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Quotation, Citation and Sentence Construction

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Title: Quotation, Citation and Sentence Construction


1
Quotation, Citation and Sentence Construction
  • Language Review
  • 2003/4/15
  • Ref. http//www.eng.fju.edu.tw/research/documentat
    ion.html

2
Documenting Sources
  • Quotation Internal/Parenthetical citation
  • Avoid wordiness
  • Altering the original text.
  • Work(s) Cited
  • Citing Electronic Sources
  • Citing Chinese Sources
  • Others

3
Quotation
  • Purposes avoid plagiarism, increase credibility
    by giving evidence or support, for close
    analysis.
  • Kinds paraphrase and direct quote (further
    divided into separated and integrated)
  • Things to Consider avoiding wordiness and
    over-quoting, punctuation transition, using
    ellipses and brackets () for alterations of
    sources.

4
Use Internal Citation to avoid wordiness
  • Based on the dissertation, A Historical Analysis
    of Coffee Consumption in Taiwan written by
    Fan-ting, the development of coffee can be
    divided into three major periods first is from
    1930 to 1960, second is form 1960 to 1980 and the
    third is from 1980 to 1990. (41, 82, 122)

5
Errors fixed
  • Based on the dissertation A Historical Analysis
    of Coffee Consumption in Taiwan, Fang-ting
    writes, the development of coffee can be divided
    into three major periods the first is from 1930
    to 1960, the second is from 1960 to 1980 and the
    third is from 1980 to 1990 (41, 82, 122).

6
Internal Citation
  • The development of coffee in Taiwan can be
    divided into three major periods first, from
    1930 to 1960, second, from 1960 to 1980, and
    third, from 1980 to 1990 (Fan 41, 82, 122).

7
Internal Citation avoid wordiness
  • In Wangs paper she says, one of surrealists,
    Max Ernst, a poet Paul Eluard and his wife once
    visited him(who?) and invited him to be one of
    surrealist movement, but he refused them as
    well as he rejected other invitations from
    Fauvism, Cubism, and Structurism (qtd. in 78).

8
Internal Citation avoid wordiness
  • According to Wang, one surrealist, Max Ernst, a
    poet Paul Eluard and his wife once visited
    Chagall and invited him to join the surrealist
    movement, but he refused them, just as he
    rejected the other invitations from Fauvism,
    Cubism, and Structurism (78).
  • Separated quotation
  • What does qtd mean?

9
Quotation e.g. altering the original texts.
  • First of all, the news is subjective, spoken
    by a person, strongly affirmed by Margaret
    Morse, a Professor of Film and Video at UC Santa
    Cruz.
  • First of all, the news, as Margaret Morse points
    out, is subjective, spoken by a person (?).
  • Inevitably, news broadcast is subjective, spoken
    by a person (Morse ?) integrated quotation.

10
Citing Electronic Sources remember the date of
access
  • Walker, Janice Todd Taylor. Basic CGOS
  • Style. The Columbia Guide to Online
    Style.
  • Columbia UP, 1998. Oct 26, 1999.
    l.
  • Flannagan, Roy. "Reflections on Milton and
    Ariosto. Early Modern Literary Studies 2.3
    (1996) 12-45. 16 pars. 22 Feb. 1997
    anmilt.html.

11
Citing Chinese Sources dont be afraid of
troubles!
  • Tsai, Wen-fang (???). ???????-???????????.
    ????????. 2000, 32 147-169.
  • (In Tong-Yong system)
  • Cai, Wen-fang ???. Sing-ba-ke ren de dan-sheng
    (The Birth of the
    Starbuck-ers An Interpretation of the Spaces of
    Urban Coffee Consumption). Shih-da di-li
    za-jhih bau-gau (????????) 32(2000) 147-169.

12
Work Cited
  • Flash, Grandmaster. Grand Master Flashs
  • Definition of Hip Hop. DaveyDs Hip
    Hop
  • Corner. 19 Dec. 2002. com/whatisflash.html.
  • Forman, Murray. The Hood Comes First.
  • Middletown Wesleyan University Press,
  • 2002. 23-42. ?
  • Forman, Murray. The Hood Comes First.
  • Middletown, IL Wesleyan UP, 2002.

