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Introduction to Political Sciences by Joseph Marko

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Political Theories and History of Ideas - Comparative Government and Politics ... Left-overs: - Western Balkans (Croatia, BiH, S M, FYROM, Albania) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Political Sciences by Joseph Marko


1
Introduction toPolitical
SciencesbyJoseph Marko
2
Political Sciences
  • Political Theory
  • Areas
  • - Political Theories and History of Ideas
  • - Comparative Government and Politics
  • - International Relations
  • Approaches
  • - Normative - ontological
  • - Empirical - analytical
  • - De-constructive - neo-institutional

Marko
3
Political Sciences
  • Methods Qualitative, Quantitative, Comparative
  • - Historic and institutional studies
  • - Behavioural analyses
  • - Rational choice theory
  • - Discourse analyses
  • History
  • - Philosophy Aristotle, Plato Rawls,
    Habermas
  • - Sociology Durkheim, Weber Parsons,
    Luhmann
  • - Economy Schumpeter, Downs

Marko
4
Political Theory and Approaches
  • Normative - ontological approach
  • - The essence of democracy, people, nation
  • -- Ethno-nationalism and primordial theories
  • Empirical-analytical approach
  • - H. Laski Who does what, how and why ?
  • -- Behaviourism
  • -- Functionalism
  • -- Systems theory

Marko
5
Political Theory and Approaches
  • Behaviorism
  • - Basic units
  • actors action/behavior - process
  • - method empirical analysis
  • observation of facts identification
  • of patterns causal explanation of
  • these patterns

6
Political Theory and Approaches
  • Functionalism and Systems theory
  • - Basic units
  • Social system/environment
  • subunits of the social system
  • - method empirical analysis
  • (first generation Parsons)
  • observation how do these subunits contribute
    to the survival of the social system with regard
    to the challenges which come from the
    environment ?

7
Political Theory and Approaches
  • - Necessary functions AGIL
  • adaptation, goal-attainment, integration,
    latency-maintenance
  • underlying premise function follows structure
    (institutional set-up)
  • - (Second generation Luhmann)
  • search for functional equivalents
  • structure follows function !
  • Which institutional elements can fulfill the
    same requirementsfunction ?
  • - this enables comparison !

8
Political Theory and Approaches
  • David Eastons Model

Economic Subsystem
Cultural Subsystem
Political Subsystem
Autonomy
Oligarchy
OUT-PUT
IN-PUT
Parties Interests Organisations Media
aggregate represent articulate
Efficiency Coercion
Feed back
Values Interests
Society
Marko
9
Political Theory and Approaches
  • De-constructive neo-institutional approach
  • - History normative versus empirical
    approaches mutually exclusive !?
  • - The problem with the normative-ontological
    approach essentialization or naturalization
    of social facts
  • - the necessity to de-construct these processes
    of naturalization race is not a natural
    given, but a social construction of reality
    (Heller, Berger/Luckman)

10
Political Theory and Approaches
  • The social construction of reality
  • - epistemological level identity/difference
  • - normative level equality/inequality
  • - empirical level inclusion/exclusion
  • Institution-building
  • - Actors A B mutual expectations regular
    cooperation they make this cooperation binding
    treaty based on such a treaty new social units
    are formed individuals form legal entities,
    e.x. company, which starts to act like an
    individual (company is now reality as an
    institution based on a legal fiction)

11
History of Ideas and Ideologies
  • Ideologies
  • - Anarchism
  • - Christian social thought
  • - Communism/ Socialism New Left
  • - Conservatism
  • - Fascism/ Nazism New Right
  • - Liberalism Communitarianism
  • - Nationalism Ethno-nationalism -
    Multi-culturalism
  • - Racism
  • - Religious Fundamentalism

Marko
12
Political Ideologies

Marko
13
Political Ideologies IIRelationship Individuals
- Groups
  • Lib. Comm. CSL
    Cons. Coll

Priority of the Individual Priority of the
Group
Freedom Freedom Equality Solidarity
Tradition Collectivity Strict
Accomodation of Personalism Family
Leader Individiualism Individ. Interests
Corporation One Party Power,
and Collective Church
Monopoly Interests Goals of
Power Billboard Institutions
Subsidiarity State
Imperialism Model of
Nation Society Contract Subjection
Marko
14
Political Sciences
  • Key concepts
  • - Models of integration
  • -- State Political system
    Politics
  • -- Government Governance
  • -- Power Sovereignty, Legitimacy
  • -- Democracy
  • Liberal - social
  • Formal - substantive
  • Equality - Difference
  • -- Civic culture Parochial - Participatory

