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Evaluation of Nine Native Plant Species Planted in Four Growth Media Depths for Extensive Green Roof

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Richter, 1W. Retzlaff, 1S. Morgan, 2K. Luckett, 3V. Jost. ... Long periods where arid soils may occur (Kohler, 2003) Selecting plants with xerophytic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Evaluation of Nine Native Plant Species Planted in Four Growth Media Depths for Extensive Green Roof


1
Evaluation of Nine Native Plant Species Planted
in Four Growth Media Depths for Extensive Green
Roofs
  • 1L. Richter, 1W. Retzlaff, 1S. Morgan, 2K.
    Luckett, 3V. Jost.
  • 1Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, IL,
  • 2Green Roof Blocks, St. Louis, MO,
  • 3Jost Greenhouses, Des Peres, MO.

2
(No Transcript)
3
Extensive Green Roof Conditions
  • High solar radiation
  • Extra high evaporation
  • Long periods where arid soils may occur (Kohler,
    2003)
  • Selecting plants with xerophytic characteristics
    may be important for green roof applications
    (Martin Hinckley, 2007)

4
Plant Selection
  • Groups other than Sedum possess adaptations to
    similarly extreme temperature and moisture
    conditions
  • Drought tolerance, high seed production, short
    lived-cycle (Kohler, 2003)
  • Possible species occurs in habitats such dry
    grassland or steppe (Dunnett and Nolan, 2004) and
    rock outcrops, cliffs and alpine areas (Lundholm
    et al., 2009)

5
Previous Studies MSU
  • Evaluated 18 Michigan natives and 9 Sedum spp.
  • 4 of 18 natives were used successfully
  • All Sedum spp. were suitable for an extensive
    green roof without irrigation

(Monterusso et al., 2005)
6
Previous Studies Nova Scotia, Canada
  • Evaluated 14 species and 3 moisture treatments
    (4, 11, and 24 days between saturation)
  • Dry treatment only 3 species lived (Sedum
    rubrotinctum, Sedum spurium, and Rhodiola rosea)
  • Wet treatments all 14 species survived

(Wolf and Lundholm, 2008)
7
Previous Studies UK
  • Evaluated 9 herbaceous perennials and 2 substrate
    depths
  • There is a potential to use other species on
    extensive green roofs, and substrate depth may be
    less important than water availability

(Dunnett and Nolan, 2004)
8
Increasing Potential Plant Palette
  • Larger plant selection could encourage
    biodiversity, replace habitat lost by
    development, and add green space in urban
    environments (Bousselot et al., 2009)
  • Extensive green roofs can be designed for
    different plant taxa (Brenneisen, 2006 Kohler,
    2006) and provide valuable wildlife habitat
    (Grant, 2006 Baumann, 2006 Kadas, 2006)

9
Project Goal
  • Monitor plant performance of 9 perennial species
    in 4 green roof substrate depths, and evaluate
    suitability for a midwest extensive green roof.

10
Methods
  • June 11, 2009 at SIUE Environmental Sciences
    Field Site
  • Green PaksTM modular system
  • Nine native plant species
  • Four growth media depths (7, 16, 24, 33 cm)

11
Native green roof study experimental layout at
SIUE field site. Within a replicate there were
two Green PaksTM at each substrate depth (7, 16,
24, and 33 cm), and there were three replicates.
To attain the different substrate depths we
stacked Green PaksTM 1 (7 cm), 2 (16 cm), 3 (24
cm), and 4 (33 cm) deep.
12
Native green roof study experimental layout at
SIUE field site for pack depth and plant
locations. Species codes are, Allium
schoenoprasum (ALSC ), Antennaria dioica (rubra)
(ANDI), Bouteloua gracilis (BOGR), Callirhoe
involucrata (CAIN), Ericameria nauseosus (ERNA),
Eryngium yuccifolium (ERYU), Oryzopsis hymenoides
(ORHY), Ruellia humilus (RUHU), and Talinum
calycinum (TACA).  
13
Antennaria dioica (rubra)
Allium schoenoprasum
14
Callirhoe involucrata
Bouteloua gracilis
15
Eryngium yuccifolium
Ericameria nauseosus
16
Oryzopsis hymenoides
Ruellia humilis
17
Talinum calycinum
18
Measurements
  • Percent roof coverage using modified dot grid
  • Plant growth index (H X W1 X W2)/3
  • (Monterusso et al., 2005)

