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Large Scale Wind Resource Mapping Using a StateoftheArt 3D Scanning Lidar

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EWEC - March 2008 - 1. Large Scale Wind Resource Mapping. Using a State-of-the-Art ... Stephen Hannon, Keith Barr, John Novotny. Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Large Scale Wind Resource Mapping Using a StateoftheArt 3D Scanning Lidar


1
Large Scale Wind Resource Mapping Using a
State-of-the-Art 3D Scanning Lidar
Stephen Hannon, Keith Barr, John Novotny Lockheed
Martin Coherent Technologies Lafayette, Colorado
USA Jeremy Bass, Andrew Oliver, Mike
Anderson Renewable Energy Systems Group United
Kingdom, United States EWEC 2008, 31 March 3
April, Brussels
2
Overview
  • WindTracer background and system description
  • Measurement campaign and siting strategies
  • Comparison results
  • Terrain-following wind speed views
  • Summary and future directions

3
WindTracer a 3D scanning pulsed Doppler LIDAR
  • Not just a vertical profiler
  • Measures wind at high spatial resolution in large
    volumes
  • High resolution means 100m (x,y,z)
  • Large means 10km horizontal, 200 m vertical
  • Extensively validatedagainst other
    measurementsystems
  • Deployed at airports for operational wind
    shearalerting to ATC/pilots

4
WindTracer Key Installations
Wake Turbulence Research Wind Shear Measurement
Wind Shear Measurement
St. Louis International Airport San Francisco
International Airport Houston Intercontinental
Airport McCarran International (Las Vegas)
5
ITS EYE SAFE!
6
? Side View ? Top View
Sample 3 HourData Animation Dallas Airport
7
System Parameters
2 ?m Transceiver
1.6 ?m Transceiver
8
Wind Characterization in Support of Wind Turbine
Farm Siting
  • Current State
  • Point Data Collection
  • Mast anemometer(s)
  • Sodar(s)
  • Emerging short-range lidars
  • Engr/CFD Modeling to Extend to Area Coverage
  • Complex terrain and/or obstaclesdifficult to
    model accurately
  • Model-Driven Predictions Anchored at One or a Few
    Points
  • Long Data Collection Periods Required to Resolve
    Uncertainties and Spot Check Problem Areas
  • Future State
  • Simultaneous Large Area Data Collection
  • 3D Doppler lidar w/ 200 km2 coverage
  • Potentially augmented w/ precision point sensor
  • Terrain-following gridded vector maps
  • Turbulence mapping also possible
  • Engr/CFD Modeling Requirements Greatly Relaxed,
    Accuracy Improved
  • Data-Driven Prediction and Real Wind Maps
  • Data Collection Periods Reduced and Rapidly
    Adapted to Meet Needs

Site Layout Sub-Optimal
Site Layout Optimized!
9
Measurements at RES Site
  • Large mesa-like site
  • WindTracer and 50 m fixed mast
  • One month of data collection (June 2007)

GOAL Terrain-following gridded output of wind
vectors at 10 minute intervals
10
Siting Strategies
  • Central location
  • Minimizes the measurement distance
  • Still has a 500-600 m diameter blind spot for
    lidar
  • Offset location
  • Minimizes scan extent and required scan speed
  • More efficient for multipletilt (volumetric)
    scans
  • Increasing offset distancereduces the number
    oftilts

Offset-Locationfor Lidar
250-300 m
Centrally-Located Lidar
500-600 m
Region of Interest
8-10 km
11
Sample Cross-Comparison Data
Sample data from June 7 Lidar provides spatial
distribution of velocities, but at a slower
update rate at each point in space Solid
agreement for wind speed and direction
WindTracer Anemometer
Velocity (m/sec)
Time of Day
Wind Direction (degrees)
Azimuth to Tower 326.1 degrees (True) Dist
Lidar to Tower 3442 meters
WindTracer Anemometer
Time of Day
12
Correlation Analyses
  • Entire months data is utilized (June 2007)
  • Smoothed anemometer data with a 10 minute wide
    sliding window average
  • Selected best time match condition for lidar scan
    over the tower
  • Lidar data provides instantaneous vector wind
    estimates separated in time by 10 minutes

13
Wind Speed Comparisons
  • Mean wind speeds agree to roughly 0.02 m/sec!
  • Correlation is 96
  • RMS difference is 1.1 m/sec

14
Wind Direction Comparisons
  • Mean/median wind direction agrees to 2 deg
  • Correlation is 96
  • RMS difference is 15 deg

Conditioned on 60-360 deg wind direction and gt3
m/sec wind speed
15
Wind Speed PDF Comparison
16
Correlation Summary
  • Excellent agreement observed

conditioned on met mast speed gt3 m/sec
conditioned on above and direction 60-300 deg
Average Wind Speeds Agree to within 0.02 m/sec!
17
WindTracer Terrain-Following Wind Speed Map
Lidar
2 km
Month-Long Average Wind Speed at Nominal Hub
Height (80 m)
18
Effect of Improved Spatial Resolution
Higher Resolution Implementation, 4 deg
sectors Mean Speed at Met Tower 9.245 m/sec
Original 45 deg Sector Implementation Mean Speed
at Met Tower 9.221 m/sec
Higher speed feature east of lidaris more
pronounced now and corresponds to a slightly
higherportion of the mesa
Average over all wind conditions
19
Summary
  • Comparison between WindTracer and mast
    anemometer shows excellent agreement, especially
    considering
  • 3.44 km range offset
  • spatial averaging utilized to produce lidar
    vectors
  • reasonably high average wind speeds (gt8 m/sec)
    and associated wind turbulence/variability
  • Terrain-following mean wind speed maps illustrate
    the unique capability provided by a volumetric
    scanning lidar
  • Ongoing efforts addressing improved vector wind
    retrieval strategies

20
Possible Applications?
Highly flexible, highly configurable device
likely to find many applications in the wind
industry
  • Micro-siting of turbines or fixed masts
  • Verification of model predictions
  • Turbine-specific climatic conditions
  • Turbulence and shear characterization
  • Investigation of wind flow of forest
    canopies/steep ground
  • Wake propagation studies, array effects
  • Improved operational strategies
    forecasting/advance warning of approaching
    adverse weather

21
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