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Introduction to PHP

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Title: Introduction to PHP


1
Introduction to PHP
2
What Is PHP? Stands for Personal Home Page
or PHP Hypertext
  • Advantages of Using PHP to enhance Web pages
  • Easy to use.
  • Open source.
  • Multiple platform.

3
How PHP Pages are Accessed and Interpreted
4
Getting Started with PHP
  • To develop and publish PHP scripts all you need
    is
  • A Web server with PHP built into it
  • A client machine with a basic text editor and
    Internet connection……TextPad
  • FTP or Telnet software…at Conestoga, we are
    saving the files under C\Inetpub\wwwroot\phppro
    grams

5
Exploring the Basic PHP Development Process
  • The basic steps you can use to develop and
    publish PHP pages are
  • 1. Create a PHP script file and save it to a
    local disk using .php extension.
  • 2. Use copy to copy the file to the server.
  • 3. Access your file using a browser.

6
Creating a PHP Script File and Saving It to a
Local Disk
  • You can use a number of different editors to
    create your PHP script files.
  • The PHP script starts with a lt?php tag and ends
    with ?gt.
  • Between these tags is a singlePHP print
    statement.

7
Alternative PHP Delimiters
  • You can alternatively start your PHP scripts with
    the ltscriptgt tag as follows
  • ltscript language"PHP"gt
  • print ("A simple initial script")
  • lt/scriptgt
  • If have short_open_tag enabled in its
    configuration file, you can use lt? and ?gt.
  • If asp_tags is enabled in the PHP configuration
    file, you can use lt and gt as delimiters.

8
Copying Files To A Web Server with FTP….we are
not doing this…copying to Drive C
  • 1. Connect to the Internet and start FTP.
  • 2. Connect to your Web server with FTP.
  • 3. Copy files
  • to the Web
  • server.

9
Accessing Your File Using a Browser
10
Proper Syntax
  • If you have a syntax error then you have written
    one or more PHP statements that are grammatically
    incorrect in the PHP language.
  • The print statement syntax

11
If Use Improper Syntax
  • Suppose you use the wrong syntax
  • 1. lt?php 2. print ( A simple initial script)
  • 3. ?gt

12
A Little About PHP's Syntax
  • Some PHP Syntax Issues
  • Be careful to use quotation marks, parentheses,
    and brackets in pairs.
  • Most PHP commands end with a semicolon ().
  • Be careful of case.
  • PHP ignores blank spaces.

13
Embedding PHP Statements Within HTML Documents
  • One way to use PHP is to embed PHP scripts
    within HTML tags in an HTML document.
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgt
  • lttitlegtHTML With PHP Embeddedlt/titlegt lt/headgt
  • ltbodygt
  • ltfont size5 color"blue"gtWelcome To My
    Pagelt/fontgt
  • lt?php
  • print ("ltbrgt Using PHP is not hardltbrgt")
  • ?gt
  • this is instead of Hello World
  • lt/bodygtlt/htmlgt

14
Would Output The Following ...
15
Using Backslash (\) to Generate HTML Tags with
print()
  • Sometimes you want to output an HTML tag that
    also requires double quotation marks.
  • Use the backslash (\) character to signal that
    the double quotation marks themselves should
    be output print ("ltfont color\"blue\"gt")
  • The above statement would output
  • ltfont color"blue"gt

16
Using Comments with PHP Scripts
  • Comments enable you to include descriptive text
    along with the PHP script.
  • Comment lines are ignored when the script runs
    they do not slow down the run-time.
  • Comments have two common uses.
  • Describe the overall script purpose.
  • Describe particularly tricky script lines.

17
Using Comments with PHP Scripts
  • Comment Syntax - Use //
  • lt?php
  • // This is a comment
  • ?gt
  • Can place on Same line as a statement
  • lt?php
  • print ("A simple initial script") //Output a
    line
  • ?gt

18
Example Script with Comments
  • lthtmlgt ltheadgt
  • lttitlegt Generating HTML From PHPlt/titlegt lt/headgt
  • ltbodygt lth1gt Generating HTML From PHPlt/h1gt
  • lt?php
  • //
  • // Example script to output HTML tags
  • //
  • print ("Using PHP has ltigtsome advantageslt/igt")
  • print ("ltulgtltligtSpeedlt/ligtltligtEase of uselt/ligt
  • ltligtFunctionalitylt/ligtlt/ulgt") //Output bullet
    list
  • print ("lt/bodygtlt/htmlgt")
  • ?gt

19
Alternative Comment Syntax
  • PHP allows a couple of additional ways to create
    comments.
  • lt?php
  • phpinfo() This is a built-in
    function
  • ?gt
  • Multiple line comments. lt?php
  • /
  • A script that gets information about the
  • PHP version being used.
  • /
  • lt? phpinfo() ?gt

20
Using PHP Variables
  • Variables are used to store and access data in
    computer memory.
  • A variable name is a label used within a script
    to refer to the data.

