Kennedy and The Cold War 19601963 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Kennedy and The Cold War 19601963

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Kennedy built up the conventional and nuclear weapons systems to deter the USSR ... Fidel Castro had led a revolution in Cuba and seized power from Batista in 1959 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kennedy and The Cold War 19601963


1
Kennedy and The Cold War1960-1963
2
Ch 20 Section1 JFK and the Cold War
  • What was the new military policy of JFKs
    Administration?
  • What was the crisis over Cuba?
  • Why was Berlin a Cold War symbol of the 1960s?

3
JFKs Military Policy
  • Kennedy built up the conventional and nuclear
    weapons systems to deter the USSR and to close
    the missile gap with the Soviets
  • Between 1960-1962 military spending increased
    30, 43 billion to 56 billion
  • The Special Forces or Green Berets were created
  • Kennedy expanded the CIA and
  • and Black Operations

4
The Bay Of Pigs Invasion
  • Fidel Castro had led a revolution in Cuba and
    seized power from Batista in 1959
  • JFK learned of a CIA planned approved by IKE to
    train Cuban exiles and allow them to attack Cuba,
    and overthrow Castro
  • In April 1961, 1,500 Cuban exiles never reached
    the beach
  • The air strike failed and Castro waited with
    25,000 troops and Soviet Weapons
  • Kennedy, CIA, and the US were embarrassed on the
    world stage, total fiasco

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Southeast Asia
  • Kennedy sent in hundreds of Green Berets when the
    Vietcong Communist Guerrillas attacked South
    Vietnam and the US supported Ngo Dinh Diem
  • By 1963 16,000 US troops had been sent to South
    Vietnam
  • Diem lost the support of the people and protest
    erupted (Ex. Buddhist Monks)
  • Upon approval from the CIA Diem was assassinated
    by his Generals
  • Americans witnessed the protests through TV, US
    causalities increased

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10
The Berlin Crisis
  • In 1961 Khrushchev and JKF met in Vienna, Austria
  • JKF felt he looked weak and second best
  • Khrushchev threatened to force the Western powers
    out of West Berlin
  • 3 million East Germans had fled to West Berlin
    since the end of WWII
  • JFK told Americans we stay in Berlin
  • August 13th, 1961 Khrushchev responded by
    allowing East Germany to construct The Berlin
    Wall

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The Cuban Missile Crisis
  • In the summer of 1962 the Khrushchev began
    shipping Soviet Offensive Nuclear Missiles to
    Castro In Cuba
  • The US had Offensive Missiles in Turkey
  • In October 1962 U-2 Spy planes took pictures of
    the weapons that could reach the US in minutes
    and destroy American cities

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23
Kennedys Options
  • Invade Cuba? Soviet Troops were present
  • Bomb the Sites? Sneak Attack?
  • Naval Blockade around Cuba, or a Quarantine

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Brink of Nuclear War
  • The US was on DEFCON 3, 100,000 US troops readied
    in Florida to invade Cuba
  • The Naval Blockade was in place around Cuba
  • The Soviet Cargo Ships stormed to the blockade,
    but then turned around
  • Days later Khrushchev pledged to remove the
    missiles if we pledged not to invade Cuba, and
    secretly months later we removed our missiles
    from Turkey
  • RFK was instrumental in dealing with the Soviet
    ambassador

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31
Outcomes of the Crisis
  • Khrushchev prestige was damaged, JFK looked
    stronger, but he was criticized for brinksmanship
  • The Hot-line was established between
    Washington/Moscow
  • JFK wanted to relax Cold War Tensions
  • In 1962 the US and the USSR agreed to the Limited
    Test Ban Treaty which banned nuclear testing in
    the atmosphere

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