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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 17891815

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French captured Worms and Speier, and took Toulon from British (first appearance ... By 1794 French Army enjoyed both Mass and Mobility, Napoleon and 8 of his future ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 17891815


1
  • THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1815)
  • AND NAPOLEON

2
SOURCES
  • Dupuy, The Evolution of Weapons and Warfare, pp.
    154-168
  • Dupuy and Dupuy, The Encylopedia of Military
    History pp. 730-769
  • Fuller, A Military History of the Western World,
    Vol. II, Chronicles 12, 13, 14, 15 ch. 12-15
    pp.370-542
  • Montross, War Through the Ages, pp. 459-554
  • Paret, Makers of Modern Strategy, pp123-142 (1986
    Sequel)
  • Jones, The Art of War in the Western World,
    pp.320-358
  • Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 157-173
  • Mathews, French Revolution, pp. 2-15
  • Roberts, The French Revolution, pp. 21-40

3
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Know and trace the transition from limited war to
    unlimited war during the French Revolution
  • Comprehend the uniqueness of the Revolution Army,
    the role of ideology in the levee en masse, the
    problems of controlling such an army
  • Comprehend and relate the rise of Napoleon to the
    failure of the French Revolution
  • Know and discuss the impact of new technology on
    warfare in the Napoleonic period

4
PERIODS OF THE REVOLUTION
  • Five sub-periods distinguished by form of
    government
  • Estates
  • Legislative Assembly
  • National Convention
  • Directory
  • Consulate
  • First Empire

5
(No Transcript)
6
ESTATES
  • General and Constituent Assembly
  • 5 May 1789 - 30 Sep 1791
  • Government a limited, constitutional monarchy
  • Dominance of upper middle class

7
LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
  • 1 Oct 1791 - 21 Sep 1792
  • Monarchy continued as before until suspended
  • Rising power of the lower class

8
NATIONAL CONVENTION
  • 21 Sep 1792 - 25 Oct 1795
  • Height of revolution
  • Convention called to frame new constitution
  • Abolished monarchy
  • Supported reign of terror, then overthrew it
  • Led resistance to foreign foes
  • War with Austria Prussia politically endued
    toward democracy

9
DIRECTORY
  • 26 Oct 1795 - 9 Nov 1799
  • Middle classes recovered influence
  • Party divisions
  • General Bonapartes coup d-etat
  • Formed republic with Napoleon as Emperor

10
CONSULATE
  • At first provisional, then definitive
  • 25 Dec 1799 - 20 May 1804
  • Civil and military role, virtually of one man
  • Progress of French arms
  • Form still nominally republican

11
FIRST EMPIRE
  • 20 May 1804 - 22 Jun 1815
  • Napoleon made France the controlling power on the
    continent, but was finally overthrown

12
(No Transcript)
13
BACKGROUND
  • Spirit of 18th Century
  • devoted to destruction and reformation of
    existing institutions
  • most notable manifestations the attacks of
    French writers upon church and state
  • Agrarian conditions - peasantry mostly free but
    highly taxed not downtrodden, but well-off
    enough to wish to better themselves

14
BACKGROUND
  • Rise of the middle class
  • generally excluded from politics growing richer
    read and listened to philosophies
  • Unwieldy and inefficient machinery of government
  • irresponsible and unsuited to needs of state
  • taxation was inequitable
  • no representative assembly
  • Letters de Cachet - imprisoning without habeas
    corpus served as anti-government propaganda

15
BACKGROUND
  • Ever-growing deficit
  • proved impossible of reduction
  • May 1789 Louis XVI convened meeting of Estates
    General (represented 3 estates of French society
    - Nobles, Clergy and Commons)
  • Commons assumed title of National Assembly and
    undertook to reform government by formulating a
    constitution for a constitutional monarchy

16
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • 5 May 1789
  • Meeting of Estates General
  • National Assembly formed by Commons
  • Members of Nobles and Clergy invited to join
  • Many joined the assembly

