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Title: Chemistry: Matter and Change


1
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2
Chapter Menu
Ionic Compounds and Metals
Section 8.1 Ion Formation Section 8.2 Ionic
Bonds and Ionic Compounds Section 8.3 Names and
Formulas for Ionic Compounds Section 8.4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the
corresponding slides.
Exit
3
Section 7-1
Section 8.1 Ion Formation
  • Define a chemical bond.

octet rule atoms tend to gain, lose, or share
electrons in order to acquire eight valence
electrons
  • Describe the formation of positive and negative
    ions.
  • Relate ion formation to electron configuration.

chemical bond cation anion
Ions are formed when atoms gain or lose valence
electrons to achieve a stable octet electron
configuration.
4
Section 7-1
Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds
  • A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms
    together.
  • Chemical bonds form by the attraction between the
    positive nucleus of one atom and the negative
    electrons of another atom.

5
Section 7-1
Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds (cont.)
  • Atoms try to form the octetthe stable
    arrangement of eight valence electrons in the
    outer energy levelby gaining or losing valence
    electrons.

6
Section 7-1
Positive Ion Formation
  • A positively charged ion is called a cation.
  • This figure illustrates how sodium loses one
    valence electron to become a sodium cation.

7
Section 7-1
Positive Ion Formation (cont.)
  • Metals are reactive because they lose valence
    electrons easily. Memorize these.

8
Section 7-1
Positive Ion Formation (cont.)
  • Transition metals commonly form 2 or 3 ions,
    but can form greater than 3 ions.
  • Other relatively stable electron arrangements are
    referred to as pseudo-noble gas configurations.

9
  • Chem Alive oxidation states of vanadium

10
Section 7-1
Negative Ion Formation
  • An anion is a negatively charged ion.
  • The figure shown here illustrates chlorine
    gaining an electron to become a chlorine ion.

11
Section 7-1
Negative Ion Formation (cont.)
  • Nonmetal ions gain the number of electrons
    required to fill an octet.
  • Some nonmetals can gain or lose electrons to
    complete an octet. Memorize these.

12
Section 7-1
Section 7.1 Assessment
Oxygen gains two electrons to form what kind of
ion? A. 1 anion B. 2 anion C. 1 cation
D. 2 cation
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

13
Section 7-1
Section 7.1 Assessment
Elements with a full octet have which
configuration? A. ionic configuration
B. halogen configuration C. noble gas
configuration D. transition metal configuration
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

14
  • Section quiz

15
Study Guide 1
Section 7.1 Ion Formation
Key Concepts
  • A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms
    together.
  • Some atoms form ions to gain stability. This
    stable configuration involves a complete outer
    energy level, usually consisting of eight valence
    electrons.
  • Ions are formed by the loss or gain of valence
    electrons.
  • The number of protons remains unchanged during
    ion formation.

16
End of Section 7-1
17
Section 7-2
Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds
  • Describe the formation of ionic bonds and the
    structure of ionic compounds.
  • Generalize about the strength of ionic bonds
    based on the physical properties of ionic
    compounds.
  • Categorize ionic bond formation as exothermic or
    endothermic.

compound a chemical combination of two or more
different elements
18
Section 7-2
Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds
(cont.)
ionic bond ionic compound crystal
lattice electrolyte lattice energy
Oppositely charged ions attract each other,
forming electrically neutral ionic compounds.
19
Section 7-2
Formation of an Ionic Bond
  • The electrostatic force that holds oppositely
    charged particles together in an ionic compound
    is called an ionic bond.
  • Compounds that contain ionic bonds are called
    ionic compounds.
  • Binary ionic compounds contain only two different
    elementsa metallic cation and a nonmetallic
    anion.

20
Section 7-2
Formation of an Ionic Bond (cont.)
21
  • animation

22
  • Do questions 7-11 page 217
  • Answers on page 926

23
Section 7-2
Properties of Ionic Compounds
  • Positive and negative ions exist in a ratio
    determined by the number of electrons transferred
    from the metal atom to the non-metal atom.
  • The repeating pattern of particle packing in an
    ionic compound is called an ionic crystal.

24
Section 7-2
Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • The strong attractions among the positive and
    negative ions result in the formation of the
    crystal lattice.
  • A crystal lattice is the three-dimensional
    geometric arrangement of particles, and is
    responsible for the structure of many minerals.

