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Hegel in Stuttgart 178588


Hegel in Stuttgart (1785-88) The pragmatic theory of history writing in the in ... Hegel as a Hellenistic Romantic, celebrating and seeking to restore the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hegel in Stuttgart 178588

Hegel in Stuttgart (1785-88)
  • The pragmatic theory of history writing in the
    in Hegels Enlightenment high school.
  • Scholarship is not self-justifying.
  • Voltaires Philosophy of History
  • a. History includes cultural and
    institutional history, not just political
  • b. It includes Oriential as well as
    Judeo-Christian history.
  • c. History writing as a struggle of reason
    against superstition

  • 4. Hegels critique of Voltaire.
  • a. Prejudice cannot be fought by prejudice.
  • b. Superstition and popular religion are to be
    understood, not destroyed.
  • c. Understanding is a condition of reform

Hegels Shift to Romantic View of History Writing
  • Understanding of prejudice, superstition, etc. is
    a condition of true reform.
  • Feeling, phantasy and religion are to be
    appreciated as the peoples avenue to reason.
  • Hegel as a Hellenistic Romantic, celebrating and
    seeking to restore the achievement of classical
    Athens, which was an impossible dream because
    that achievement was unique.
  • a. Greek poets were original. Experience
    preceded concepts.

  • b. Modern culture is unoriginal and scholarly
    first come established words, then concept, and
    at last artificial experience. (Yet Hegels
    personality was scholarly he did not wallow in
    subjectivity and feeling.)
  • 4. National histories are not parallel, each
    being unique and unrepeatable.
  • 5. Hence the only lesson of the past is that
    there is no lesson to be learned from the past.
  • 6. Concept of world history emerges as a
    succession of national histories.
  • 7. History is a series of revolutionary
    renaissances, by which each nation produces
    novelty in attempting to recover a past golden

Hegel in Tubingen (1788-93)
  • Passage from liberal humanistic secondary school
    to a fundamentalist seminary.
  • Professor Storr rejected higher Biblical
    criticism. Prophesy and mircales are to be
    literally interpreted.
  • a. Human knowledge cannot contradict Biblical
  • b. Christian dogmas are reintroduced as Kantian
    postulates of practical reason.
  • c. Kantian moral argument for divinity of Christ
    is asserted. (Hegel agreed, except Christ was not
    the only living embodiment of the Kantian moral
    ideal in history.)

Hegels Revolt against Storr
  • Following Lessings deathbed confession,
    Spinozism is the only rational philosophy.
    Spinozas pantheism was rational while
    creationism was not, since pantheism consistently
    asserts an infinite God, while the infinite
    Creator God is contradictorily finite and limited
    by creation. God is creator, not created.
  • Yet Spinozism atheism materialism
    pantheism. (Jacobi subsituted superational faith
    for Spinozistic reason.)
  • But Goethe and Herder denied equation of
    Spinozism and atheism and determinism, and Hegel
    with Holderlin followed.
  • God is the One in the All (Lessing). Their slogan
    was Reason and Freedom, Spinoza and Kant.
  • The One is experienced in communion with nature,
    not just known intellectually in Spinozas
    logical system of philosophy.

  • 6. The One in the All is Platos world soul, a
    cosmic community of individual souls.
  • 7. Hegel now accepted Kants critique of
    metaphysical knowledge The metaphysics of the
    One and All is but a postulate of practical
    reason making Freedom possible.
  • 8. The One in the All is first the Kingdom of God
    in Heaven, and the French Revolution is the start
    of the descent of the Kingdom to earth.
  • 9. With Kant, Hegel rejects original sin.
    Salvation comes by moral virtue.

  • 10. But Hegel rejects Kants purely rational
    morality. Man is a creature of heart, too.
  • 11. World history is the education of the human
    race (Lessing). The stage of purely rational
    motivation (autonomy) comes only at the end of
  • 12. Enlightenment of the people requires a reform
    of their religion. Hegel projects a new folk
    religion as a pedagogical ideal.
  • 13. The ideal folk religion must be public, not
    just private. And it must be subjective religion
    (pietistic), not just objective religion
    (theological dogma).

  • 14. Dogmas of subjective religion are limited to
    God and immortality as Kantian postulates of
    practical reason. This prevents conflict between
    faith and reason (Moses Mendelssohn.)
  • 15. Prime historical example of a rational folk
    religion is classical Athens, not Israel, which
    is despotic.
  • 16. Folk religions of different nations should
    agree in rational creed, but differ ceremonially,
    linguistically, and mythically. (Nathan the
  • 17. Rational folk religion is based on Love,
    which doubles and Reason for the common people.