17
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • 23 Jun 1789
  • Fruitless royal sitting
  • King ordered assembly to meet in 3 houses
  • Mirabeau (Provencial nobleman) elected principal
    orator of assembly by 3rd estate
  • King requested nobles clergy join 3rd estate

18
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • 14 Jul 1789
  • Concentration of troops near Paris
  • Rumors of kings intention to dissolve National
    Assembly
  • Necker was dismissed
  • Storming and destruction of the Bastille

19
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • Necker recalled
  • Lafayette commander of newly established National
    Guard
  • Rising of peasants against feudal lords
  • Beginning of emigration of nobles

20
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • 4 Aug 1789
  • Voluntary surrender by representatives of nobles
    of all feudal rights and privileges to occur over
    period of years
  • 27 Aug 1789
  • Declaration of rights of man, a bill of rights
    compounded from English and American precedents
    and from political theories current with the
    philosophies

21
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • 5-6 Oct 1789 - Outbreak of the mob of Paris
  • Liberal monarchical constitution king could not
    declare war and conclude peace without consent of
    chamber
  • Ecclesiastic estates declared public property and
    notes issued under security of public lands

22
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • 14 Jul 1790
  • National federation in Paris
  • Constitution accepted by king
  • Abolished hereditary nobility, titles, and coats
    of arms

23
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • Power of clubs grow
  • Jacobins under Robespierre
  • Cordeliers under Danton, Marat, Desmoulins,
    Hebert
  • Feuillants - moderate monarchists separated from
    Jacobins - Lafayette and Bailly

24
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • Sep 1790
  • Fall of Necker
  • alliance between Mirabeau and court, who
    endeavored to stem revolution and prevent
    overthrow of throne
  • 2 Apr 1791 - Death of Mirabeau
  • 20 - 25 Jun 1791 - Flight of the king

25
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  • 14 Sep 1791
  • King accepts constitution
  • Annexation of Avignon and Benaissin to France
  • 30 Sep 1791
  • Dissolution of Assembly

26
LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
  • 1 Oct 1791
  • Legislative Assembly, 745 members elected by
    active citizens
  • still represented primarily middle class
  • 7 Feb 1792
  • Alliance of Austria and Prussia against France

27
NATIONAL CONVENTION
  • War of First Coalition against France
  • 20 Apr 1792 - France declares war on Austria -
    increases revolutionary excitement in Paris
  • 10 Aug 1792 - Storming of Tuileries by mob - king
    suspended from functions and confined
  • 20 Aug 1792 - Lafayette, impeached and
    proscribed, fled from army - Verdun taken by
    Prussians
  • 2-7 Sep 1792 - September massacres at Paris
  • 20 Sep 1792 - Battle of Valmy - French, under
    Dumouriey and Kellermann, defeated Prussians

28
NATIONAL CONVENTION
  • 21 Sep 1792
  • National Convention convened
  • Abolition of Monarchy - France declared a
    Republic
  • Dec 1792 - Trial of Louis XVI
  • 21 Jan 1793 - Execution of Louis XVI
  • 1 Feb 1793 - War declared against Great Britain,
    Holland, Spain

29
NATIONAL CONVENTION
  • Reign of Terror - Robespierre gradually came to
    dominate the whole government
  • 23 Aug 1793-Levy of males 14 armies raised
  • 16 Oct 1793 - Execution of Marie Antoinette
  • Nov 1793 - New army under Jourdan, Hoche
    Pichegru
  • Dec 1793 - Retreat of Allies across the Rhine.
    French captured Worms and Speier, and took Toulon
    from British (first appearance of Napoleon
    Bonaparte as young artillery officer)

30
NATIONAL CONVENTION
  • Mar 1794 - Robespierre succeeded in crushing
    rival powers
  • 27 Jul 1794 - Fall of Robespierre
  • 5 Mar 1795 - Treaty of Bassel between France and
    Prussia

