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CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY

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M. Haire, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Political Science. Director, TGOW Institute for Strategic ... Such adjustments must not only account for course content ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY


1
CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE 21ST
CENTURY
  • PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES
  • IN DISTANCE EDUCATION
  • INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN DELIVERY

M. Haire, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Political
Science Director, TGOW Institute for Strategic
Learning, Research Development Itta Bena,
MS Friday, January 11, 2008 Delaware Community
College
2
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  • Our Goal To examines pedagogical adjustments
    faculty must consider in designing managing
    on-line courses that address the hard realities
    of cultural diversity in the 21st Century.
  • Such adjustments must not only account for course
    content themes, such as the infusion of reliable
    data that address the dynamic interplay of race,
    ethnicity, class, and gender relations in America
    and globally.
  • Concerns must also center on such critical
    matters as
  • Faculty professional development issues
  • Global disparity in technological access
  • Variances in computer-related skill levels
  • Culturally-based learning styles and
  • Creative alternative pedagogy that value
    cultural diversity among
    distance learners.

3
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  • Valuing Diversity in the Shift from the
    Traditional Classroom to Distance Ed
  • Distance Learning Activities
  • Internet Access 24/7
  • E-Mail Video Conferencing
  • Required Text, CD-ROMs,
  • Assignment/Assessment Rooms w/ Supporting
    e-Tutorials
  • Bulletin Boards Chat Rooms
  • HTML PDF Files
  • Electronic Document Reader
  • On-line Syllabus Interactive
  • Website(s) Faculty/Course
  • On-line Texts Materials
  • Lecture Hall
  • Traditional Classroom Activities
  • Required Physical Class Room
  • Meeting Space Time
  • Required Text(s) Materials
  • Formal Lectures Moderated Group
    Discussions
  • Assessment Methods
  • Quizzes/Tests
  • Homework Assignments
  • Research Papers
  • Projects/Demonstrations
  • Assessment Measures
  • Oral Written Feedback/Grades
  • Office Hours/Advisement

4
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  • Lingering Realities of the Digital Divide
  • Typical Distance Learner
  • The Non-traditional Adult Learner A Profile
  • Average Age 25-35 yrs. old
  • Gender 60 Female
  • Ethnicity Inconclusive!
  • Disability 3 10
  • Location 67 live w/in 50 miles of campus
  • Life Roles 57 F/T employed 58 75 married
  • Socio-economic Increasing enrollment of
    disadvantaged students i.e., Black Hispanic
  • Equitable Access A Myth
  • Hardware Price Wars
  • Toshiba, Dell, Gateway Apple, Sony, HP
  • Software
  • MS Office 2007 Vista v. Corel Mozilla
  • ISP Access
  • High-speed, Wireless or Dial-up
  • DirectTV ATT Comcast EarthLink HughesNet
  • Designware
  • WebCT Blackboard.com, Moodle
  • Communication/Networks
  • Yahoo! MSN Google

5
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
Enter Net Generation X
  • Noted Personal Traits
  • Matured with digital entertainment age
  • Access to digital resources outside of schools
  • Accepts diversity
  • Assertive and self-reliant
  • Strongly independent
  • Emotionally/intellectually open
  • Inclusive
  • Freely expressive
  • Tendency toward innovation
  • Investigative
  • Noted Areas of Expertise
  • Pac Man
  • Sega Game Boy
  • Play Station I II
  • X-Box 360
  • Cell phone Text-messaging
  • Web Surfacing
  • MySpace.com
  • MyFaceBook.com
  • Hip Hop/Rap
  • Hard Rock
  • Acid Jazz
  • BET
  • VH I

Can teachers compete on-line for their attention
v. mass media world?
6
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
7
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
The Diversity of Culturally-based Learning Styles
Intelligences in On-line Classrooms
  • Dunn Dunn
  • Learning Styles Model
  • Environmental
  • Emotional
  • Sociological
  • Physiological
  • Psychological
  • Gardner, Cook Mills
  • Learning Intelligence
  • Linguistic
  • Logical-Mathematical
  • Spatial
  • Musical
  • Bodily-Kinesthetic
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal

