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Sentence Variety

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Good sentence variety keeps writing from becoming dull. ... Both of the sentences are simple sentences ... German Shepherd, stole my lunch. Sentence Variety ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sentence Variety


1
Sentence Variety
  • By
  • Alfred Taylor

2
Sentence Variety
  • Please practice utilizing these nine sentence
    patterns throughout the semester. Good sentence
    variety keeps writing from becoming dull.
  • Understanding these sentence patterns will
    improve your ability to communicate.

3
Sentence Variety
  • 1 Simple Sentence
  • Spock drank a Pepsi.
  • Alfred bought a diamond ring for his lovely wife
    Thuy.

4
Sentence Variety
  • Both of the sentences are simple sentences
    because they each only have one clause. The
    second may have more adjectives and adverbs, but
    it is still a simple sentence.
  • Sub Verb Art Adj
    Do/ noun prep PN
  • Alfred bought a diamond ring for his
  • Adv Adj Ido / Proper Noun
  • lovely wife Thuy.

5
Sentence Variety
  • 2 Compound Subject / Verb / Object
  • A compound sentence has two subjects or two
    verbs or both.
  • Kirk and Spock drank Pepsi.
  • Spock slurped and gulped his drink.
  • Spock drank Pepsi and Diet Pepsi.
  • Note There are no commas in these sentences

6
Sentence Variety
  • Sentences utilizing a compound subject, verb, or
    object are still simple sentences because they
    only have one clause. A clause is a phrase that
    contains both a subject and a verb. It is
    possible to have a sentence that has a compound
    subject, verb, and object.
  • Kirk and Spock ate and drank pizza and Pepsi.

7
Sentence Variety
  • Please dont confuse a sentence with a compound
    verb with a compound sentence.
  • Compound Verb
  • Spock drank Pepsi and belched loudly.
  • Compound Sentence
  • Spock drank Pepsi, and he belched loudly.
  • A compound sentence must have a subject on both
    sides of the coordinating conjunction.

8
Sentence Variety
  • 3 Compound or Coordinate Sentence
  • A compound sentence uses one of the seven
    coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, for,
    nor, so, yet) and connects two complete simple
    sentences. Each half of the sentence is equally
    important to the meaning of the sentence. The
    coordinating conjunction must be proceeded by a
    comma.

9
Sentence Variety
  • The seven coordinating conjunctions are also
    known as FONYBAS words. If These words are
    written out, the first letter of each one spells
    FONYBAS.
  • For
  • Or
  • Nor
  • Yet
  • But
  • And
  • So

10
Sentence Variety
  • Joining two simple sentences together with a
    semicolon does not create a strong sentence
    however, it does create a sentence that is
    awkward and difficult to understand. This type
    of sentence may have worked in High School, but
    college instructors expect well developed
    sentences.
  • I hate semicolons!

11
Sentence Variety
  • The chicken got well we had salad.
  • These two sentences seem to be completely
    unrelated when joined with a semicolon.
  • The chicken got well, so we had salad.
  • When joined with a coordinating conjunction, the
    sentences meaning is more clear.

12
Sentence Variety
  • Each time the coordinating conjunction is
    changed the meaning also changes.
  • The chicken got well, for we had salad. The
    chicken got well, yet we had salad. The chicken
    got well, but we had salad.
  • The chicken got well, and we had salad.
  • The chicken got well, so we had salad.

13
Sentence Variety
  • sub verb art obj C.C.
    Sub verb obj.
  • Spock drank a Pepsi, and he enjoyed it.
  • This is a compound sentence because it has a
    complete sentence on both sides of the
    coordinating conjunction, the sentences make
    sense together, and the coordinating conjunction
    makes sense with the sentences.

14
Sentence Variety
  • Spock drank a Pepsi, or he enjoyed it.
  • Spock drank a Pepsi, nor he enjoyed it.
  • These are examples of faulty coordination since
    the coordinating conjunction does not make sense
    with the sentences it is connecting.

15
Sentence Variety
  • Spock drank a Pepsi, so computers hate people
    who have poor usage skills.
  • This is another example of faulty coordination
    because these two sentences dont make any
    logical sense together.

16
Sentence Variety
  • 4 Expletive Sentence
  • An expletive construction consists of there or
    it plus a form of the verb be.
  • There was a man from Orlando.
  • It is a good day to study English.

17
Sentence Variety
  • Forms of Be
  • I am
  • You are
  • He/She/It Is
  • I was
  • You were
  • He/She/It was
  • I will be
  • We/They are
  • We/They will be
  • I/You/They have been

18
Sentence Variety
  • Expletive sentences should be used sparingly.
    They tend to be wordy and they have weak subjects
    and verbs.
  • There was a man who drank Pepsi.
  • The subject of this sentence is there, and the
    verb is was. Both of these are weak words.
    Avoid using be verbs whenever possible.

