Chapter 4: Walk Like An Egyptian 3100 B'C' 671 B'C' - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 4: Walk Like An Egyptian 3100 B'C' 671 B'C'

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Rich soil used for growing crops. Used irrigation system. SHADOOF ... Famous expedition to Punt. Cleopatra. Last female pharaoh. 51 to 30 B.C. Rise to Power ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4: Walk Like An Egyptian 3100 B'C' 671 B'C'


1
Chapter 4 Walk Like An Egyptian3100 B.C.
671 B.C.
2
The Nile
  • Longest river in the world
  • Flows north
  • Central Africa to Med. Sea
  • Most Ancient Egyptians lived in the area

3
  • Flooded every July
  • Rich soil used for growing crops
  • Used irrigation system
  • SHADOOF used to control water

4
Old Kingdom
  • Narmer 3100 B.C. King of Upper/Lower Egypt
  • 2600 B.C.
  • Cities centers of religion government
  • Most people lived on large estates on Nile River

5
  • RICH
  • Wood or mud bricks
  • Elegant homes w/ paintings
  • POOR
  • Sun or mud brick
  • Palm leaves for roofs
  • Most were farmers

6
Daily Life
  • Family Life
  • Treasured children
  • Women men almost equal
  • Boys learned trade from father girls learned to
    work around house w/ mother
  • Marriage usually took place around 12-yrs-old
  • Food and Cooking
  • Done in clay ovens
  • Drink beer, milk, wine, water
  • Food bread, vegetables and dried fish

7
  • Clothing
  • Made of linens
  • Men short skirt (kilt)
  • Women Straight fitting dress w/ straps
  • Kings would wear decorated sandals
  • Jewelry
  • Everyone wore
  • Rich gold silver
  • Poor copper quartz
  • Rings worn to ward off evil spirits

8
Leisure
  • Fishing, hunting, fowling, swimming, boat games
  • Extravagant parties
  • Loved dance music harp, lyre, flute
  • Religious plays
  • Cats, dogs and exotic animals as pets
  • Games
  • Used balls, racing and rough competitions
  • Wooden boats and animals
  • Board games

9
How to Play Senet
  • Throw the sticks to see how many squares to move
    your piece forward.
  • If you throw a one, four, or six, you get an
    extra turn.
  • You can't land on one of your own pieces.
  • If you land on the other player's piece, you
    switch places with them. However, you can't
    switch with them if they have two or more pieces
    in a row.
  • If the other player has three or more pieces in a
    row, you can't pass them.
  • Some squares are safe' squares and some are
    danger' squares. You will learn what they are as
    you play.
  • The first player to get all of their pieces off
    the board wins the game.

10
Pharaoh Great House
  • Was a King/Priest/God and center of life
  • Owned controlled land
  • Gave gifts of land to the rich
  • Ordered repairs building of granaries
    (buildings for storing grain)
  • Chose government officials made laws
  • Carried out rituals

11
Famous Pharaohs
Akhenaten
Cleopatra
Hatshepsut
Tutankhamen
Ramesses the Great
12
Hatshepsut
  • 1st Female Pharaoh
  • 1473 - 1458 B.C.
  • Rise to Power
  • Married her ½ brother Tuthmosis II. When he died,
    the throne passed to his son Tuthmosis III. b/c
    he was very young, Hatshepsut took over. Years
    later, Hatshepsut declared herself "king" and
    began wearing the false beard and garments of a
    pharaoh.
  • Famous expedition to Punt

13
Cleopatra
  • Last female pharaoh
  • 51 to 30 B.C.
  • Rise to Power
  • Cleopatra came from the Greek Ptolemy family that
    had ruled Egypt for 300 years. Cleopatra's father
    died when she young. To continue the dynasty she
    married her younger brother and they began a
    joint rule however, they hated each other, and
    fighting broke out b/w them. The great Roman
    general, Julius Caesar, helped her take the
    throne.
  • Quest for her son to be leader of both Egypt
    Rome

14
King Tut
  • Ruled 1333 -1324 B.C.
  • "Living Image of Aten Sun God
  • 8-years-old at start of his reign
  • Didnt do much during his reign
  • Believed he may have had advisors to help him Ay
    Hermhab
  • Died suddenly at age 18 or 19
  • Howard Carter discovered his tomb almost intact
    in Valley of Kings

15
Tomb of King Tut
16
Was It Murder?
17
Religious Beliefs
  • Believed in Gods over 2,000

Osiris God of harvest eternal life
Hapi River God
Re Sun God
  • Believed souls of the dead went to the
    underworld
  • 1. Had to pass tests of good deeds
  • 2. Have your name written on a cartouche (name
    plate)
  • 3. Have your body preserved
  • Embalming preserving the body
  • Believed soul could not live w/o body

