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FHWA Programs to Reduce Crashes in Rural Areas

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Title: FHWA Programs to Reduce Crashes in Rural Areas


1
FHWA Safety Core Business UnitOffice-Level
Structure
Develops and manages programs for the safe
operation of roadways, bicycle and pedestrian
facilities, and at intermodal connections
including use of Federal funds for safety
purposes.
Directs a program of assistance to States and
other customers in the development and use of
road and roadside features that impact highway
safety performance.
Leads FHWA safety strategic and performance
planning efforts, ensures integration of safety
with other FHWA DOT initiatives, and manages a
program to leverage safety technology and
innovation.
Advances safety through innovation, leadership,
and public service through the coordination of
engineering, behavior, education, enforcement,
and emergency medical services initiatives.
2
Highway Safety in the U.S.
  • U.S. Highway System Among Worlds Safest
  • Fatality Rate Decreasing (as Traffic Increasing)
  • But over 41,000 Deaths 3,200,000 Injuries per
    Year and rates of 1.52
  • US DOT Safety Goals (FHWA, NHTSA, FMCSA)
  • 20 Reduction in Highway deaths injuries by
    2008
  • 50 Reduction in Large-Vehicle-Related deaths
    injuries
  • FHWA Safety Program
  • Analyzes where fatalities injuries occur
  • Looks for major contributing factors
  • Provides funding and program assistance for
    safety needs

3
Estimated Lives Saved in 2000(Using 1966
Fatality Rate 2000 Traffic Volumes) Avoided
109,405 Additional Deaths (70 less)
Projected Fatalities (using 1966 Rate)

Actual Fatalities
4
Where Fatalities OccurBy Roadway Functional
Class - 2000 data
Number of Fatalities
Fatality Rates (per 100 Million VMT)
Interstate Other Freeway
Local Roads
7,358
7,718
8,698
18,047
Collectors
Arterials
Arterials
Locals
Interstate Other Fwy
Collectors
5
Where Fatalities Occur2000 data
RURAL Fatalities by Roadway Functional Class
RURAL URBAN PERCENT Fatalities
  • INTERSTATE RURAL 13
  • LOCAL 19

l
18,047
  • ARTERIALS
  • 38
  • COLLECTORS
  • 30

6
What We Know About Crashes
  • 80 occur during normal weather conditions on dry
    roads
  • 70 occur during daylight hours
  • Fatalities 61 Rural
  • 39 Urban

7
Intersections
  • 21 of all Fatalities
  • 44 of all Crashes
  • - 58 Urban
  • - 42 Rural
  • Unsignalized Intersections
  • - 55 of Urban Crashes
  • - 90 of Rural Crashes

8
2 Lane Roads
  • 77 if all Fatalities (32,038)
  • 2/3 in Rural Areas
  • 2/3 during daylight hours
  • 1/4 intersection related
  • 1/6 Head-ons
  • 6/10 are single vehicle crashes

9
FHWA Focus AreasMajor Contributing Factors to
Fatalities
  • Single Vehicle Run-Off-Road - 38
  • Speeding Related - 30
  • Intersections - 21
  • Pedestrian and Bicyclist - 13
  • (Source 2000 FARS data)

10
Run-Off-Road Crashes
Crashworthy Devices
Removing Roadside Hazards
Improved Visibility
Rumble Strips
11
Run Off Road
  • Safety Hardware
  • NCHRP 350
  • National Crash Analysis Center activities
  • Shoulder Rumble Strips
  • Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM)
    Add Modules Training
  • Retroreflectivity / UV Demonstration
  • Older Driver Workshops

12
Intersection SpeedingPedestrian Bicyclist
Crashes
Safety Features for Pedestrians and Bicyclists
Variable Speed Limits
Intersection Design Enforcement
13
Intersections
  • Stop Red Light Running (RLR) Campaign
  • Automated Enforcement for RLR
  • Surrogate Safety Measures for Intersections
  • Use of Innovative Technologies (esp. coord. with
    ITS / IVI efforts)
  • Roundabout Guide / Workshops / Analysis Tools
  • National Agenda-Setting Workshop
  • Lead by AASHTO / FHWA w/ ITE, other partners
  • November 2001

14
Speed - Related
  • Speed Setting Demonstrations
  • Workshops
  • Speed Exhibit
  • Variable Speed Limit Operational Test
  • Perceptual Measures for Controlling Speed (Based
    on Human Factors)

15
Pedestrians Bicyclists
  • Pedestrian Safety Countermeasure Selection System
  • University Pedestrian and Bicyclist Course
  • Pedestrian and Bicyclist Resource Set (on CD)
  • Pedestrian Safer Journey CD
  • Pedestrian Safety Engineering Outreach and
    Awareness Campaign
  • Pedestrian Safety Engineering and ITS-based
    Countermeasures