What affect do teacher styles ideology have on
student learning?
8
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  • Teacher Attitudes Instructional Techniques
  • Beyond the Euro-centric Canons Bias
  • Teachers Attitudes Toward Students
  • Deficiency Orientation
  • Prime Assumption - There is a single standard of
    knowledge, a single way of knowing.
  • Focus Students deficiencies
  • Result Lowered expectations
  • Difference Orientation
  • Prime Assumption Student differences
    potential strengths.
  • Focus Self-examination of teaching style
  • Result Adjusts to builds on uniqueness of
    students
  • Desired Privileged Cultural Styles Among
    Students
  • Communication Style
  • Direct expression Serial Exchange Assertive
    Competitive
  • Organizational Style
  • Individual Achievement Self-motivation Personal
    competence
  • Intellectual Style
  • Objective Analytical Detail-oriented Cognitive
    v. Affective Trust in written word forms

9
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
Valuing Cultural Diversity in the Shift from the
Traditional Classroom to Distance Education
  • Professional Development Issues
  • Faculty Matters
  • Course design development release time
  • Stipends other incentives
  • Course load reduction v. increase
  • Dual-load publishing or perish
  • Administrative Systems
  • Marketing recruitment
  • Admissions/Orientation
  • Enrollment management
  • Course faculty evaluation
  • Student support services
  • Academic Capitalism Distance Education
  • Final Note The Profit Motive
  • Competition w/ Pressure from Corporations
  • To offer education/training at advanced levels
  • Investing Millions in course design
    penetrating college markets replacing faculty
    in the design phase
  • To capturing the digitizing dimension e-text
    development
  • Leading in audio/visual course enhancements that
    mirror mass culture.

10
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  • Where Do We Go From Here? Chaos or Community?
  • A Few Recommendations, Part I
  • Costners Seven Principles for Training
    Culturally Responsive Teachers
  • Principle 1 Structure Professional Development
    Activities That Focus on Cultural Responsiveness
  • Principle 2 Ensure That All Teachers Respect the
    Culture of Their Students
  • Principle 3 Value and Celebrate CulturePromote
    Cultural Sensitivity
  • Principle 4 Embrace an Empowerment Culture
  • Principle 5 Communicate to the Schools
    Commitment to Cultural Responsiveness
  • Principle 6 Take Away Barriers that Impede
    Progress
  • Principle 7 Help Teachers Use Effective
    Pedagogical Methods for Teaching (Culturally
    Diverse Students)
  • Adapted by Costner from her 2004 co-authored
    "Seven Principles for Developing a Culturally
    Responsive Faculty."

11
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  • Where Do We Go From Here? Chaos or Community?
  • A Few Recommendations, Part II
  • Costners Five Principles for Culturally
    Responsive On-line Instruction
  • Principle 1 Online communication is a culture in
    itself, so watching your written tone is key.
  • Principle 2 Do as you would in the classroom
    when you are face to faceshow value and respect.
    Always remember, there is a human being on the
    other end although you cannot physically see the
    person. Promote mutual respect
  • Principle 3 Avoid making assumptions based on
    names. We do not, intentionally or
    unintentionally, want to offend our (students).
  • Principle 4 No one can tell you more about a
    person than that person! I promote going to the
    source because there may be some aspect(s) of a
    culture that the individual may not identify
    with.
  • Principle 5 Always remain open and committed to
    learning new things. Ensure you honestly assess
    your own beliefs about diverse populations.