  • 18. Dogmatic theology is based not on reason but
    on abstractions of the understanding, which is
    the letter that kills the spirit.

Hegel in Bern (1793-96)
  • Hegels interest shifts from what to teach to how
    to teach it.
  • The ideal is not utopian, since Athens once
    realized it, so it can touch earth again.
  • Socrates and Jesus as the two great teachers of
    the past need to be meditated. Oral teachers.
  • Todays teachers writes books, invisible pulpits
    that put distance between the teacher and the
  • Jesus represents the contradiction of
    authoritarian emancipation.

  • 6. But Hegels situation is closer to Jesus than
    Socrates. He must operate in an authoritarian
    society used to servility.
  • 7. Protestant principles of conscience and the
    universal priesthood of believers mark the
    transition from religious infancy to rational
    maturity (Lessing).
  • 8. But the Reformation has degenerated into an
    authoritarian stress on the letter.
  • 9. Reason was reborn theoretically in the
    Enlightenment and practically in the French

  • 10. Thus Christianity potential as a rational
    folk religion must be explored.
  • 11. Hegel now rejects the Christ of theology in
    favor of Jesus as a teacher of virtue.
  • 12. Salvation is not salvation from the wages of
    sin by a leap of faith with the expectation of a
    reward, but sacrifice of ones finite self, so
    one is reborn in Jesus Love, and Love Reason
    (Gospel of John).
  • 13. Jesus resisted reliance on miracles expected
    by the Jewish people. He resisted the temptation
    of power.

  • 14. Miraculous healings were due to moral
    conversion by lifting the weight of sin.
  • 15. Jesus as a Greek among Jews, and that is why
    he failed among his Jewish people.

  • HEGEL IN FRANKFURT (1795-1801)
  • Hegel comes under the influence of his poet
    friend Holderlin, whose aesthetic idealism, based
    more on Kants third critique, replaces Kant
    moral idealism.
  • Theoretical reason means the domination of the
    subject by the object. Practical reason is the
    domination of the object by the subject. Neither
    is true freedom, true oneness of subject and
    object. True freedom is emancipation from all
    forms of bondage or domination.

  • 3. True freedom is embodied Love, which is the
    absolute identity of theory and practice. To love
    the other is practical, but is also to know the
    others needs. In Love (Christ) one sacrifices
    ones narrow egoism and is reborn in a whole
    including the other.
  • 4. In Hegels development love becomes life,
    which becomes self-knowing spirit.
  • 5. Love and Freedom for Hegel and Holderlin are
    no longer a mere postulate practical reason,
    since all practical reason expresses domination,
    not love between equals. Hegel, through
    Holderlin, thus frees himself from Kant and

  • Human beings fall away from Love and Reason by
    the Understanding, which is the mental faculty of
    abstracting and absolutizing an x as if its
    correlative y did not exist. Love and Reason are
    regain on the self-conscious level only after
    this fall, by negating the fallen self-separated
    selfs negation of the other.
  • Stages in a complete dialectical cycle
    abstraction, absoltutization, abstraction of the
    other, negation of the other, negation of the
    negation (of ones negation of the other).

  • 3. The dialectic is an historical
    self-constructive development.
  • 4. Absolitization of what has been abstracted
    from the organic whole is the thesis. It is a
    contradictory assumption in Indirect Proof, since
    in reality the absolutized x is what it is only
    in and through y.
  • 5. Negation of the absolutization of x is the
  • 6. Negation of the negation, of thoughts
    negation of y is the synthesis.
  • 7. The dialectical method, as distinct from the
    dialectical, is an empathetic reconstruction or
    reenactment of the dialectic.

  • 8. The best known illustration of the dialectic
    is the dialectic of lordship and bondage. The
    lord abstracts and absolutizes himself as the
    only self, negating the selfhood of the bondsman,
    whom he reduces to a mere thing. But the bondsman
    is necessary to the lord as lord, but the lord
    notes the selfhood of the bondsmen only to negate
    it in order to reaffirm himself as the abolute
    self. The bondsman responds by negating the
    self-absolutization of the lord. The lord thus
    calls negation of himself upon himself by the
    bondsman. The lord, himself negated by the
    negated bondsmen, overcomes self-contradiction of
    excluding his necessary other by redefining
    himself no longer as lord, by encompassing the
    other self as an equal self in an expanded social
    definition of himself. The bond of a community of
    equals, each identifying with each other within
    the whole, replaces lordship and bondage.
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