18
Pyramids
Kuhfu Sphinx
  • Built to protect from floods, robbers and animals
  • Also place of ascension spirit could rise to
    stars
  • Built on the west bank of river House of
    Eternity
  • Created using copper tools ramps
  • Made of granite limestone bricks
  • Took around 20 years and around 8,000 skilled
    workers to build

19
(No Transcript)
20
Famous Pyramids
  • Pyramids of Giza
  • Built for Sneferus descendants
  • King Khufu largest Egyptian pyramid
  • 480 ft tall
  • 2 million stones
  • Saqqara 1st in 2650
  • Built for pharaoh Djoser
  • Step pyramid built with stone tombs
  • Mastabas

21
The Sphinx
  • Half-human and half-lion
  • Guard the Pyramids
  • Riddle Which creature in the morning goes on
    four feet, at noon on two, and in the evening
    upon three?"

22
Death and the Afterlife
  • Death was a brief interruption before afterlife
  • Traveled the Nile on Ras boat to the Land of the
    Two Fields to dwell forever authorized by Osiris
  • Human body had 3 Spirits at Death
  • 1. BA returned to family during the day
  • 2. KA lived in the afterlife
  • If something happened to the preserved body or if
    your name was not written down, they could not go
    back to the body.
  • You would disappear forever, no longer happy in
    your afterlife
  • Grave robbers not only stole someone's wealth,
    they stole their chance to live happily ever
    after in the Egyptian afterlife.
  • 3. AKH kind of ghost that rose to the stars

23
  • Egyptians believed in the Book of the Dead
  • Magical spells on text that would help them reach
    the afterlife
  • Grave Goods
  • Items that people brought into their tombs for
    their afterlife
  • Small Sculptures of jobs
  • Toys/Games
  • Food/Drink
  • Money/Gold
  • Clothing/Jewelry
  • Boats/Furniture/Statues
  • Before judgment for the afterlife people needed
    to be accepted based on the maat
  • Notion of order and mortality

24
Maat
  • 1. Had to pass tests of good deeds
  • Weigh the heart against the feather of truth
  • Thoth records the results
  • Horus leads person to Osiris to learn his fate
  • 2. Name written on a cartouche (name plate)
  • 3. Body will be preserved

25
Mummification
  • Way to preserve a body
  • Drain body fluids covered with salt called
    natron
  • Wrapped w/ long strips of linen
  • Body placed in a sarcophagus (coffin)
  • Buried w/ grave goods (personal belongings)
  • Statues, jewelry, clothing, toys, etc.

26
Middle Kingdom 2300 1786 B.C.
  • Pharaohs no longer built pyramids
  • 1786 B.C.
  • Egypt was invaded by Hyksos (people from W. Asia)
  • Used weapons of bronze iron horse drawn
    chariots
  • 1550 B.C.
  • Egypt Prince Ahmose drove Hyksos out

27
New Kingdom
  • Egypt became richer cities grew
  • Thutmose III took control of Syria Palestine
  • Decline of Egypt
  • Struggle between priests pharaohs over power
  • Pharaohs attempt to keep neighboring countries
    under Egyptian control
  • spent on making weapons to fight other
    countries
  • 1150 B.C. Empire gone
  • 671 B.C. Taken over by Assyrians

28
Contributions
29
  • Mathematics
  • system based on 10
  • Fractions/whole s
  • Geometry
  • Calendar
  • 3 seasons 120 days each
  • 5 special days for feasts of Gods
  • Medicine
  • 1st specialists in medicine

30
Rosetta Stone
  • For 1400 years, no one knew how to read
    hieroglyphics
  • 1799 French soldier found a black slab of stone
    on the Nile
  • Carved w/ 3 different scripts
  • 1 hieroglyphics
  • 1 demotic
  • 1 Greek
  • Allowed people to translate hieroglyphics
  • Jean-François Champollion
  • Unlocked mystery and published results in 1822

31
Hieroglyphics
  • Created around 3100 B.C.
  • Means sacred carved writing
  • Symbol was drawn to represent a certain sound or
    syllable
  • Symbols were written together to make a word
  • Read from top to bottom or depending which way
    the animal faces were turned
  • No punctuation
  • Vowels would be said using a consonant after such
    as ahhhh

32
Phone
Phone sounds like F long O N.You don't hear
the P, H, or E.
F
O
N
NO!
YES!
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