12
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  • Where Do We Go From Here? Chaos or Community?
  • A Few Recommendations, Part III
  • On-Line Instructional Techniques for Educators
  • Faculty administration professional development
    and training
  • Promoting Curriculum Design Best Practices
  • Mechanisms that do more than identify the areas
    in which the potential learner needs to improve
    or change.
  • Course and interface designs that addresses
    individual learner characteristics to provide a
    more learner-centered experience
  • A distance-learning course should provide
    connections among the learners prior experiences
    that relate to course content.
  • Viable Release-time and Course Load Reduction
    Formula
  • Nurturing International University Partnerships
  • Distributive learning collaborative projects by
    discipline
  • Program Evaluation Continuous Improvement
  • Commitment to On-going self-study of academic
    student support systems w/ annual external
    evaluations

13
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  • A Few Suggested Readings
  • James A. Banks, Cultural Diversity Education
    Foundations, Curriculum Teaching, 4th Ed.,
    Boston Allyn and Bacon, 2001.
  • Alan Brinkley, et. al., The Chicago Handbook for
    Teachers A Practical Guide to the College
    Classroom. Chicago Univ. of Chicago Press,
    1999.
  • David W. Brooks, et. al., Web-Teaching A Guide
    for Designing Interactive Teaching for the World
    Wide Web. NY Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers,
    2001.
  • Robert A. Cole, Issues in Web-Based Pedagogy A
    Critical Primer. NY Greenwood Publishing Group,
    2001.
  • Paulo Freire, Teachers as Cultural Workers
    Letters to Those Who Dare to Teach. Boulder, CO
    Westview Press, 1998.
  • bell hooks, Teaching to Transgress Education as
    the Practice of Freedom. NY Routledge, 1994.
  • Jana Noel, Developing Multicultural Educators.
    Long Grove, IL Waveland Press, Inc. 2000.
  • Peter Sacks, Generation X Goes to College.
    Chicago Open Court, 1996.
  • Betty Collis. Flexible Learning in a Digital
    World Experiences and Expectations . NY
    Routledge Falmer, 2001.
  • Wim Jochems, Ed., Integrated E-Learning
    Implications for Pedagogy, Technology and
    Organization. NY Routledge Falmer, 2003.

14
CULTURAL DIVERSITY PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  • A Few Suggested Web Links
  • Gary Rhoades Sheila Slaughter, Academic
    Capitalism in the New Economy Challenges and
    Choices, http//www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american
    _academic/issues/june04/Rhoades.qxp.pdf
  • Julia D. Harbeck, Community College Students
    Taking On-Line Courses The Student
    Point-of-View, http//scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/a
    vailable/etd-02052001-164701/unrestricted/finaletd
    .pdf
  • Melody Thompson, Distance Learners in Higher
    Education, http//www1.worldbank.org/disted/Teach
    ing/Design/kn-02.html
  • K. A. Murrell, Human Computer Interface Design
    In a Multi-cultural Multi-lingual Environment,
    http//www.und.ac.za/users/murrell/classrm/paper1.
    html
  • Patricia McGee, Web-based Learning Design
    Planning for Diversity, http//www.usdla.org/html
    /journal/MAR02_Issue/article03.html,
  • Annette Valenta, et. al., Identifying Student
    Attitudes and Learning Styles in Distance
    Education, http//www.sloan-c.org/publications/ja
    ln/v5n2/pdf/v5n2_valenta.pdf
  • Steven R. Van Hook, Universal Learning at a
    Distance Can We Plug It In?,
    http//www.westga.edu/distance/ojdla/summer82/van
    hook82.htm
  • Kelley L. Costner, Seven Principles for Training
    Culturally Responsive Teachers -
    http//www.teachermagazine.org/tm/articles/2007/12
    /04/07principles_web.html?print1
  • Ray Barnhardt, Teaching/Learning Across
    Cultures Strategies for Success,
    http//www.ankn.uaf.edu/Curriculum/Articles/RayBar
    nhardt/TLAC.html
  • Mary Rose Grant Heather R. Thornton, Best
    Practices in Undergraduate Adult-Centered Online
    Learning Mechanisms for Course Design and
    Delivery, http//jolt.merlot.org/vol3no4/grant.ht
    m
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