19
Percent roof coverage in relation to growth
medium depth on 07/08/09. Letters that are the
same are not significantly different at an a
level 0.05. Bars represent 1 standard error.
20
Percent roof coverage in relation to growth
medium depth on 07/22/09. Letters that are the
same are not significantly different at an a
level 0.05. Bars represent 1 standard error.
21
Plant species growth index on 07/08/09. Growth
index represent average of height, and two width
measurements. Species codes are, Allium
schoenoprasum (ALSC ), Antennaria dioica (rubra)
(ANDI), Bouteloua gracilis (BOGR), Callirhoe
involucrata (CAIN), Ericameria nauseosus (ERNA),
Eryngium yuccifolium (ERYU), Oryzopsis hymenoides
(ORHY), Ruellia humilus (RUHU), and Talinum
calycinum (TACA). Letters that are the same are
not significantly different at an a level 0.05.
Bars represent 1 standard error.
22
Plant species growth index on 07/22/09. Growth
index represent average of height, and two width
measurements. Species codes are, Allium
schoenoprasum (ALSC ), Antennaria dioica (rubra)
(ANDI), Bouteloua gracilis (BOGR), Callirhoe
involucrata (CAIN), Ericameria nauseosus (ERNA),
Eryngium yuccifolium (ERYU), Oryzopsis hymenoides
(ORHY), Ruellia humilus (RUHU), and Talinum
calycinum (TACA). Letters that are the same are
not significantly different at an a level 0.05.
Bars represent 1 standard error.
23
Conclusions
  • After 6 weeks of growth there was no difference
    in overall percent roof coverage by depth, but
    individual species did show differences in growth
    indices.
  • Percent roof coverage and growth index
    measurements will continue for several years to
    evaluate which growth medium depths, if any, are
    suitable for each of the species.

24
References
  • Baumann, N. 2006. Ground-Nesting Birds on Green
    Roofs in Switzerland Preliminary Observations.
    Urban Habitats. 437-50.
  • Bousselot, J.M., Klett, J.E., Kosk, R.D. 2009.
    High Elevation Semi-Arid Taxa Evaluations on an
    Extensive Green Roof. Proc. of the 7th North
    American Green roof Conf. Greening Rooftops for
    Sustainable Communities, Atlanta, GA. June 2-June
    5 2009.
  • Brenneisen, S. 2006. Space for Urban Wildlife
    Designing Green Roofs as Habitats in Switzerland.
    Urban Habitats. 427-36.
  • Dunnett, N., Nolan, A. 2004. The Effect of
    Substrate Depth and Supplementary Watering on the
    Growth of Nine Herbaceous Perennials in a
    Semi-extensive Green Roof. Acta Horticulture.
    643305-309.
  • Grant, G. 2006. Extensive Green Roofs in London.
    Urban Habitats. 451-65.
  • Kadas, G. 2006. Rare Invertebrates Colonizing
    Green Roofs in London. Urban Habitats. 466-85.
  • Koehler, M. 2003. Plant Survival Research and
    Biodiversity Lessons From Europe. Proc. of the
    1st North American Green roof Conf. Greening
    Rooftops for Sustainable Communities, Chicago,
    IL. The Cardinal Group, Toronto.
  • Koehler, M. 2006. Long-Term Vegetation Research
    on Two Extensive Green Roofs in Berlin. Urban
    Habitats. 43-23.
  • Lundholm, J.T., MacIvor, J.S., Ranalli, M.A.
    2009. Benefits of Green Roofs on Canadas East
    Coast. Proc. of the 7th North American Green roof
    Conf. Greening Rooftops for Sustainable
    Communities, Atlanta, GA. June 2-June 5 2009.
  • Martin, M.A., Hinckley, T.M. 2007. Native Plant
    Performance on a Seattle Green Roof. Proc. of
    the 5th North American Green roof Conf. Greening
    Rooftops for Sustainable Communities,
    Minneapolis, MD. April 29-May 1 2007. The
    Cardinal Group, Toronto.
  • Monterusso, M.A., Rowe, D.B., Rugh, C.L. 2005.
    Establishment and Persistence of Sedum spp. and
    Native Taxa for Green Roof Applications. Hort
    Science. 40(2)391-396.
  • Wolf, D., Lundholm, J.T. 2008. Water Uptake in
    Green Roof Microcosms Effects of Plant Species
    and Water Availability. Ecological Engineering.
    33 179-186.

25
Acknowledgements
  • We thank the National Great Rivers Research and
    Education Center for funding this internship.
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