19
Sentence Variety
  • 5 Infinitive phrase
  • An infinitive phrase consists of To plus a
    verb.
  • To go into space was Captain Kirks Dream.
  • If a word interrupts the infinitive phrase, it
    is called a split infinitive.
  • To boldly go where no man has gone before.

20
Sentence Variety
  • 6 Appositive
  • An appositive renames a noun in a sentence,
    usually the subject of the sentence. This helps
    to make the significance of the noun more clear.
    An appositive is usually separated from the
    sentence by a comma.
  • A monster-dog, a two-hundred pound
  • German Shepherd, stole my lunch.

21
Sentence Variety
  • There are two types of appositives, essential or
    restrictive and nonessential or nonrestrictive.
  • A nonrestrictive appositive may be removed from
    the sentence without changing the meaning of the
    sentence. To indicate that it can be removed, it
    is set apart with commas.

22
Sentence Variety
  • If a restrictive or essential appositive is
    removed, the meaning of the sentence will change.
    Since a restrictive appositive is essential to
    the meaning of the sentence, it is not separated
    by commas.

23
Sentence Variety
  • Students who use debit cards eat more fast food.
  • Missy a lazy dog chased three parked cars.
  • Cars with bad spark plugs get poor gas mileage.
  • Anna a good student studied English all night.

24
Sentence Variety
  • Students who use debit cards eat more fast food.
  • Restrictive or Essential
  • Missy a lazy dog chased three parked cars.
  • Nonrestrictive or Nonessential
  • Cars with bad spark plugs get poor gas mileage.
  • Restrictive or Essential
  • Anna a good student studied English all night.
  • Nonrestrictive or Nonessential

25
Sentence Variety
  • We will discuss restrictive and nonrestrictive
    modifiers in greater detail later in the semester.

26
Sentence Variety
  • 7 Subordinate or Complex Sentence
  • Complex sentences consist of a dependent clause
    and an independent clause. The independent
    clause is the important part of the sentence.
    The subordinate clause is only additional
    information. There are many varieties of this
    sentence. A comma separates the dependent clause
    from the independent clause when the dependant
    clause precedes the independent clause.

27
Sentence Variety
  • Dependent clauses are created by placing either
    a subordinating word or a relative pronoun in
    front of a sentence.
  • independent clause
  • Spock drank a Pepsi.
  • dependent clause
  • When Spock drank a Pepsi.

28
Sentence Variety
  • Common subordinating words include
  • as because If after
  • since provided before where
  • unless whether while once
  • when although so that until
  • though whenever than as if
  • Common relative pronouns include
  • which what who that
  • whom whatever whoever

29
Sentence Variety
  • When Spock drank a Pepsi.
  • This is a dependent clause because it doesnt
    express a complete thought and must rely upon an
    independent clause to give it meaning. When
    Spock drank a Pepsi, what happened?

30
Sentence Variety
  • dependent clause independent clause
  • When Spock drank a Pepsi, he slapped Mr. Sulu.
  • When the dependent clause comes first, separate
    the clauses with a comma.
  • Independent clause dependent clause
  • Spock drank a Pepsi when he slapped Mr. Sulu.
  • When the independent clause comes first, no
    comma is necessary.

31
Sentence Variety
  • 8 Prepositional Phrase
  • A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition
    and ends with an object. A preposition is a word
    with some meaning of position, time, or other
    abstract relation. Words like above, below,
    near, far, from, of, to, after, before, and until
    are all prepositions.

32
Sentence Variety
  • After lunch, the Universe exploded.
  • In this example, after is the preposition, and
    lunch is the object of the preposition. The noun
    or pronoun that follows the preposition is object
    of the preposition that makes up the
    prepositional phrase.

33
Sentence Variety
  • 9 Conjunctive Adverb
  • Two independent clauses joined by a conjunctive
    adverb. Each independent clause must be a
    sentence with a subject and a verb. A semicolon
    precedes the conjunctive adverb and a comma
    follows it.
  • We saw a Star Trek double feature hence,we were
    labeled Trekies by our coworkers.

34
Sentence VarietyCommon Conjunctive Adverbs
  • Accordingly
  • Also
  • Anyway
  • Besides
  • Certainly
  • Consequently
  • Finally
  • Furthermore
  • Hence
  • However
  • Incidentally
  • Indeed
  • Instead
  • Likewise
  • Meanwhile
  • Moreover
  • Nevertheless

35
Sentence Variety
  • A writer should only use a conjunctive adverb
    when she wants to get her readers attention.
    Conjunctive adverbs force the reader to pause and
    pay attention to the sentence however, if
    conjunctive adverbs are overused, they lose their
    impact upon the reader.

36
Sentence Variety
  • Please practice with these sentence patterns
    whenever writing a essay. Understanding how and
    when to use these types of sentences will improve
    the coherence of your writing.

37
Sentence Variety
  • The End
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