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The Great Wall

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The construction of the Great Wall drew heavily on the local ... It was a strategic passageway on the route to the western regions of China. Beacon Tower ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Great Wall


1
The Great Wall
Built for defense purposes, 2000 years ago. 6700
km long from the east to the west of China, the
only man-made object visible from Earth orbit.
2
History of the Wall (1)
Originally built in the periods of the Warring
States as a defensive fortification against
invaders from the north of China.
3
History of the Wall (2)
  • It began as independent walls for different
    states when it was first built, and did not
    become the "Great" wall until the Qin Dynasty.
  • Emperor Qin Shihuang succeeded to have the walls
    joined together and extended to 10,000 li to fend
    off the invasions from the Mongols in the north
    after the unification of China.

4
History of the Wall (3)
  • The Great Wall was renovated from time to time
    after the Qin Dynasty. A major renovation started
    with the founding of the Ming Dynasty
    (1368-1644), and took 200 years to complete. The
    wall we see today is almost exactly the result of
    this effort.

5
Purpose of the Wall
The Great Wall was built to prevent invasions
from the North. Historically, however, both the
Mongols (Yuan 1271-1368) and the Manchurians
(Qing 1644-1911) from the north ruled China. The
Great wall did not play a military role. It has
attracted thousands of tourists from the world.
6
Construction of the Wall
  • The construction of the Great Wall drew heavily
    on the local resources for construction
    materials.
  • A great army of manpower, composed of soldiers,
    prisoners, and local people, built the wall.

7
Sections of the Wall (1)
The Great Wall starts from Shanhaiguan Pass in
the east to Jiayuguan Pass in the west traversing
provinces of Liaoning, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin,
Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Shanxi and
Gansu.
8
Shanhaiguan Pass
  • Shanhaiguan is a small, sleepy town and port of
    the northern section of the Bohai gulf, holding
    the access between northeast China and north
    China. It is in the Hebei Province.
  • Shanhai Passsituated between the Yanshan
    Mountains and the Bohai Sea.
  • The No.1 pass of the Great Wall and the key to
    the defense of two ancient capitals - Beijing in
    the east and Chang'an (Xi'an) in the west.

9
Badaling Section
  • The Badaling section of the Great Wall snaking
    along the mountains northwest of Beijing was
    built at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty in the
    14th century.
  • Being 7.8 metres high and 5.8 metres wide at the
    top on the average, it has battle forts at
    important points, including the corners.

10
Juyongguan pass
Located 10 kilometers south of the Badaling
section of the Great Wall and built in an
18.5-kilometre-long valley, the pass has always
been an important gateway northwest of Beijing.
The name is believed to have its origin in the
workers and slaves conscripted to build the Great
Wall in ancient times.
11
Mutianyu Secion
The Mutianyu section of the Great Wall is linked
to the Gubeikou section on the east and the
Badaling section on the west. It is not far from
Beijing, and is one of the best sections of the
Great Wall.
12
Jinshanling Section
Located in Miyun County northeast of Beijing, the
Jinshanling, like the Simatai division, belongs
to the Gubeikou section of the colossal defense
barrier.
The battlements in the Jinshanling are built
along the ridge of a mountain, where the soldiers
can resist the invading enemy by taking advantage
of the high terrain.
13
Jiayu Pass
Jiayu Pass is the first pass at the west end of
the Great Wall and was built in the Ming Dynasty.
It is in the city of Jiayuguan in Gansu
Province.The walls on both sides of the pass
extend across the desert to join the mountains.
It was a strategic passageway on the route to the
western regions of China.
14
Beacon Tower
The beacon towers on hilltops often played a key
role in military communication in ancient war
times. Once the enemy pressed towards the border,
the signal from the beacon tower would be sent by
beacon (fires or lanterns) during the night or by
smoke signals in the daytime.
15
Mengjiangnu's Bitter Weeping (1)
Beautiful legends are centered on the
construction of the Great Wall. Among them the
most noted is the story about the collapse of a
section of the Great Wall caused by Meng
Jiangnu's tears, which has been spread widely in
folk songs and traditional operas. It is said
that 2,000 years ago when Qin Shihuang (the First
Emperor of the Qin) was building the Great Wall,
a young called Fan Xiliang was forced to work on
the construction of the Great Wall, even on his
wedding day.
16
Mengjiangnu's Bitter Weeping (2)
His bride, a girl named Meng Jiangnu, waited at
home for her husband for five years but did not
hear a word from him. She set off alone to look
for Xiliang. After walking all the way on foot,
crossing mountains and rivers, Meng Jiangnu
finally got to the construction site of the Great
Wall, where she was told that her husband had
died and was buried under the Great Wall.
Hearing this sad news of the death of her
beloved, she sat down at the foot of the Great
Wall and started crying. She cried day and night,
and her wailing made the wall fall.
17
A Legend about Beacon Tower (1)
A famous story is told about Baosi, Queen of the
Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century BC - 711 BC).
She was highly honored, yet she never cracked a
smile. King You tried many ways to put a smile on
her face, but he failed over and over again.
Guo Shifu, a treacherous court official, came and
offered advice "Set the beacon tower on fire and
fool your sovereign rulers."
18
A Legend about Beacon Tower (2)
That night, the carriage of the King and Queen
reached Lishan Mountain and gave the order. In a
split second, the flames of the fire lit up the
sky and the sovereign rulers moved their troops
to Lishan Mountain. Sure enough, Queen Baosi
burst into laughter. Later, King You repeated his
joke. In 771 B.C., Quan Rong (a then ethnic
group) staged an armed rebellion against the
Western Zhou dynasty. King You urgently ordered
the beacon tower set on fire, but all the
sovereign rulers did not come.
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