
(P0.0002)
(P0.0022)
6 Rothenberg ML, et al. Ann Oncol 1996
7347-53. 7 Burris HA 3rd, et al. J Clin Oncol
1997 152403-13.
9
Developmental Strategies of Gemcitabine-Based
Therapies in Pancreas Cancer 4 Approaches
In doublets/ Triplets of cytotoxics
I
With radiation
II
By fixed dose rate infusion
III
With targeted therapies
IV
10
Fixed Dose-Rate Gemcitabine
  • Gemcitabine is a pro-drug that must be
    phosphorylated to its active metabolites,
    gemcitabine diphosphate and triphosphate
  • Conversion of gemcitabine to the active
    triphosphate form is saturable with standard
    rates of infusion
  • Gemcitabine infused at a fixed dose rate of10
    mg/m2/min optimizes triphosphate accumulation

11
Gemcitabine Metabolism
Gemcitabine(dFdC)
Cell membrane
Deoxycytidine
dFdU
dFdC
deaminase
Deoxycytidine kinase
dF-dCMP
dF-dCDP
dFdC-DNA
dF-dCTP
12
What Did We Know Before?Advanced Pancreatic
Cancer
Survival
7 Burris HA 3rd, et al. J Clin Oncol 1997
152403-13. 8 Tempero M, et al. J Clin Oncol
2003 213402-8. 9 Louvet C, et al. J Clin
Oncol 2005 233509-16.
13
Lessons from ASCO 2006
  • What did we know already?
  • What we learn?
  • What we miss?
  • What we do next?

14
Pancreatic Cancer Update
  • Adjuvant
  • RTOG 9704 (Abstract 4007) 10
  • Locally advanced
  • FFCD-SFRO study (Abstract 4008) 11
  • Metastatic
  • GERCOR Gem/cisplatin vs. GemOx vs. Gem alone
    (Abstract 4003) 12
  • ECOG 6201 30-min vs. FDR vs. GemOx (Late
    Breaking Abstract 4004) 13

10 Regine WF, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S,
Part I)4007. 11 Chauffert B, et al. J Clin
Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part I)4008. 12 Louvet C,
et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)4003. 13 Poplin E, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006
24(18S, Part I)LBA4004.
15

RTOG 9704 Adjuvant Trial in Pancreatic Ca
  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, status-post
    resectionT1-4, N0/N1
  • July 1998 July 2002
  • 538 patients in the trial(pancreatic head
    carcinoma 381)
  • 442 patients eligible and analyzable(22 no
    CA19-9, gt8 weeks post op.)
  • More T3/4 disease in the Gem arm (P0.013)

Regine WF, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)4007. 10
16
RTOG 9704 Treatment
Random
A
B
5-FU 250 mg/m2/day for 3 weeks
Gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 weeks
XRT 50.4 Gy 5-FU (250 mg/m2/day)
5-FU 250 mg/m2/day for 12 weeks
Gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 weekly for 12 weeks
Regine WF, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)4007. 10
17

RTOG 9704 Toxicity
No difference in febrile neutropenia
Regine WF, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)4007. 10
18
RTOG 9704 Survival
Pancreatic head Ca (n381)
When analysis was inclusive of patients with
body/tail tumors (n442) no significant
difference in survival was found (P0.20).
Regine WF, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)4007. 10
19

RTOG 9704 Conclusions
  • Addition of gemcitabine to 5-FU/XRT improves
    survival in head pancreatic cancer
  • Addition of gemcitabine increases hematologic
    toxicity, but manageable
  • ? New standard to be considered
  • ESPAC-3 14
  • Randomize to Gemcitabine vs. 5-FU vs. Observation
  • Ongoing

14 National Cancer Research Network Trials
Portfolio, 2004. (ISRCTN 37494643)
20
ESPAC3 Trial Design
Patients with adenocarcinoma of the
pancreas having curative resection
Randomization stratified by resection margins
FA (20 mg/m2 iv bolus), 5-FU (425 mg/m2 iv
bolus) 5 days every 28 days, x6 cycles
1,000 mg/m2 iv infusion once weekly x3 wks, 1 wk
rest, x6 cycles
National Cancer Research Network Trials
Portfolio, 2004. (ISRCTN 37494643) 14
21
FFCD-SFRO study
Phase III trial comparing Chemo-XRT (cisplatin
and 5-FU) followed by gemcitabine vs. gemcitabine
alone in patients with locally advanced
pancreatic cancer
  • Rationale
  • The GITSG studies have shown a greater survival
    after 5 FU-based Chemo-XRT than XRT radiotherapy
    5 or polychemotherapy alone 15 in patients
    with locally advanced non metastatic pancreatic
    cancer
  • Gemcitabine is more active than 5-FU in advanced
    pancreatic cancer 7
  • This randomized trial evaluated whether initial
    Chemo-XRT adds to modern gemcitabine in term of
    overall survival.