13
Quotation increase credibility
  • Afrika Bambaataa, one of the founders of Hip Hop,
    defines it not in terms of skin colors, Hip Hop
    means the whole culture of the movementhow you
    act, walk, look, talk are all part of hip-hop
    culture. And the music is colorless. Hip Hop
    music is made from Black, brown, yellow, red,
    white, whatever music that gives you the grunt,
    that funk, that groove or that beat Its all
    part of Hip Hop. (contd)

14
over-quotation internal citation
  • Grandmaster Flash, . . . , also emphasizes the
    idea of emancipating all hip-hoppers from racial
    discrimination, For anybody to say this is not
    hip hop or that is not hip hop is wrong. Thats
    not the way the formula was laid down. It was for
    the people who were going to continue this to
    take anythingby all means necessary and string
    it along. Both of the hip-hop forefathers are
    opposed to those who disdain the whites talents
    and dedications, which convinces us that the
    color is really not a matter, but only for the
    people who were going to continue Hip Hop to
    take anything deserve the name real
    hip-hoppers(both quote from DaveyDs Hip Hop
    Corner).

15
Quotation indent the long quote
  • Afrika Bambaataa, one of the founders of Hip Hop,
    defines it not in terms of skin colors
  • Hip Hop means the whole culture of the
    movementhow you act, walk, look, talk are all
    part of hip-hop culture. And the music is
    colorless. Hip Hop music is made from Black,
    brown, yellow, red, white, whatever music that
    gives you the grunt, that funk, that groove or
    that beat Its all part of Hip Hop (par 1).

16
Quotation do not quote without your own
interpretation
  • Grandmaster Flash, . . . , is also against
    setting the racial boundaries the formula of Hip
    Hop, instead, was and should still be for the
    people who were going to continue this to take
    anything (Flash par 3) Both of the hip-hop
    forefathers, therefore, are opposed to those who
    disdain the whites talents and dedications. The
    name real hip-hoppers, in other words, go to
    those who continue its styles and spirit, blacks
    and whites and the other colors alike.

17
Sentence Construction
  • Internalize Basic Sentence Construction Rules
    example
  • SC -- Has to do with where the main is, and how
    it is related to the other ideas in the same
    sentence. example
  • Conjunction example that
  • Avoid Repetition and Run-On Sentence examples

18
S proper verb form
  • They present the sub-culture of Taiwan and they
    usually being looked down by people. Why there
    are such group of people exists in Taiwan? What
    makes these Tk? How can they reflect Taiwans
    culture?

19
S proper English? concise, logical and to the
point
  • They represent a form of Taiwanese sub-culture
    and they are usually looked down upon by people.
    (gap) Why are there such a group of people in
    Taiwan? What makes them TK? How do they reflect
    Taiwans culture?
  • Forming a kind of Taiwanese sub-culture, TKs are
    usually regarded as coarse or vulgar. Instead of
    just criticizing them, however, we should ask why
    they come into existence as a group, and what
    aspects of Taiwanese culture are reflected in
    them.

20
S more than one verb or conjunction
  • Moreover, many foreigners also appear here often
    is probably because the theater usually plays
    many international films or the western style
    that appeals to them.
  • (straightening out the main idea) Moreover, many
    foreigners also appear here often probably
    because the films shown in the theater, either
    international films or Western films, appeal to
    them.

21
S more than one verb or conjunction
  • The café which can be seen from outside is just
    on the left hand, which called 25?.
  • (correction with still errors) The cafe' which
    can be seen from outside is just on the left hand
    of(what), called 25 ?.
  • The café, visible from the outside and on the
    left side of the hall, is called 25?.