Marko
15
Political Sciences
  • Key Concepts
  • - Models of Conflict
  • -- Revolution, Reform, Transition
  • -- Class conflict
  • -- Elite Theories
  • -- Pluralism

Marko
16
Political Sciences
  • Levels
  • - National Centralisation - Decentralisation/
    Devolution
  • - Sub-national Federalism, Regionalism, Local
    self-gvt.
  • - Transnational CBC
  • - Meta-national Regional cooperation of states
    CoE, NAFTA
  • - Supra-national Delegation of powers to newly
    formed institutions with
    autonomous decision-making power
  • - International IOs, inter-governmental
    cooperation
  • - Global TNCs, inter-dependence, competition,
    de-regulation
  • - Utopia World economy World
    state ?

Marko
17
Political Sciences
  • Comparative Government
  • Forms of Government
  • - Aristotles scheme of classification
  • - Autocratic - democratic regimes
  • - Weak/ failed states State and nation-building
    - good governance
  • Based on comparison of constitutions and
    institutions
  • Comparative Politics
  • - Parties, interest organisations
    (Neo-Corporatism)
  • - Civil society, political culture
  • Actors and process oriented comparision
  • Marko

18
Political Sciences
  • Aristotles system of classification

Marko
19
Political Sciences

AUTOCRATIC DEMOCRACY REGIMES
Representative
Direct
Parliamentary Soviet
legislative fusion
of Dictatorship supremacy
powers Assemblies
vote of
imperative township Authoritarian
non-confidence mandate
Totalitarian Initiative
Presidential
strict separation State Society
of powers
Referendum
Marko
20
Political Sciences
  • Totalitarianism
  • - 1925 Mussolini Stato totalitario
  • - 1957 C.J.Friedrich/ Z. Brzezinski
  • -- State ideology
  • -- One party monopoly
  • -- Terrorist secret police
  • -- Monopoly on information
  • -- Monopoly on weapons
  • -- Centrally planned economy

Marko
21
Political Sciences
  • Transition to Democracy
  • - Phases
  • -- Liberalisation
  • -- Revolution
  • -- Consolidation
  • - Areas Politics - Economics - Culture
    (simultaneous)
  • - Sustainability
  • -- Constitutions and Institutions
  • -- Representative structures parties, interest
    organisations
  • -- Political culture Media, education system
  • - SEE Failed states, reconstruction and
    reconciliation

Marko
22
Majority - Consensus Government
23
Political Sciences
  • International Relations
  • Part I
  • Actors
  • - States
  • - Peoples (liberation movements)
  • - International Organisations
  • - INGOs
  • - TNCs
  • - Individuals
  • Processes Conflict - Cooperation - Integration

Marko
24
Political Sciences
  • Principles and Problems
  • - States
  • -- Sovereign equality
  • -- Prohibition of use of force
  • -- Non-intervention
  • - Peoples
  • -- Self-determination versus Sovereignty
  • Territorial integrity Secession ?
  • - Human and Minority Rights
  • -- Humanitarian Intervention ?

Marko
25
Political Sciences
State Elements - Territory - People -
(Effective) Exercise of Power Power - State -
Legitimacy M. Weber WuG 16 Macht bedeutet
jede Chance, innerhalb einer sozialen Beziehung
den eigenen Willen auch gegen Widerstreben
durchzusetzen, gleichviel worauf diese Chance
beruht. 17 Politischer Verband soll ein
Herrschaftsverband dann und insoweit heißen, als
sein Bestand und die Geltung seiner Ordnungen
innerhalb eines angebbaren geographischen Gebiets
kontinuierlich durch Anwendung und Androhung
physischen Zwangs seitens des Verwaltungsstabes
garantiert werden. Staat soll ein politischer
Anstaltsbetrieb heißen, wenn und insoweit sein
Verwaltungsstab erfolgreich das Monopol legitimen
physischen Zwanges für die Durchführung seiner
Ordnung in Anspruch nimmt. 7 Legitime
Geltung einer Ordnung a) kraft Tradition, b)
kraft affektuellen Glaubens, c) kraft
wertrationalen Glaubens d) kraft positiver
Satzung, an deren Legalität geglaubt wird
26
Political Sciences
  • Charter of the United Nations, 24 October 1945
  • Article 1 The Purposes
  • To maintain international peace and security,....
  • 2. To develop friendly relations among nations
    based on respect for the principle of equal
    rights and self-determination of peoples...
  • 3. To achieve international co-operation...
  • Article 2 Principles
  • Sovereign equality of all its Members
  • 3. International disputes to be settled by
    peaceful means
  • 4. Refrain from threat or use of force against
    territorial integrity or political independence
    of any State
  • 5. No intervention in matters which are
    essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of
    any State

