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Management Information Systems INFO 6240 MBA Programme Management Center IIUM

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Computer network two or more computers connected so that they ... Use virtual circuits to simulate more inter-office connections than are physically present ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Management Information Systems INFO 6240 MBA Programme Management Center IIUM


1
Management Information Systems INFO 6240MBA
ProgrammeManagement Center / IIUM
E
  • Ahmed M. Zeki
  • amzeki_at_iiu.edu.my
  • Mar - May 2007

2
INTRODUCTION
  • Computer network two or more computers
    connected so that they can communicate with each
    other and share information, software, peripheral
    devices, and/or processing power

3
Basic Principles of Networks
  • These four principles apply to all networks,
    large and small
  • Each computer must have a network interface to
    provide a doorway for information
  • The network needs at least one connecting device
  • The network must have communications media as
    pathways for information
  • Each computer must have a network operating system

4
PEER-TO-PEER HOME NETWORK
  • Peer-to-peer network a network in which a small
    number of computers share hardware, software
    and/or information
  • A small peer-to-peer network can be wired with
    Ethernet cable or it can be wireless

5
Home Network Components
  • To set up a small home network youll need
  • An Ethernet network card in each computer
  • A home router as a connecting device
  • Cables as the communications media
  • Windows as the network operating system

6
Network Cards
  • Network interface card (NIC) an expansion card
    or PC Card that connects your computer to a
    network
  • Ethernet card the most common type of (NIC)

7
Connecting Devices Hubs
  • Hub a device that connects computers into a
    network and repeats all transmissions to every
    connected computer
  • Only one computer can transmit at a time
  • All computers see every message
  • Can have collisions when two computers try to
    transmit at the same time

8
Connecting Devices Switches
  • Switch a device that connects multiple
    computers into a network in which multiple
    communications links can be in operation
    simultaneously

9
Connecting Devices Routers
  • Router a device that connects computers into a
    network and separates it from any other network
    its connected to
  • Allows multiple simultaneous communications
    links also acts as a firewall,

which is hardware and/or software that protects a
computer or network from intruders
10
Wired Transmission Media
  • Cat 5 (Category 5) cable better constructed
    version of phone twisted-pair cable
  • Each end has an RJ-45 connector (looks like a
    phone connector, but is bigger)

11
Wireless Transmission Media
  • Wireless network access point (wireless access
    point) device that allows computers to access a
    network using radio waves

12
Wireless Standards
  • Wifi (wireless fidelity or IEEE 802.11a, b or g)
    a standard for transmitting information in the
    form of radio waves over distances up to about
    300 feet
  • Used for wireless connection to a network
  • Bluetooth a standard for transmitting
    information over distances of up to 30 feet
  • Used for devices (synch PDAs and cell phones)

13
Typical Home Network
14
INTERNET ACCESS
  • Five ways
  • Phone line and dial-up modem
  • Phone line and DSL modem
  • Cable TV line and cable modem
  • Satellite dish and satellite modem
  • Wireless Internet provider with WiFi card

15
INTERNET ACCESS
  • Broadband high-capacity telecommunications
    pipeline capable of providing high-speed Internet
    service
  • All Internet access methods on the previous slide
    are broadband except the dial-up modem type

16
Telephone or Dial-Up Connection
  • Telephone modem (modem) connects your computer
    to your phone line so that you can access another
    computer or network

17
Pros and Cons of Dial-Up
  • Advantages
  • Cheaper than broadband
  • Less vulnerable to intruders since its not
    always on
  • Disadvantages
  • Slow
  • Cant use phone line to talk while youre online

18
Digital Subscriber Line
  • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) high-speed
    Internet connection using phone lines, which
    allows you to use your phone for voice
    communications at the same time

19
Pros and Cons of DSL
  • Advantages
  • High speed access
  • DSL guarantees a certain access speed
  • Disadvantages
  • you have to live close to a CO (Central Office)
  • DSL is an always-on connection