22
Conjunction that repetition
  • Moreover, 7-11 always creates new and innovative
    products themselves, and those products become
    fashion that other convenience stores imitate to
    do so. For example, 7-11 is the first convenience
    store that sells ???(Quanton Cookies) and lunch
    boxes that always change their menu, and then
    other stores start to imitate them to do that.

23
Avoiding repetition
  • Moreover, 7-11 always creates new and innovative
    products, which become fashionable so that the
    other convenience stores have to produce them as
    well. For example, 7-11 is the first convenience
    store that sells ???(Quanton Cookies) and lunch
    boxes whose contents are changed all the time.
    The other stores, on the other hand, can only
    follow them.

24
Word Form conjunction
  • those products become fashion that other
    convenience stores imitate to do so. ? those
    products become so fashionable that.......

25
Refining your language
  • Moreover, 7-11 has been a trend-setter in
    fast-food production. For example, 7-11 is the
    first convenience store that sells ???(Quanton
    Cookies) and lunch boxes with a variety of
    contents. The other stores, on the other hand,
    can only follow suit.

26
Run-On S
  • All of them prove to the world that White DJs
    are winning their respect by releasing
    generational DJ classics and concurrently they
    also help transmitting the Hip Hop culture across
    the ocean to the Great Britain encouraged by the
    successes of the white DJs in the States, more
    and more British DJs appear, such as DJ Shadow
    and DJ Food affected by the flourishing hip-hop
    magazine market, more U.K. hip-hop periodicals
    are published, Hip Hop Connection and Big Daddy
    are both representatives and another surprise
    brought by the hip-hop invasion of the U.K.
    directly reflects the total sales of hip-hop
    albums there, for U.K. is actually the second-big
    market worldwide.

27
Run-On S
  • All of them prove to the world that white DJs
    are winning their respect by releasing
    generational DJ classics and concurrently they
    also help transmit the Hip Hop culture across
    the ocean to Great Britain. Being encouraged by
    the successes of the white DJs in the States,
    more and more British DJs appear, such as DJ
    Shadow and DJ Food being affected by the
    flourishing hip-hop magazine market, more U.K.
    hip-hop periodicals are published Hip Hop
    Connection and Big Daddy are both
    representatives, and another surprise
  • brought by the hip-hop invasion of the U.K.
    directly reflects the total sales of hip-hop
    albums there, for U.K. is actually the second-big
    market worldwide.

28
Run-On S
  • All of these white DJs are winning their respect
    by releasing generations of DJ classics. Also,
    they help transmit the Hip Hop culture across the
    ocean to the Great Britain encouraged by the
    successes of the white DJs in the States, more
    and more British DJs appear, such as DJ Shadow
    and DJ Food, which, in turn, encourage hip-hop
    magazine market to flourish there, of which Hip
    Hop Connection and Big Daddy are both
    representatives. As a whole, in making U.K. the
    second biggest Hip-Hop market worldwide, these
    white D.J.s have made their significant
    contributions.
  • (They are not the only factor, though.)

29
Run-On S
  • For instance, 7-11 cooperates with Taipei City
    Hall, and the thoughtful services are all kinds
    of bills (like gas bill, water bills, parking
    tickets, etc) and adding usable fee of easy
    cards it also cooperates with ChungHwa telecom,
    and people can pay all kinds of fees and conduct
    some telecom services.

30
One correction to avoid repetition
  • and the thoughtful services are ? they are so
    considerate that they collect all kinds of
    bills.(Isnt this exaggerated?)
  • It also cooperates with ChungHwa telecom, and
    people can pay all kinds. . . ? which allows
    people to pay.......

31
Using different conjunctions
  • For instance, 7-11 cooperates with Taipei City
    government to allow the customers to pay many
    kinds of bills (e.g. gas bill, water bills,
    parking fees, etc), as well as adding value to
    Easy cards it also cooperates with ChungHwa
    telecom so that their clients can both pay their
    bills in the stores and make use of the companys
    telecom services.

32
Word Choice
  • Excluding, except, besides,
  • Influence/affect
  • Ever (in question and negative S) once (positive)
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