25
Section 7-2
Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • Melting point, boiling point, and hardness depend
    on the strength of the attraction.

26
Section 7-2
Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • In a solid, ions are locked into position and
    electrons cannot flow freelysolid ions are poor
    conductors of electricity.
  • Liquid ions or ions in aqueous solution have
    electrons that are free to move, so they conduct
    electricity easily.
  • An ion in aqueous solution that conducts
    electricity is an electrolyte.

27
Section 7-2
Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • This figure demonstrates how and why crystals
    break when an external force is applied.

28
Section 7-2
Energy and the Ionic Bond
  • Reactions that absorb energy are endothermic.
  • Reactions that release energy are exothermic.

29
Section 7-2
Energy and the Ionic Bond (cont.)
  • The energy required to separate 1 mol of ions in
    an ionic compound is referred to as the lattice
    energy.
  • Lattice energy is directly related to the size of
    the ions that are bonded.

30
Section 7-2
Energy and the Ionic Bond (cont.)
  • Smaller ions form compounds with more closely
    spaced ionic charges, and require more energy to
    separate.
  • Electrostatic force of attraction is inversely
    related to the distance between the opposite
    charges.
  • The smaller the ion, the greater the attraction.

31
Section 7-2
Energy and the Ionic Bond (cont.)
  • The value of lattice energy is also affected by
    the charge of the ion.

32
Section 7-2
Section 7.2 Assessment
Why are solid ionic compounds poor conductors of
electricity? A. They are non-metals. B. They
are electrolytes. C. They have electrons that
cannot flow freely. D. Solids do not conduct
electricity.
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

33
Section 7-2
Section 7.2 Assessment
What is the electrostatic charge holding two ions
together? A. covalent bond B. pseudo-noble gas
bond C. crystal lattice bond D. ionic bond
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

34
  • Section quiz

35
Study Guide 2
Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds
Key Concepts
  • Ionic compounds contain ionic bonds formed by the
    attraction of oppositely charged ions.
  • Ions in an ionic compound are arranged in a
    repeating pattern known as a crystal lattice.
  • Ionic compound properties are related to ionic
    bond strength.
  • Ionic compounds are electrolytes they conduct an
    electric current in the liquid phase and in
    aqueous solution.

36
Study Guide 2
Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds
(cont.)
Key Concepts
  • Lattice energy is the energy needed to remove 1
    mol of ions from its crystal lattice.

37
End of Section 7-2
38
Section 7-3
Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic
Compounds
  • Relate a formula unit of an ionic compound to its
    composition.
  • Write formulas for ionic compounds and oxyanions.
  • Apply naming conventions to ionic compounds and
    oxyanions.

nonmetal an element that is generally a gas or a
dull, brittle solid and is a poor conductor of
heat and electricity
39
Section 7-3
Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic
Compounds (cont.)
formula unit monatomic ion oxidation
number polyatomic ion oxyanion
In written names and formulas for ionic
compounds, the cation appears first, followed by
the anion.
40
Section 7-3
Formulas for Ionic Compounds
  • When writing names and formulas for ionic
    compounds, the cation appears first followed by
    the anion.
  • Chemists around the world need to communicate
    with one another, so a standardized system of
    naming compounds was developed.

41
Section 7-3
Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • A formula unit represents the simplest ratio of
    the ions involved.
  • Monatomic ions are one-atom ions.

42
Section 7-3
Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • Oxidation number, or oxidation state, is the
    charge of a monatomic ion.

43
Section 7-3
Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • The symbol for the cation is always written
    first, followed by the symbol of the anion.
  • Subscripts represent the number of ions of each
    element in an ionic compound.
  • The total charge must equal zero in an ionic
    compound.

44
  • Do questions 19-23 page 224
  • answers on page 926

45
Section 7-3
Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • Polyatomic ions are ions made up of more than one
    atom.( a charged molecule)
  • Never change subscripts of polyatomic ions, place
    in parentheses and write the appropriate
    subscript outside the parentheses.

46
Section 7-3
Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.)
47
  • Do questions 24-28 page 225
  • Answers on page 926

48
Section 7-3
Names for Ions and Ionic Compounds
  • An oxyanion is a polyatomic ion composed of an
    element (usually a non-metal), bonded to one or
    more oxygen atoms.