21
Assigning New Values to Variables
  • You can assign new values to variables
  • days 3
  • newdays 100
  • days newdays
  • At the end of these three lines, days and
    newdays both have values of 100.

22
Selecting Variable Names
  • You can select just about any set of characters
    for a variable name in PHP, but they must
  • Use a dollar sign () as the first character
  • Use a letter or an underscore character (_) as
    the second character.
  • NoteTry to select variable names that help
    describe their function. For example counter is
    more descriptive than c or ctr.

23
Combining Variables and the print Statement
  • That is, to print out the value of x, write the
    following PHP statement
  • print ("x")
  • The following code will output Bryant is 6 years
    old.
  • age6
  • print ("Bryant is age years old.")

24
A Full Example ...
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgt lttitlegtVariable Example lt/titlegt lt/headgt
  • ltbodygt
  • lt?php
  • first_num 12
  • second_num 356
  • temp first_num
  • first_num second_num
  • second_num temp
  • print ("first_num first_num ltbrgtsecond_numsec
    ond_num")
  • ?gt lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt

25
Gives you ...
26
Using Arithmetic Operators
  • You can use operators such as a plus sign () for
    addition and a minus sign () for subtraction to
    build mathematical expressions.
  • For example
  • lt?php
  • apples 12
  • oranges 14
  • total_fruit apples oranges
  • print ("The total number of fruit is
    total_fruit")
  • ?gt
  • These PHP statements would output
  • The total number of fruit is 26.

27
Common PHP Numeric Operators
28
A Full Example
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgt lttitlegtVariable Example lt/titlegt lt/headgt
  • ltbodygt
  • lt?php
  • columns 20
  • rows 12
  • total_seats rows columns
  • ticket_cost 3.75
  • total_revenue total_seats ticket_cost
  • building_cost 300
  • profit total_revenue - building_cost
  • print ("Total Seats are total_seats ltbrgt")
  • print ("Total Revenue is total_revenue ltbrgt")
  • print ("Total Profit is profit")
  • ?gt lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt

29
Gives you ...
30
WARNING Using Variables with Undefined Values
If you accidentally use a variable that does not
have a value assigned to it will have no value
(called a null value). When a variable with a
null value is used in an expression PHP, PHP may
not generate an error and may complete the
expression evaluation. For example, the
following PHP script will output x y4. lt?php
y 3 yy x 1 // x has a null value
print ("xx yy") ?gt
31
A Full Example
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgt lttitlegtExpression Example lt/titlegt lt/headgt
  • ltbodygt
  • lt?php
  • grade1 50
  • grade2 100
  • grade3 75
  • average (grade1 grade2 grade3) / 3
  • print ("The average is average")
  • ?gt lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt

32
Gives you ...
33
Working with PHP String Variables
  • Character strings are used in scripts to hold
    data such as customer names, addresses, product
    names, and descriptions.
  • Consider the following example.
  • name"Christopher"
  • preference"Milk Shake"
  • name is assigned Christopher and the variable
    preference is assigned Milk Shake.

34
WARNING Be Careful Not to Mix Variable Types
  • Be careful not to mix string and numeric variable
    types.
  • For example, you might expect the following
    statements to generate an error message, but they
    will not. Instead, they will output y1.
  • lt?php
  • x "banana"
  • sum 1 x
  • print ("ysum")
  • ?gt

35
Using the Concatenate Operator . Vs
  • The concatenate operator combines two separate
    string variables into one.
  • For example,
  • fullname firstname . lastname
  • fullname will receive the string values of
    firstname and lastname connected together.
  • For example,
  • firstname "John"
  • lastname "Smith"
  • fullname firstname . lastname
  • print ("Fullnamefullname")

36
TIP An Easier Way to Concatenate Strings
  • You can also use double quotation marks to create
  • concatenation directly,
  • For example,
  • Fullname "FirstName LastName"
  • //This statement has the same effect as
  • Fullname FirstName . " " . LastName

37
The strlen() Function
  • Most string functions require you to send them
    one or more arguments.
  • Arguments are input values that functions use in
    the processing they do.
  • Often functions return a value to the script
    based on the input arguments. For example

38
The strlen() Function Example
  • lt?php
  • comments "Good Job"
  • len strlen(comments)
  • print ("Lengthlen")
  • ?gt