31
NATIONAL CONVENTION
  • 22 Aug 1795 - Constitution of 1797 - 3rd of
    revolution
  • Executing power Directory of five, Council of
    Elders, and Council of 500
  • First Term 2/3 of each council taken from Nat.
    Conv.
  • General Bonaparte placed in charge of troops

32
NATIONAL CONVENTION
  • 5 Oct 1795
  • Paris royalists instigated outbreak of sections
    in opposition of 2/3 self protection measure of
    convention for 1st term council
  • Napoleons whiff of grapeshot led to complete
    victory for convention
  • 26 Oct 1795
  • Convention dissolved
  • 1797 - Moderate legislative elected
  • End of war - coup detat

33
IMPACT OF REVOLUTION
  • Larger armies led to unlimited warfare
  • Emergence of democratic ideal emphasis on
    individual freedom, equality popular government
  • John Locke
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau - citizen had
    responsibility to fight in defense of country
    (not a logical thought for 18th century
    monarchies)
  • American Revolution and apologists
  • Conscription is unthinkable without this ideology
    (governed were now governing, had affirmative
    obligation to defend government)

34
IMPACT OF REVOLUTION
  • Ability to man, control, arm, feed large armies
  • Larger populations
  • Improved communications systems
  • Beginnings of mass production
  • Improved agricultural methods
  • Line formation of battle vs. the column
  • Line provided more firepower (muskets)
  • Column could break the line

35
IMPACT OF REVOLUTION
  • Military theories of Comptee Jacques de Guibert
  • Ordre mixte combo of column (approach and
    maneuver) and line (fighting)
  • Breaking army into smaller units or divisions
  • advance along several routes
  • mass forces at precise time and place
  • Dispersion then concentration at critical time
    and place

36
IMPACT OF REVOLUTION
  • 13 Jul 1789
  • Crowd seizes 28,000 muskets and some cannon from
    military storage depot
  • 14 Jul 1789
  • Bastille stormed and governor lynched
  • Jul 1792
  • Paris mob storms palace, massacres Swiss guard
  • Lafayette tries to get men to save king, they
    refuse and Lafayette goes over to Austrians
  • Louis XVI executed in 1793

37
IMPACT OF REVOLUTION
  • Lazare Carnot succeeded in gaining control of
    Revolutionary Army
  • Aug 1793 in charge of military affairs for
    committee of Public Safety
  • Emphasis on offensive in mass
  • Organized National Army
  • Foraging enhanced mobility
  • By 1794 French Army enjoyed both Mass and
    Mobility, Napoleon and 8 of his future marshals
    made general _at_ average age of 33

38
IMPACT OF REVOLUTION
  • Armies created by revolution eventually made
    Bonaparte Emperor of France (back to autocracy)
  • Moderate legislature elected in 1797 desired end
    of war
  • 3 radical directors conspired with Bonaparte to
    arrange coup detat
  • In ensuing coup, Carnot escaped to Switzerland

39
IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY
  • Gribeauvals artillery reforms
  • interchangeable parts
  • improved cartridges (ball and charge packed
    together)
  • Tangent sight
  • Ammunition wagons
  • By time of revolution, constant drill had made
    French clearly superior

40
IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY
  • Mobility and communication enhanced by improved
    roads and maps and signal telegraph
  • Napoleon, resistant to new weapons and
    technology, failed to make use of balloons and
    shrapnel

41
IMPACT OF NATIONALISM
  • Mass citizen army fueled by nationalism
  • Felt necessary to defend ones own country
  • Indoctrination of soldiers in Revolutionary
    Patriotism
  • Ideological Warfare

42
OTHER MILITARY IMPACTS
  • The Organization of an army into a Division
  • The Generalship became more complicated
  • Staff work became more important
  • Maps became essential

43
SUMMARY
  • Transition from limited war to unlimited war
    during the French Revolution
  • Revolution Army unique, the role of ideology in
    the levee en masse, problems of controlling such
    an army
  • Impact of new technology on warfare in the
    Napoleonic period

44
QUESTIONS?
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