16
Program-Wide Initiatives
  • Expanding Partnerships Internal External
  • Advance AASHTO Strategic Safety Plan
  • Integration of Safety w/ Planning Process
  • Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP)
    Coordinated Best Practices Review w/ FHWA Field
    States Quality of Safety Data a Key Issue
  • 2001 National Highway Safety Awards
  • Emphasizing Role of Technology Innovation

17
AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan
  • Leadership by AASHTO with the assistance of
  • Federal Highway Administration
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
  • TRB Committee on Transportation Safety Management
  • ITE
  • National safety experts in driver, vehicle, and
    highway issues

.
18
Key Issues
  • Fatality and Injury Numbers on a Plateau What
    new opportunities are out there to restore
    progress?
  • Data Quality, Timeliness Value to
    Countermeasure Development Safety Conscious
    Planning
  • Needs of Localities Significant Part of Problem
    Is on Local Roads
  • Growing Older Driver Population Safety impacts,
    particularly at complex intersections and
    interchanges
  • Intersection Safety Growing concern as
    high-crash location aggressive driving, traffic
    control enforcement issues

19
Funding Resources for Highway Safety (FY2001
Fed-Aid)
Safety Set-Aside Program ( Millions)
Major Federal-Aid Program Categories ( Billions)
Min. Guarantee
Highway-Rail Grade Crossing
Hazard Elimination
Interstate Maint.
1.4
2.8
5.0
155
162
Bridge
4.3
5.6
6.2
414
7.2
National Hwy. System
Surface Transp. Program
Flexible Safety
20
Funding Sources for FHWA Safety Programs
Safety Programs--FHWA ( in Millions) FY
1998 FY 1999 FY 2000 FY 2001 FY 2002 Safety
Setaside Programs (10 of the Surface
Transportation Program) Hazard Elimination
Program 161.9 162.1 162.2 162.2 162
.2 Highway-Rail Grade Crossings Program
154.4 154.8 154.9 154.9 154.9
Optional Safety 205.1 314.8 368.2
414.2 436.6 Total Safety Setaside
521.4 631.7 685.3 731.3 753.7 Resear
ch and Technology (Surface Transportation
Research) 12.4 14.6 15.4 17.9 17.2
21
Safety Set Aside Programs - Eligible Activities
  HAZARD ELIMINATION PROGRAM (Section
152) Funds may be used for safety improvements
on any public road, public surface transportation
facility or publicly owned bicycle or pedestrian
pathway or trail. Including   -
Intersection improvements - Breakaway
utility poles sign supports -
Pavement shoulder widening - Skid-resistance
- Guardrail barrier improvements - Rumble
strips - Installation of crash cushions -
Data collection analysis - Changes in
roadway alignment - Project planning
evaluation - Signing, pavement mark.
delineation - Traffic Calming
22
Safety Set Aside Programs - Eligible Activities
  RAIL-HIGHWAY GRADE CROSSING SAFETY (Section
130)   All public crossing safety improvements
are eligible including   - signing and pavement
markings - active warning devices (flashing
lights and gates, track circuit improvements and
interconnections with highway traffic signals) -
illumination - surface improvements - grade
separations (new and reconstruction) - sight
distance improvements - geometric improvements
to roadway approaches - closing/consolidating
crossings
23
Other Program Elements, Transfers and Incentives
  • Section 153 Use of Safety Belts and Motorcycle
    Helmets
  • Section 157 Safety Incentive Grants for Use of
    Seatbelts
  • Section 405 Occupant Protection Incentive
    Grants
  • Section 2003B Child Passenger Protection
    Education Grants
  • Section 410 Alcohol Impaired Driving
    Countermeasures
  • Section 163 Safety Incentives To Prevent the
    Operation of Motor Vehicles by Intoxicated
    Persons
  • Section 154 Open Container Requirements
  • Section 164 Minimum Penalties for Repeat
    Offenders for DWI or DUI
  • Section 411 State Highway Safety Data
    Improvements

24
Highway Safety Public Awareness
Moving Safely Across America - interactive
highway safety experience CD-ROM and Kiosk Read
Your Road - Every Highway Users Guide to Driving
Safely Stop Red Light Running video Night
Lights video - explains how retroreflectivity
saves lives Safer Journey Interactive
Pedestrian Safety Awareness the Gold Camera
award winning CD-ROM Walkable Community
brochure Everyone is a Pedestrian brochure
set Red Light-Green Light video on intersection
safety National Work Zone Awareness Week
educates the public about safe driving in work
zones Put the Brakes on Fatalities Day - a new
highway safety outreach campaign observed October
10th each year.
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