20
Cable Modem
  • Cable modem device that uses your TV cable to
    deliver an Internet connection

21
Pros and Cons of Cable Modem
  • Advantages
  • High speed access
  • Available wherever cable TV can be had
  • Disadvantages
  • Speed degrades as number of people using it
    increases
  • Always-on connection

22
Internet over Satellite
  • Satellite modem modem that allows you to get
    Internet access from your satellite dish

23
Pros and Cons of Satellite Modem
  • Advantages
  • High speed
  • Allows Internet access in remote areas
  • Disadvantages
  • Need special dish
  • Download about 10 times faster than upload

24
T1 and DS3 Business Lines
  • T1 and DS3 developed by phone companies to carry
    many long-distance voice conversations
  • T1 runs up to about 1.5 Mbps
  • DS3 runs up to about 45 Mbps
  • Can carry both voice and network over the same
    lines

25
Wireless Internet
  • Wireless Internet service provider (wireless ISP)
    does the same job as a standard Internet
    services except that you dont need wires

26
Frame Relay and ATM Business Services
  • Frame Relay and ATM are used to connect many
    branch offices to the main office
  • Use virtual circuits to simulate having a line
    from every office to every other office

Virtual Circuits
27
Comparison of Connection Types
  • Telephone modem
  • Inexpensive and available anywhere there's a
    phone line
  • - Slow, and ties up the line for voice calls too
  • DSL
  • Higher-speed connection, doesn't tie up the
    phone line for voice calls, and can be left on
    all the time
  • - Not available in all areas or on all lines

28
Comparison of Connection Types
  • Cable modem
  • Higher-speed connection, doesn't use the phone
    line at all, and always-on
  • - Connection shared with the neighborhood, so
    speed may vary
  • Satellite modem
  • Available in remote locations where DSL and
    cable aren't
  • - High cost

29
Comparison of Connection Types
  • T1 and DS3
  • High-speed to very-high-speed connections, can
    transmit both voice and data
  • - High cost that may be mileage-dependent
  • Frame relay and ATM
  • Use virtual circuits to simulate more
    inter-office connections than are physically
    present
  • - High cost normally affordable only by mid- to
    large-scale enterprises

30
Voice Over IP
  • Voice over IP allows you to send voice
    communications over the Internet and avoid
    long-distance toll charges
  • No long-distance calling cost

31
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
  • Personal digital assistant (PDA) small
    hand-held computer that allows you surf the Web
    and perform certain personal organization tasks
  • Two types
  • Palms and Handsprings run on Palm Operating
    System
  • Pocket PCs run on Pocket PC OS

32
BUSINESS NETWORKS
  • Client/server network - a network in which one or
    more computers are servers and provide services
    to the other computers, called clients

33
Client/Server A Business View
  • Client/server networks differ according to
  • Where the processing for the presentation of
    information occurs
  • Where the processing of logic or business rules
    occurs
  • Where the data management component (DBMS) and
    information (database) are located

34
Client/Server Implementation Model 5
35
The Five Models of Client/Server
  • Distributed Presentation
  • The server handles almost all functions,
    including a major portion of the presentation
  • Remote Presentation
  • The client handles all presentation functions

36
The Five Models of Client/Server
  • Distributed Logic
  • The server handles all data management and the
    client handles all presentation formatting, and
    the logic processing is shared

37
The Five Models of Client/Server
  • Remote Data Management
  • The server handles data management only, and the
    client processes business rules and formats the
    presentation of results
  • Distributed Data Management
  • The client handles all presentation formatting
    and business rule processing, and both the server
    and client share data management duties

38
The Five Models of Client/Server
39
Client/Server A Physical View
  • Communications protocol (protocol) a set of
    rules that every computer follows to transfer
    information

40
LANs, MANs, WANs, WLANs, AND COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA
  • Networks can be classified by size
  • Local area network (LAN) - covers a limited
    geographic distance, such as an office, building,
    or a group of buildings in close proximity to
    each other
  • Municipal (or metropolitan) area network (MAN) -
    covers a metropolitan area