49
Section 7-3
Names for Ions and Ionic Compounds (cont.)
50
Section 7-3
Names for Ions and Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • Chemical nomenclature is a systematic way of
    naming compounds.
  • Name the cation followed by the anion.
  • For monatomic, cations use the element name.
  • For monatomic anions, use the root element name
    and the suffix ide.
  • To distinguish between different oxidation states
    of the same element, the oxidation state is
    written in parentheses after the name of the
    cation.
  • When the compound contains a polyatomic ion, name
    the cation followed by the name of the polyatomic
    ion.

51
  • Do questions 29-34 page 226
  • Answers on page 926

52
Section 7-3
Names for Ions and Ionic Compounds (cont.)
53
Section 7-3
Section 7.3 Assessment
Which subscripts would you most likely use for an
ionic compound containing an alkali metal and a
halogen? (Remember, 1 no written subscript)
A. 1 and 2 B. 2 and 1 C. 2 and 3 D. 1 and 1
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

54
Section 7-3
Section 7.3 Assessment
What is the name of the compound CaOH?
A. calcium oxide B. calcium(I)oxide C. calcium
hydroxide D. calcium peroxide
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

55
  • Self check quizzes

56
Study Guide 3
Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic
Compounds
Key Concepts
  • A formula unit gives the ratio of cations to
    anions in the ionic compound.
  • A monatomic ion is formed from one atom. The
    charge of a monatomic ion is its oxidation
    number.
  • Roman numerals indicate the oxidation number of
    cations having multiple possible oxidation
    states.
  • Polyatomic ions consist of more than one atom and
    act as a single unit.

57
Study Guide 3
Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic
Compounds (cont.)
Key Concepts
  • To indicate more than one polyatomic ion in a
    chemical formula, place parentheses around the
    polyatomic ion and use a subscript.

58
End of Section 7-3
59
Section 7-4
Section 7.4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of
Metals
  • Describe a metallic bond.
  • Relate the electron sea model to the physical
    properties of metals.
  • Define alloys, and categorize them into two basic
    types.

physical property a characteristic of matter
that can be observed or measured without altering
the samples composition
60
Section 7-4
Section 7.4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of
Metals (cont.)
electron sea model delocalized electron metallic
bond alloy
Metals form crystal lattices and can be modeled
as cations surrounded by a sea of freely moving
valence electrons.
61
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
  • Metals are not ionic but share several properties
    with ionic compounds.
  • Metals also form lattices in the solid state,
    where 8 to 12 other atoms closely surround each
    metal atom.

62
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
(cont.)
  • Within the crowded lattice, the outer energy
    levels of metal atoms overlap.
  • The electron sea model proposes that all metal
    atoms in a metallic solid contribute their
    valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons.
  • The electrons are free to move around and are
    referred to as delocalized electrons, forming a
    metallic cation.

63
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
(cont.)
  • A metallic bond is the attraction of an metallic
    cation for delocalized electrons.

64
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
(cont.)
  • Boiling points are much more extreme than melting
    points because of the energy required to separate
    atoms from the groups of cations and electrons.

65
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
(cont.)
  • Metals are malleable because they can be hammered
    into sheets.
  • Metals are ductile because they can be drawn into
    wires.

66
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
(cont.)
  • Mobile electrons around cations make metals good
    conductors of electricity and heat.
  • As the number of delocalized electrons increases,
    so does hardness and strength.

67
  • Chemalive video field trips what is gold?

68
Section 7-4
Metal Alloys
  • An alloy is a mixture of elements that has
    metallic properties.
  • The properties of alloys differ from the elements
    they contain.

69
Section 7-4
Metal Alloys (cont.)
70
Section 7-4
Metal Alloys (cont.)
  • Substitutional alloys are formed when some atoms
    in the original metallic solid are replaced by
    other metals of similar atomic structure.
  • Interstitial alloys are formed when small holes
    in a metallic crystal are filled with smaller
    atoms.

