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Lunar Science and Exploration


Kelly Snook and James Green. Planetary Sciences Division. Lunar Science and Exploration ... significantly enhanced relative to Apollo and current ISS EVA suits. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lunar Science and Exploration

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Lunar Science and Exploration In NASAs Science
Mission Directorate Presented to US Chamber of
Commerce August 14, 2007 Kelly Snook and James
Green Planetary Sciences Division
Lunar Science and Exploration In NASAs Science
Mission Directorate Presented to US Chamber of
Commerce August 14, 2007 Kelly Snook and James
Green Planetary Sciences Division
  • Introduction
  • New and ongoing lunar activities and
  • Recent studies, meetings, and workshops
  • Recommendations
  • NASA responses to recommendations

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
SMD Lunar Research Opportunities
  • Research Opportunities in Space and Earth
    Sciences (ROSES)
  • LASER - Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration
    Research program
  • Joint SMD/ESMD
  • Basic and Applied lunar science
  • Proposals due Sept. 20, 2007
  • Up to 4-yr awards, 100K/yr average
  • LRO Participating Scientist program
  • Research using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
    instruments or data
  • Proposals due Sept. 7, 2007
  • Up to 4-yr awards, 100K/yr average

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
SMD Lunar Research Opportunities (cont.)
  • Research Opportunities in Space and Earth
    Sciences (ROSES), continued
  • Planetary Instrument Definition and Development
  • Several lunar-focused instruments selected in
  • Augmented in 2008 for lunar instrument
  • Up to 4-yr awards, 250K/yr average
  • LSSO - Lunar Sortie Science Opportunities
  • One-year concept studies
  • Selected Spring 2007
  • 14 studies selected, 100K average
  • Span geology, geophysics, physics, astronomy, and

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
Lunar Sortie Science Opportunity Selections
August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
Lunar Sortie Science Opportunity Selections
August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
Lunar Mission Opportunities
  • Discovery Program
  • Currently Selected
  • Moon Mineralogy Mapper (MMM) - Mission of
    opportunity - Instruments aboard Indian
    Chandrayaan mission
  • Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL)
    - Selected for Phase A (one of three mission
    concepts to be considered for full mission)
  • Future Opportunities
  • Announcement of Opportunity for new Missions of
    Opportunity (MOOs) released FY09
  • New Frontiers - 800M missions - early FY09
  • Yearly MOO call for proposals starting late FY08

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Lunar Activity
  • Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar
  • Held Feb 27- Mar 2 in Tempe, AZ - Joint NASA ESMD
    / NAC
  • 35 Recommendations forwarded to NASA Advisory
    Council for deliberation at KSC on April 19, 207
    by Science Committee and full Council
  • Three high-level messages developed by the
    Outreach committee
  • The Moon is witness to 4.5 billion years of Solar
    System history and human exploration of that body
    will contribute greatly to discovering the origin
    and evolution of the Earth and of life.
  • The Moon is a unique location from which to
    gather, analyze and fuse information about the
    ever- changing nature of the Earth, Sun, and
  • The Moon is a fundamental stepping-stone to the
    human exploration of Mars and the rest of the
    Solar System.
  • Full synthesis report, individual subcommittee
    reports, and outreach committee reports are
    available online (Released April 19, 2007 at

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Recommendations
  • Submitted to NASA April 19, 2007
  • 16 cross-cutting recommendations
  • Science as a priority and active partner in the
  • Regular reviews of major architecture decisions
    that would affect science
  • Flexibility in architecture enabling early
    sorties and/or alternate outposts
  • Importance of early investigation and development
    of key capabilities
  • Sample collection, documentation, curation
  • Ability to drop off instruments in orbit
  • Mobility for wide-area access to sites of key
    scientific importance
  • Space suits and gloves
  • Crew selection and training
  • Dust characterization and mitigation
  • Lunar data co-registration and mapping
  • Nineteen recommendations from subcommittees
  • Three astrophysics science recommendations
    focused on orbital capabilities
  • Four heliophysics science recommendations focused
    on space weather and solar wind studies
  • Six planetary protection focused on forward and
    back contamination and Mars prep
  • Four planetary science focused on specific
    sampling and mobility needs

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
NRC Lunar Study
  • National Research Council (NRC) - Scientific
    Context for the Exploration of the Moon ( May
    2006 - May 2007)
  • Primary Tasks
  • Identify a prioritized set of scientific goals
    that can be addressed in the in the near term
    (2006-2018) by robotic lunar missions and in the
    mid term (2018-2023) by astronauts on the
    Moon.(2018-2023) by astronauts on the Moon.
  • Suggest which of the identified scientific goals
    are amenable to orbital measurements, in situ
    study, or terrestrial analysis via the return of
    lunar samples to the Earth.
  • Secondary Tasks
  • Comment on those areas where there is a
    synergistic overlap between measurements
    addressing scientific goals and measurements
    required to ensure human survival or resource
  • Collect and characterize possible scientific
    goals that might be addressed on or from the Moon
    in the long term (i.e., after 2023) and deserve
    further study.