This PHP script would output Length8.
39
The trim() Function
  • This function removes any blank characters from
    the beginning and end of a string. For example,
    consider the following script
  • lt?php
  • in_name " Santa Claus "
  • name trim(in_name)
  • print ("namenamename")
  • ?gt
  • Would Print nameSanta ClausSanta Claus

40
The strtolower() and strtoupper() Functions
  • These functions return the input string in all
    uppercase or all lowercase letters, respectively.
  • For example,
  • lt?php
  • inquote "Now Is The Time"
  • lower strtolower(inquote)
  • upper strtoupper(inquote)
  • print ("upperupper lowerlower")
  • ?gt
  • The above would output upperNOW IS THE TIME
    lowernow is the time.

41
The substr() Function
  • Substr has the following general format

42
The substr() Function
  • The substr() function enumerates character
    positions starting with 0 (not 1),
  • For example, in the string Homer, the H would
    be position 0, the o would be position 1, the
    m position 2, and so on.
  • For example, the following would output
  • Month12 Day25.
  • lt?php
  • date "12/25/2004"
  • month substr(date, 0, 2)
  • day substr(date, 3, 2)
  • print ("Monthmonth Dayday")
  • ?gt

43
The substr() Function
  • As another example, consider the following use of
    the substr() function
  • It does not include the third argument (and thus
    returns a substring from the starting position to
    the end of the search string).
  • lt?php
  • date "12/25/2004"
  • year substr(date, 6)
  • print ("Yearyear")
  • ?gt
  • The above script segment would output Year2004.

44
Another Full Script Example
lthtmlgt ltheadgt lttitlegt A Simple Form lt/titlegt
lt/headgt ltbodygt ltform action""method"post"
gt Click submit to start our initial PHP
program. ltbrgt ltinput type"submit" value"Click
To Submit"gt ltinput type"reset" value"Erase and
Restart"gt lt/formgt lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt
45
Gives you ...
46
Receiving Form Input into PHP Scripts
  • To receive HTML form input into a PHP script
  • Use a PHP var name that matches the variable
    defined in the form elements name argument.
  • For example, if form uses the following
  • ltinput type"radio" name"contact" value"Yes"gt
  • Then form-handling PHP script could use a
    variable called contact.
  • If the user clicks the radio button, then
    contact would Yes

47
Full Example (2 Files)
  • Suppose your HTML form uses the following
  • Enter email address ltinput type"text" size"16"
    maxlength"20" name"email"gt
  • ltform action"receiving.php" method"post"gt
  • Then can receive input as follows
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgtlttitlegt Receiving Input lt/titlegt lt/headgt
  • ltbodygt
  • ltfont size5gtThank You Got Your Input.lt/fontgt
  • lt?php
  • print ("ltbrgtYour email address is email")
  • print ("ltbrgt Contact preference is
    contact")
  • ?gt

48
Gives you ...
49
Register_Globals?
  • Since PHP 4.2.1, the default PHP configuration is
    require a different mechanism to receive input
    for security reasons (than the one just shown).
  • Technical details it is a PHP configuration
    option to turn REGISTER_GLOBALS OFF (new default)
    or ON in the php.ini configuration file.
  • If your site has REGISTER_GLOBALS OFF you must
    use a different mechanism to receive HTML Form
    Variables.

50
How can you tell if Register_Globals is OFF?
  • Enter the following PHP script and run it.
  • lt?PHP phpinfo() ?gt
  • Search through the output for REGISTER_GLOBALS
    and see if it is set to OFF or ON.
  • If it is off you must use the following way to
    receive input data.

51
Getting input data with Register_Globals OFF?
  • To receive data with REGISTER_GLOBALS OFF you use
    a special variable called POST.
  • _POST'name' ?gt.

Enclose in square bracket and then quotes
Name of HTML form variable (note do not use )
Special PHP Global variable. Technically it is an
associative array
52
Full Example, when REGISTER_GLOBALS is OFF.
  • Suppose your HTML form uses the following
  • Enter email address ltinput type"text" size"16"
    maxlength"20" name"email"gt
  • Then can receive input as follows
  • lthtmlgt
  • ltheadgtlttitlegt Receiving Input lt/titlegt lt/headgt
  • ltbodygt
  • lt?php
  • email _POSTemail
  • contact _POSTcontact
  • ?gt
  • ltfont size5gtThank You Got Your Input.lt/fontgt
  • lt?php
  • print ("ltbrgtYour email address is email")
  • print ("ltbrgt Contact preference is contact")
  • ?gt

53
Gives you ...
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