5 Moertel CG, et al. Cancer 1981
481705-10. 7 Burris HA 3rd, et al. J Clin
Oncol 1997 152403-13. 15 J Natl Cancer Inst
1988 80751-5.
Chauffert B, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S,
Part I)4008. 11
22
FFCD-SFRO Study Design
Randomized Phase III Study
5-FU cisplatin XRT
Patients with locally advanced nonmetatstaic
pancreatic cancer
Randomization
Gemcitabine
Gemcitabine
  • Stratification
  • PS (WHO)
  • Center
  • Exp surgery or not

Induction
Maintenance
23
FFCD-SFRO Study G 3-4 Toxicities
24
FFCD-SFRO Study Survival
25
FFCD-SFRO Study Conclusions
  • Gemcitabine alone allowed a significant overall
    survival in locally advanced nonmetatstatic
    pancreatic cancer
  • Increased toxicity and decreased maintenance
    gemcitabine in patients with initial Chemo-XRT
    may explain this difference
  • Study was stopped before the planned inclusion
    due to lower survival with initial Chemo-XRT when
    compared to Gem alone

26
Pooled Analysis of 2 Randomized Trials
GERCOR/GISCAD Intergroup Study and a German
Multicenter Study
Louvet C, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)4003. 12
27
Meta-Analysis Results GERCOR/GISCAD Intergroup
Study and a German Multicenter Study
Louvet C, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)4003. 12
28
Meta-Analysis Results in Stratified Patients
GERCOR/GISCAD Intergroup Study and a German
Multicenter Study
Louvet C, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)4003. 12
29

Meta-Analysis Conclusions GERCOR/GISCAD
Intergroup Study and a German Multicenter Study
  • PS 0 pts may achieve a greater benefit in
    progression-free survival (5.8 vs. 3.5 months HR
    0.49, Plt0.001) and overall survival (10.6 vs. 6.4
    months HR 0.59, Plt0.001) from treatment with a
    gemcitabine/platinum doublet
  • This is similar to data reported by Hermann 16
    with gemcitabine capecitabine
  • Stage of disease and PS remain important
    prognostic factors
  • Careful PS evaluation and stratification is
    important
  • Specific studies according to stage locally
    advanced vs. advanced should be done

16 Herrmann R, et al. J Clin Oncol 2005 23(16S
Part I)LBA4010.
Louvet C, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)4003. 12
30
Meta-Analysis Comparison to Other
Gemcitabine-Based Combinations
Evidence from Randomized Trials
16 Herrmann R, et al. J Clin Oncol 2005 23(16S
Part I)LBA4010.17 Moore MJ, et al. J Clin
Oncol 2005 23(16S)1.
31
Meta-Analysis Differences in Groups
  • Gemcitabine administration 30-min vs. FDR
  • Gemcitabine dose intensity across single agent
    and combined arms
  • Platinum analogs (oxaliplatin is not cisplatin)
  • It is not know how many pts received XRT prior
  • Impact of these differencescannot be implicated

32
Meta-Analysis Pitfalls
  • Obvious
  • Extent of disease
  • Performance status
  • It will take a lot of patients to show a
    difference
  • Oxaliplatin is not cisplatin
  • 30-min gemcitabine is not FDR gemcitabine
  • Pharmacologic basis
  • Toxicity
  • Cost (time of infusion)

33
ECOG 6201 Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
March 2003 March 2005 833 patientsMedian
follow-up 5.7 monthsMales 53 - PS 0-1
88 - Metastases 88
Gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 30 min i.v.weekly x7 on
1 off , then x3 on 1 off
A n280
Gemcitabine 1,500 mg/m2 150 min i.v. (10
mg/m2/min FDR) weekly x3 on 1 off
B n277
Random
Gem 1,000 mg/m2, FDR, day 1 Oxaliplatin 100
mg/m2, day 2 every 14 days
C n276
Poplin E, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)LBA4004. 13
34