71
Section 7-4
Section 7.4 Assessment
The attraction of a metallic cation and
delocalized electrons forms what kind of bond?
A. ionic B. covalent C. diatomic D. metallic
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

72
Section 7-4
Section 7.4 Assessment
Which property of metals allows them to be easily
drawn into wires? A. malleability B. ductility
C. conductivity D. durability
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

73
  • Self check questions

74
Study Guide 4
Section 7.4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties
of Metals
Key Concepts
  • A metallic bond forms when metal cations attract
    freely moving, delocalized valence electrons.
  • In the electron sea model, electrons move through
    the metallic crystal and are not held by any
    particular atom.
  • The electron sea model explains the physical
    properties of metallic solids.
  • Metal alloys are formed when a metal is mixed
    with one or more other elements.

75
End of Section 7-4
76
Resources Menu
Chemistry Online Study Guide Chapter
Assessment Standardized Test Practice Image
Bank Concepts in Motion
77
Study Guide 1
Section 7.1 Ion Formation
Key Concepts
  • A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms
    together.
  • Some atoms form ions to gain stability. This
    stable configuration involves a complete outer
    energy level, usually consisting of eight valence
    electrons.
  • Ions are formed by the loss or gain of valence
    electrons.
  • The number of protons remains unchanged during
    ion formation.

78
Study Guide 2
Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds
Key Concepts
  • Ionic compounds contain ionic bonds formed by the
    attraction of oppositely charged ions.
  • Ions in an ionic compound are arranged in a
    repeating pattern known as a crystal lattice.
  • Ionic compound properties are related to ionic
    bond strength.
  • Ionic compounds are electrolytes they conduct an
    electric current in the liquid phase and in
    aqueous solution.

79
Study Guide 2
Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds
(cont.)
Key Concepts
  • Lattice energy is the energy needed to remove 1
    mol of ions from its crystal lattice.

80
Study Guide 3
Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic
Compounds
Key Concepts
  • A formula unit gives the ratio of cations to
    anions in the ionic compound.
  • A monatomic ion is formed from one atom. The
    charge of a monatomic ion is its oxidation
    number.
  • Roman numerals indicate the oxidation number of
    cations having multiple possible oxidation
    states.
  • Polyatomic ions consist of more than one atom and
    act as a single unit.

81
Study Guide 3
Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic
Compounds (cont.)
Key Concepts
  • To indicate more than one polyatomic ion in a
    chemical formula, place parentheses around the
    polyatomic ion and use a subscript.

82
Study Guide 4
Section 7.4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties
of Metals
Key Concepts
  • A metallic bond forms when metal cations attract
    freely moving, delocalized valence electrons.
  • In the electron sea model, electrons move through
    the metallic crystal and are not held by any
    particular atom.
  • The electron sea model explains the physical
    properties of metallic solids.
  • Metal alloys are formed when a metal is mixed
    with one or more other elements.

83
Chapter Assessment 1
Cations form when atoms _______ electrons.
A. gain B. lose C. charge D. delocalize
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

84
Chapter Assessment 2
What is the repeating pattern of atoms in an
ionic solid called? A. crystal lattice B. ionic
lattice C. energy lattice D. ionic bonding
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

85
Chapter Assessment 3
Give the name of the following NaClO4
A. sodium hypochlorite B. sodium chlorite
C. sodium chlorate D. sodium perchlorate
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

86
Chapter Assessment 4
As the distance between ions in an ionic bond is
shortened, A. the energy to break the bond
decreases. B. the electrostatic attraction
decreases. C. the electrostatic attraction
increases. D. the ionic bond changes to a
metallic bond.
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

87
Chapter Assessment 5
An alloy is what type of substance?
A. heterogeneous mixture B. compound
C. mixture of elements D. element
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

88
STP 1
Which is NOT true about metallic solids?
A. Metals are shiny. B. Metals are good
conductors of heat and electricity. C. Metals
are ductile. D. Metals have relatively low
boiling points.
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

89
STP 2
Electrons in an atoms outer most energy level
are referred to as what? A. ions B. cations
C. valence electrons D. noble-gas electrons
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

90
STP 3
What is the oxidation state of copper in
Cu(II)Cl2? A. 1 B. 2 C. 2 D. unable to
determine
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

91
STP 4
Which elements naturally occur with a full octet
of valence electrons? A. alkali metals
B. alkali earth metals C. halogens D. noble
gases
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

92
STP 5
How many electrons are in a full octet? A. 10
B. 8 C. 6 D. 4
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D

93
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CIM
Table 7.1 Electron-Dot Structure Table
7.4 Formation of Sodium Chloride
117
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