41
Networks by Size
  • Wide area network (WAN) covers a large
    geographic distance, such as a state, a country,
    or even the entire world
  • Wireless local area network (WLAN or LAWN) a
    local area network that uses radio waves rather
    than wires to transmit information

42
Telecommunications Media The Paths That Carry
Information
  • Communications media - the paths, or physical
    channels, in a network over which information
    travels
  • Wired communications media - transmit information
    over a closed, connected path
  • Wireless communications media - transmit
    information through the air

43
Bandwidth
  • Bandwidth capacity of the communications
    medium, refers to the amount of information that
    it can transfer in a given amount of time

44
Wired Communications Media
  • Twisted-pair cable
  • Comes in several varieties Cat 5 is usual for
    networks
  • Coaxial cable (coax) a central wire surrounded
    by insulation, a metallic shield, and a final
    covering of insulating material

45
Wired Communications Media
  • Optical fiber uses a very thin glass or plastic
    fiber through which pulses of light travel

46
Wireless Communications Media
  • Infrared, IR or IrDA (infrared data association)
    uses red light to send and receive information
  • Microwave a type of radio transmission
  • Repeater a device that receives a radio signal,
    strengthens it, and sends it on

47
Wireless Communications Media
  • Communications satellite microwave repeater in
    space

48
COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE PROVIDERS
  • Network ownership determines
  • Rights to the network
  • Cost
  • Availability
  • Services provided
  • Speed
  • security

49
Types of Network Ownership
  • Communications service provider third party
    that furnishes the conduit for information
  • Public network a network on which your
    organization competes for time with others

50
Types of Network Ownership
  • Private network consists of the communications
    media that your organizations owns or exclusively
    leases to connect networks or network components

51
Types of Network Ownership
  • Virtual private network (VPN) uses software to
    establish a secure channel on the Internet for
    transmitting information
  • International virtual private network
    (international VPN) to transmit information
    over a network that extends beyond national
    borders

52
Key Considerations for Communications Media
  • Capacity
  • Reliability
  • Cost
  • Distance
  • Mobility

53
NETWORK SECURITY
  • The four principles of network security are
  • Confidentiality
  • Authenticity
  • Integrity
  • Availability

54
NETWORK SECURITY
  • Confidentiality information can be obtained
    only by those authorized to access it
  • Bank statements, credit reports, employee
    evaluations
  • Threatened by capture of network transmissions
    and easily-guessed passwords

55
NETWORK SECURITY
  • Authenticity information really comes from the
    source it claims to come from
  • Military orders, medical diagnoses, stockbroker
    directions
  • Threatened by fraudulent e-mails and misspellings
    of popular Web site names

56
NETWORK SECURITY
  • Integrity information has not been altered
  • Bank balance, corporate Web site, prescriptions,
    credit card charges
  • Threatened by forged network transmissions and
    faulty server software

57
NETWORK SECURITY
  • Availability a service or resource is available
    when it's supposed to be
  • Mail-order Web site, corporate e-mail server
  • Threatened by network failures, faulty server
    software, and high volumes of malicious network
    traffic

58
Firewalls Intrusion Detection Systems
  • Firewall protects a computer from intruders
  • Intrusion Detection System (IDS) watches for
    and reports intrusion attempts

59
Encryption
  • Encryption scrambles data so you can't read it
    without having the decryption key
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN) encrypts all
    network transmissions between two endpoints to
    protect confidentiality and integrity of data

60
Malware
  • Malware software designed to harm your computer
    or security
  • Virus software written with malicious intent to
    cause annoyance or damage
  • Worm spreads itself from computer to computer
    via e-mail and other network traffic
  • Spyware collects information about you and
    reports it to someone else without your
    permission

61
CLIENT/SERVER SOFTWARE MODEL
  • Client/server network a network in which one or
    more computers are servers and provide services
    to the other computers, called clients
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