ECOG 6201 Objectives
  • Primary
  • To determine whether either FDR gemcitabine or
    GemOx increases survival compared with standard
    30-min infusion
  • Secondary
  • Progression-free survival
  • Toxicity
  • Quality of life

Poplin E, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)LBA4004. 13
35

ECOG 6201 Inclusion Criteria
  • Adenocarcinoma or poorly differentiated
  • No gt grade 2 peripheral neuropathy
  • Prior adjuvant Chemo-XRT allowed
  • No prior gemcitabine or oxaliplatin
  • ECOG PS gt 2

Poplin E, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)LBA4004. 13
36

ECOG 6201 Worst Toxicity
Poplin E, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)LBA4004. 13
37

ECOG 6201 Response rate (RECIST)
Poplin E, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)LBA4004. 13
38

ECOG 6201 Survival and HR
Poplin E, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
I)LBA4004. 13
39

ECOG 6201 Conclusions
  • Both FDR and GemOx had approximately 1 month
    longer median overall survival than standard Gem,
    but not statistically significant
  • Survival outcome with 30 min gemcitabine is
    persistent
  • Median overall survival slightly less than other
    trials
  • Study design, such as locally advanced and
    metastatic patients, need to be studied
    separately
  • FDR and GemOx with increased toxicity
  • ? Hematologic, nausea and vomiting with FDR
  • ? Neuropathy with GemOx
  • ECOG 6201 adds to multiple studies that showed
    adding another cytotoxic to gemcitabine does not
    add any benefit to the modest survival by
    gemcitabine alone
  • Progression-free survival and quality of life not
    given at the meeting

40
Lessons from ASCO 2006
  • What did we know already?
  • What we learn?
  • What we miss?
  • What we do next?

41
Promising New Regimens inthe Cooperative Groups
  • Gemcitabine bevacizumab 18
  • Median survival of 8.8 months
  • Now in randomized trial vs. gemcitabine alone
  • Gemcitabine cetuximab 19
  • Promise in this regimen was a 1-year survival
    rate of 32
  • Erlotinib data adds encouragement to this trial
  • Now in randomized trial vs. gemcitabine alone
  • Irinotecan docetaxel 20
  • Ignored largely, but phase II trial had a 9-month
    median survival
  • Being tested in a multi-institutional trial with
    or without cetuximab to confirm this data

18 Kindler HL, et al. J Clin Oncol 2005
238033-40.19 Xiong HQ, et al. J Clin Oncol
2004 222610-6. 20 Kurtz JE, et al.
Hepatogastroenterology 2003 50567-70.
42
Lessons from ASCO 2006
  • What did we know already?
  • What we learn?
  • What we miss?
  • What we do next?

43
Promise from Non-Clinical Trials
  • Better understanding of the biology of pancreatic
    cancer is emerging
  • New mouse models show promise as potentially more
    predictive than the old models
  • Newer imaging techniques may help to gauge
    disease better
  • Palliative care is improving
  • We cant underestimate this as data suggest that
    improved pain control alone impacts on survival
    in this disease

44
Can Oncologists Change?
RANDOMI ZE
GemcitabineAlone
Gemcitabine Your Drug Here
45
What Really Needs to Change?
  • Oncologist attitudes towards clinical trials
  • Environment within which research is being
    conducted
  • Access to trials for patients

46
What Actions Need to Be Taken to Change?
  • Study design
  • Locally advanced and metastatic patients need to
    be studied separately
  • Appropriate trial size
  • Gemcitabine cisplatin may have been
    underpowered
  • Gemcitabine erlotinib may have been overpowered
  • Advocacy input needs to be sought early
  • How much benefit is enough to a patient?
  • How much toxicity is too much for a patient?
  • Regulatory environment
  • Gemcitabine vs. drugs X Y wins no FDA approval
    and may never be able to happen