27
Political Sciences
  • People
  • A) Legal fiction Preamble US Constitution
  • We, the people.
  • legal principle expressing popular sovereignty
    legitimizing democratic state organization
  • People all citizens of a given state
    ethnically indifferent fundamental right
  • individual equality before the law

28
Political Sciences
  • People
  • B) Cultural concept German philosophy (Herder,
    Fichte)
  • A people is composed of all persons speaking
    the same language
  • legal principle nationality principle
  • all peoples have the right to form their own
    state

29
Political Sciences
  • Nation Two concepts !
  • A) State-nation no ethnic groups are recognised
    ! Strict separation public private (laicitè)
    reservation with regard to Article 27 ICCPR
  • B) Nation-state recognition and
    institutionalisation of ethnic diversity
  • creates distinction (ethnic) majority
    minority Is there a need for minority protection
    ?

30
Political Sciences
  • Self-determination of peoples
  • Legal sources UN-Charter, Articles 1 of ICCPR
    and ICESCR Friendly Relations Declaration of
    UN-GA 1970
  • Is there a right to secession ?
  • National self-determination or
  • political self-determination ?

31
Political Sciences
  • Friendly Relations Declaration
  • The establishment of a sovereign and
    independent State, the free association or
    integration with an independent State or the
    emergence into any other political status freely
    determined by a people constitute modes of
    implementing the right to self-determination by
    that people.
  • Every State has the duty to refrain from any
    forcible action which deprives peoples in the
    elaboration of the present principleIn their
    actions against, and resistance to such forcible
    action such peoples are entitled to seek and to
    receive support in accordance with the purposes
    and principles of the Charter.

32
Political Sciences
  • Nothing in the forgoing paragraphs shall be
    construed as authorizing or encouraging any
    action which would dismember or impair, totally
    or in part, the territorial integrity or
    political unity of sovereing and independent
    States conducting themselves in compliance with
    the principle of equal rights and
    self-determination of peoples and thus
    possessed of a government representing to the
    whole people belonging to the territory without
    distinction as to race, creed, or color.
  • positivistic position no right to secession or
    intervention
  • Contextual, functionalist position remedial
    secession, humanitarian intervention is ultima
    ratio limitations threat of international
    peace, clear responsibility, UNSC is blocked,
    proportionality

33
Political Sciences
  • Human Rights
  • - History 1679 Habeas Corpus,
  • 1689 Bill of Rights
  • 1776 Virginia Bill of Rights
  • 1789 French Declaration of Rights of Men
  • 1791 American Bill of Rights
  • 1867 Austrian Staatsgrundgesetz
  • 1936 Stalin constitution socio- economic
    rights

34
Political Sciences
  • After WWII
  • UN-development
  • 1945 UN-Charter
  • 1948 GA Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • 1966 ICCPR ICESCR, CERD
  • 1979 CEDAW
  • 1989 Convention on the Rights of Children
  • Problems universal ?, effectivity ?

35
Political Sciences
  • European level
  • Council of Europe mechanisms
  • European Convention on Human Rights 1950
  • Enforcement mechanism ECtHR
  • Problems no guarantee of socio-economic
    rights?, effectivity
  • Other regions
  • American Convention on Human Rights 1969
  • Banjul Charta 1981
  • Cairo Declaration on Islamic Human Rights 1981

36
Political Sciences
  • Minority Rights Protection
  • Functional prerequisites Existence Identity
    Equality - Participation
  • Global level Article 27 ICCPR
  • European level Council of Europe
  • - ECHR Article 14 non-discrimination after
    1989 12th Protocol failed
  • - European Language Charter for Regional and
    Minority Languages 1992 Framework Convention for
    the Protection of National Minorities 1995

37
Political Sciences
  • OSCE Charter of Paris 1990 High Commissioner on
    National Minorities 1992 Recommendations The
    Hague (Education Rights, 1996), Oslo (Linguistic
    Rights, 1998), Lund (Effective Participation in
    Public Life, 1999), Policing in Multi-Ethnic
    Societies (2006), Bozen-Bolzano (Kin-states,
    2008).
  • Problems
  • - The inter-relationship of minority protection
    and conflict-managment
  • - Migration and the need for integration of
    new minorities