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
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NASA Response to Recommendations
  • Integrated agency response to NAC recommendations
    through written response package and development
    of integrated study plan
  • Workshop on Architecture Issues Associated with
    Sampling held June 25-26,2007
  • CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for
    Extraterrestrial Materials) study on sample mass
    completed April, 2007 (resulting report available
    on CAPTEM website http//
  • Strong Science Mission Directorate participation
    in second phase of Lunar Architecture Team study
    completed August 2007.
  • Establishment of the Outpost Science and
    Exploration Working Group to ensure integration
    of science in all phases of lunar architecture
  • New looks at to achieve early robotic scientific
    return from the Moon which may lead to
    competitive missions (I.e Discovery New
  • Major lunar mapping and data standards definition
    effort underway

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
Summary of NAC Recommendations
  • C-1 - Scientific analysis and input should be
    integral components of the decision-making
    process for a lunar exploration.
  • C-2 - Science activities enabled by lunar
    exploration should continue to be evaluated and
    prioritized within the science community.
  • C-3 - The lunar architecture should enable the
    highest priority science.
  • C-4 - Regular reviews of Lunar Exploration
    Architecture decisions should be conducted
    through the NAC.
  • C-5 - The Crew Exploration Vehicle should have
    the capability to deploy payloads from lunar
    orbit (SIM Bay).
  • C-6 - NASA should study options for non-polar
    outpost sites.
  • C-7 - NASA should keep open the possibility of
    human sortie missions prior to establishing an
  • C-8 - The lunar architecture should maximize
    payload return mass and diversity of samples.
    300kg return payload mass per flight suggested.
  • C-9 - NASA should establish well-documented
    protocols for the collection, documentation,
    containment, and curation of lunar samples.

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
Summary of NAC Recommendations
  • C-10 - The selection, roles, and capabilities of
    astronauts in the deployment, operation, and
    servicing of science activities, sampling,
    instruments, should be clearly defined and
  • C-11 - Development of crew selection criteria and
    a program of astronaut exploration training
    should be initiated.
  • C-12 - A vigorous program is needed to
    significantly improve astronaut capabilities in
    EVA suits, specifically suit agility and glove
    dexterity must be significantly enhanced relative
    to Apollo and current ISS EVA suits.
  • C-13 - Lunar orbital data sets should be
    geodetically controlled and accurately
    co-registered to create cartographic products
    that will enable fusion, integration, and
    manipulation of all past and future data relevant
    to lunar exploration.
  • C-14 - Instruments and procedures should be
    developed and used to understand the in-situ
    electro- magnetic and charged-dust environment at
    a potential Outpost or other lunar site.
  • C-15 - Lunar surface operations should include
    precise, documented sampling of the surface
    regolith and regolith strata.
  • C-16 - NASA should assess options for large-area
    lunar-surface emplacement of high priority
    science experiments

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
Summary of NAC Recommendations
  • APS-1 - A radio- quiet environment can be
    maintained on the lunar far side at a site
    suitable for deployment of a low frequency, meter
    wavelength (10-250 MHz) radio observatory
  • APS-2 - NASA should investigate ways in which the
    exploration architecture can be enabling for
    astrophysics science
  • APS-3 - A study should be conducted to determine
    the feasibility of future use of the
    Constellation Program?s heavy lift capability
    (Ares V) to deliver large Astrophysics payloads
    to space
  • ESS-1 - The lunar architecture should be enabling
    for continuous or near-continuous observations of
    the Earth from an Outpost
  • ESS-2 - The architecture should include
    provisions for mobility to access a suitable
    location, such as the slope of an Earth-facing
    terrain feature, which provides a full-disc
    vantage point of Earth
  • HPS-1 - Early in the human exploration program,
    space-weather predictive capabilities should be
    developed to enable safe, sustained operations on
    the Moon
  • HPS-2 - NASA should locate real-time space
    weather monitoring measurements as close to solar
    sources as feasible.

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
Summary of NAC Recommendations
  • HPS-3 - Consideration should be given to
    deployment of relevant sensors as drop-off
  • HPS-4 - Improved measurements should be
    accomplished on the lunar surface of solar wind
    composition and fluxes, the composition and
    fluxes of interplanetary and interstellar grains,
    and high-energy x-rays and gamma rays.
  • PPS-1 - Contamination control technologies should
    be developed to the extent feasible before human
    missions are sent to Mars
  • PPS-2 - Technologies and experimental equipment
    to perform planetary protection assays should be
    investigated for relevance to human exploration
  • PPS-3 - Containment technologies for preventing
    contamination of lunar samples or containers
    should be developed
  • PPS-4 - In-situ investigation of lunar sites
    using highly sensitive instruments designed to
    search for introduced, biologically derived, or
    other organic compounds should be given high
  • PPS-5 - NASA should make use of the opportunity
    of lunar exploration to develop planetary
    protection protocols that will be needed for
    exploration of Mars.
  • PPS-6 - The International Space Station and the
    facilities on the Moon should be used as test
    beds for advanced life-support systems for Mars

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
Summary of NAC Recommendations
  • PSS-1 - The lunar architecture should be enabling
    for understanding the record of impacts in the
    Solar System with access to and sampling of many
    large impact basins and craters on the Moon and
    return of samples to Earth for age dating.
  • PSS-2 - The Lunar Architecture should include
    plans to place a long-lived geophysical
    measurement station at every lunar landing site
    of a sufficiently capable human or robotic
    lander, including an outpost site.
  • Such packages should contain a seismometer, a
    heat-flow probe, a magnetometer, and possibly an
    optical retroreflector.
  • Efforts should be made to coordinate with
    international partners on the emplacement and
    standardization of geophysical stations at
    landing sites established by other partner space
  • PSS-3 - To maximize scientific return within the
    current lunar exploration architecture, systems
    and operational options should be defined for
    local (up to 50 km), regional (up to 500 km), and
    global access from an outpost location.
  • PSS-4 - A lunar instrument and technology
    development program is needed to provide focused
    technological development for applications on the
    lunar surface.

August 14, 2007 NASA Science
Mission Directorate
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