47
Conclusions
  • 30-min Gem vs. FDR?
  • Revisit platinum compounds ? probably not
  • FFCD ? another study negating benefit of platinum
    compounds
  • Need to identify surrogates for survival
  • Accelerate testing new drugs, including targeted
    agents
  • Move more quickly to adjuvant setting
  • Focus on 2nd Line Rx as most 1st Line regimens
    failed in the last decade
  • Standardize our approach design, analysis,
    reporting
  • Move away from ONE SIZE FITS ALL approach to
    TAILORED patient management

48
References
  • Staley CA, et al. Pancreas 1996 12373-80.
  • Cancer 1987 592006-10.
  • Neoptolemos JP, et al. Lancet 2001 3581576-85.
  • Neuhaus P, et al. J Clin Oncol 2005,
    23(16S)4013.
  • Moertel CG, et al. Cancer 1981 481705-10.
  • Rothenberg ML, et al. Ann Oncol 1996 7347-53.
  • Burris HA 3rd, et al. J Clin Oncol 1997
    152403-13.
  • Tempero M, et al. J Clin Oncol 2003 213402-8.
  • Louvet C, et al. J Clin Oncol 2005 233509-16.
  • Regine WF, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
    I)4007.
  • Chauffert B, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S,
    Part I)4008.
  • Louvet C, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
    I)4003.
  • Poplin E, et al. J Clin Oncol 2006 24(18S, Part
    I)LBA4004.
  • National Cancer Research Network Trials
    Portfolio, 2004. (ISRCTN 37494643)
  • J Natl Cancer Inst 1988 80751-5.
  • Herrmann R, et al. J Clin Oncol 2005 23(16S Part
    I)LBA4010.
  • Moore MJ, et al. J Clin Oncol 2005 23(16S)1.
  • Kindler HL, et al. J Clin Oncol 2005 238033-40.
  • Xiong HQ, et al. J Clin Oncol 2004 222610-6.

49
  • Keywords bevacizumab capecitabine cetuximab
    Cisplatin Chemotherapy, Adjuvant gemcitabine
    Epidermal Growth Factor erlotinib Fluorouracil
    oxaliplatin Pancreatic Neoplasms Radiation
    Radiotherapy, Adjuvant Receptor, Epidermal
    Growth Factor Review Vascular Endothelial
    Growth Factor A
  • Abbreviations ASCO American Society of Clinical
    Oncology CONKO Charité Onkologie - clinical
    studies in GI cancers ECOG Eastern Cooperative
    Oncology Group EGFR epidermal growth factor
    receptor ESPAC European Study Group of
    Pancreatic Cancer FA folinic acid FDR fixed
    dose rate FFCD-SFRO Federation Francophone de
    Cancerologie Digestive and Societe Francaise de
    Radiotherapie Oncologique Gem gemcitabine
    GemOx gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin GERCOR
    Groupe d'Etude et de Recherche en Cancreologie
    Onco-Radiotherapic GISCAD Italian Group for the
    Study of Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinomas
    GITSG Gastro-Intestinal Study Group HR hazard
    ratio LBA late breaking abstract PS
    performance status RECIST Response Evaluation
    Criteria in Solid Tumors RTOG Radiation Therapy
    Oncology Group XRT radiation/radiotherapy

50

Acknowledgement
  • The author is grateful to the authors/presentors
    of the major studies discussed in this review
    article
  • Chauffert B. Unite INSERM 517, Faculty of
    Medicine, 7, Boulevard Jeanne d'Arc, BP 87900,
    21079, Dijon, France. bchauffert_at_dijon.fnclcc.fr
    (FCCD-SFRO).
  • Louvet C. Institut National de la Sante et de la
    Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Unit 643 and
    Institut de Transplantation et de Recherche en
    Transplantation (ITERT), Nantes, France.
    christophe.louvet_at_sat.ap-hop-paris.fr
    (meta-analysis GERCOR/GISCAD).
  • Poplin EA. Cancer Center of New Jersey, New
    Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA.
    poplinea_at_umdnj.edu (ECOG 6201)
  • Regine WF. University of Maryland School of
    Medicine, Radiation Oncology Clinical, Gudelsky
    Tower Room GGK-17E, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.
    wregine_at_umm.edu (RTOG 9704)
  • CorrespondenceMuhammad Wasif SaifSection of
    Medical Oncology - Yale University School of
    Medicine333 Cedar Street FMP 116New Haven, CT
    06520 - USAPhone 1-203.737.1569Fax
    1-203.785.3788E-mail wasif.saif_at_yale.edu
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