38
Political Sciences
  • Structures
  • - 1945 - 1989 Bi-polar
  • -- East-West-Conflict 2 Superpowers and
    military and economic blocs
  • -- North-South-Conflict
  • -- Cooperation in universal and regional
    organisations UN, IMF, Worldbank, GATT CoE,
    CSCE, EFTA
  • -- European Integration

Marko
39
Political Sciences
  • Structures
  • - 1989 - Asymmetric multi-polar
  • -- US - EU, Russia, China, Japan, India
  • -- War and Peace Civil wars -
    Humanitarian Intervention, International
    Terrorism
  • -- Development UN-Millenium goals
  • -- Environment

Marko
40
Political Sciences
  • Trends
  • - Peace From peace-keeping to peace-making and
    post-conflict peace-building Empire lite
    BiH, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq
  • - Economy
  • -- Globalisation
  • -- Under-development Aid, growth, sustainable
    development
  • - Constitutionalisation UN-Reform, ICTY, ICC

Marko
41
Political Sciences
  • European Integration
  • Historical background
  • WW II, Marshall-Plan, East-West - conflict
    Soviet bloc COMECON 1949
  • Economic Integration Supranationalism and
    re-action
  • - 1952 European Coal and Steel Community
  • - 1958 European Economic Community (EEC)
  • EURATOM
  • - 1960 EFTA

Marko
42
Political Sciences
  • Widening
  • - 1963 Association agreement with Turkey
  • - 1973 GB, Denmark, Ireland
  • - 1981 Greece
  • - 1986 Portugal and Spain
  • - 1995 Austria, Finland, Sweden
  • - 2004 Eastern Enlargement (10 countries)
  • - 2007 Bulgaria, Romania
  • Left-overs
  • - Western Balkans (Croatia, BiH, SM, FYROM,
    Albania)
  • - Turkey The eternal candidate ?
  • New Neighbourhood policy East and South

Marko
43
Political Sciences
  • Deepening and Constitutionalisation
  • - 1968 Customs Union fully operational
  • - 1986 Single European Act Single Market until
    1992
  • - 1993 Maastricht Treaty
  • -- European Union
  • -- Economic and Monetary Union until 2002
  • -- Three-Pillar-Structure EU, CFSP, JHA
  • - 1997 Amsterdam Treaty
  • - 2000 Nice Treaty Charta of Fundamental
    Rights
  • - 2004 Constitution-Treaty Ratification failure

Marko
44
Political Sciences
  • Theories of European Integration
  • - Federalism
  • - Neo-functionalism
  • - Inter-governmentalism
  • - Supra-nationalism
  • - Multi-level governance

Marko
45
Political Sciences
Marko
46
Political Sciences
  • MLG
  • EU is no state ? (Federalism)
  • EU is no market
  • EU is not reduced to intergovernmental
    negotiations

47
Political Sciences
  • MLG
  • - no longer state centered, but actor
    oriented
  • - main concern of analysis
  • decision-making process, not why does
    European integration happen

48
Political Sciences
  • MLG
  • - from government to governance
  • focus no longer on law-based institutions
    and hierarchies, but on informal networks and
    processes
  • - from representative to participatory
    democracy

49
Political Sciences
  • MLG
  • - EU-law approach and Governance approach
    compared
  • EU-law direct effect, supremacy
  • MS is black box loss of competences
    compensated through institutional participation
    explanation in terms of separation of powers
    model (vertical, horizontal)

50
Political Sciences
  • MLG
  • - European Governance (White Book 2001)
  • - EU closer to the citizens
  • - more efficiency
  • - re-inforce democracy
  • - consolidate legitimacy

51
Political Sciences
  • MLG
  • Principles Subsidiarity, Proportionality,
    Participation
  • Methods
  • Mainstreaming
  • Regulatory Impact Assessment Open Method of
    Co-ordination
  • Geographical decentralisation involving
    regional/local players in designing and applying
    European standards and policies

52
Political Sciences
  • MLG
  • Geographical decentralisation through
  • Systematic dialogue with associations of local
    authorities
  • Target-based agreements and contracts between
    Commission and regions
  • Creating a framework for transnational and
    interregional co-operation among regional and
    local actors
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