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The Bible

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Title: The Bible


1
The Bible
  • Inspired of God

2
Inspired of God
  • The Bible is the only book ever written that was
    inspired of God in the sense that God personally
    guided the writers.
  • The inspiration of the Bible is defined as
    teaching that God so directed the human authors
    that, without destroying their own
  • individuality,
  • literary style, or
  • personal interest,
  • His complete and connected thought toward man
    was recorded.

3
Inspired of God
  • Although written by human pen, the Bible is Gods
    message to man rather than a message of man to
    his fellow man.
  • Regardless of whether Scripture records
  • words which God actually dictated,
  • the copying of ancient records,
  • the results of research of the human author,
  • or the thoughts, aspirations, and fears of the
    writer,
  • in every particular God guided the men so that
    what they wrote was precisely what God intended
    for them to write with the result that the Bible
    is indeed the Word of God.

4
Inspired of God
  • How can a human author, recording his own
    thoughts and knowledge, be guided to write
    exactly what God directs him to write?
  • Because of questions like this, various opinions
    have been advanced as to the extent of the divine
    control over the human authors.
  • These have been called theories of inspiration,
    and all interpreters of the Bible follow one or
    more of these theories.

5
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration

6
Inspired of God
  • Verbal inspiration
  • means that the original writings were guided by
    the Spirit of God so that the
  • choice of words
  • expressed Gods point of view

7
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration
  • verbal inspiration means that the Spirit of God
    guided in the choice of the words used in the
    original writings.
  • Various books of the Bible reflect the writers'
    personal characteristics in style and vocabulary,
  • and their personalities are often expressed in
    their thoughts, opinions, prayers, or fears.
  • Inspiration contends that God directed so that
    all the words that were used were equally
    inspired of God.
  • This is brought out by the use of the word
    "plenary" which means "full inspiration"

8
Inspired of God
  • Plenary inspiration
  • means that the accuracy secured, attained,
    or accomplished by verbal inspiration
    is
  • extended fully to
  • every portion of Scripture
  • so that in all its parts
  • Scripture is both infallible as to truth
  • and final as to divine authority.

9
Inspired of God
  • 2 TIMOTHY 316
  • ALL SCRIPTURE IS INSPIRED BY GOD

    qeovpneusto", God breathed AND
    PROFITABLE FOR TEACHING, FOR REPROOF, FOR
    CORRECTION, FOR TRAINING IN RIGHTEOUSNESS (NAS)

10
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration
  • Scripture is declared to be infallible in the
    sense of being unfailingly accurate.

11
Inspired of God
  • INFALLIBLE
  • means the information contained
  • in the original manuscript
  • is incapable of leading a person astray
  • from the plan of God.

12
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration
  • Scripture is declared to be infallible in the
    sense of being unfailingly accurate.
  • Scripture is also declared to be inerrant,
    meaning that the Bible does not contain any error
    as a statement of fact.

13
Inspired of God
  • INERRANT
  • means the original manuscripts
  • contain no mistakes
  • free from errors.

14
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration
  • Scripture is declared to be infallible in the
    sense of being unfailingly accurate.
  • Scripture is also declared to be inerrant,
    meaning that the Bible does not contain any error
    as a statement of fact.
  • In stating that the Bible is verbally and fully
    inspired,
  • and infallible and inerrant in its statement of
    truth,
  • it is held that Gods supernatural and perfect
    guidance is given to every word of Scripture so
    that the Bible can be trusted as an accurate
    statement of divine truth.

15
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration
  • The claim of inspiration, of course, applies to
    the original writings only and not to copies,
    translations, or quotations.
  • As there is no original manuscript in existence,
    scholars have gone to great lengths to determine
    the accuracy of the text of the Bible that we now
    have.

16
Inspired of God
  • Romans 81
  • There is therefore now no condemnation to them
    which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the
    flesh, but after the Spirit. (KJV)
  • Therefore there is now no condemnation for those
    who are in Christ Jesus. (NAS)

17
Inspired of God
  • Romans 81
  • 1 There is therefore now no condemnation to them
    which are in Christ Jesus,
  • who walk not after the flesh, but after the
    Spirit. (KJV)
  • Mark 1616
  • 1 Therefore there is now no condemnation for
    those who are in Christ Jesus. (NAS)

18
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration
  • Mechanical or dictation theory

19
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Mechanical or dictation theory
  • some have held that God actually dictated the
    Scripture
  • and that the writers of the Bible were only
    stenographers.
  • If God had dictated the Bible, however, the style
    of writing and vocabulary of the Bible would be
    the same throughout.

20
Inspired of God
  • Romans 91-3
  • I am telling the truth in Christ, I am not
    lying, my conscience testifies with me in the
    Holy Spirit, that I have great sorrow and
    unceasing grief in my heart. For I could wish
    that I myself were accursed, separated from
    Christ for the sake of my brethren, my kinsmen
    according to the flesh, (NAS)

21
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Mechanical or dictation theory
  • some have held that God actually dictated the
    Scripture
  • and that the writers of the Bible were only
    stenographers.
  • If God had dictated the Bible, however, the style
    of writing and vocabulary of the Bible would be
    the same throughout.
  • While inspiration extends to every word of
    Scripture, it does not rule out human
    personality, literary style, or personal
    interest.

22
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Mechanical or dictation theory
  • God accomplished the accuracy He desired by
    directing the human authors,
  • but without the mechanical process of dictation.
  • Some portions of the Bible were dictated by God
    and these are recorded as such,
  • but most of the Bible was written by the human
    authors without evidence of direct dictation.

23
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration
  • Mechanical or dictation theory
  • The concept theory

24
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • The concept theory
  • God inspired the concept but not the precise
    words.
  • This view, however, has grave problems,
  • The human authors may have only partially
    understood what God was revealing to them,
  • and in restating it in their own words could
    inject considerable error.
  • The Bible expressly contradicts the idea that
    only concepts were given to the human authors.

1 Corinthians 213
Exodus 201
John 663
John 178
25
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • The concept theory
  • In quotations from the Old Testament, it is
    frequently assumed that the very words are
    inspired of God as in
  • and the frequent mention of the Bible as the Word
    of God as in
  • A solemn curse is pronounced upon anyone who
    takes away from the Word of God.
  • The concept theory falls far short of what the
    Scriptures claim as the true doctrine of
    inspiration.

John 1034-35
Galatians 316
1 Peter 22
Ephesians 617
James 121-23
Revelation 2218-19
26
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration
  • Mechanical or dictation theory
  • The concept theory
  • Partial inspiration

27
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Partial inspiration
  • Some have claimed that the revelatory portions of
    the Bible dealing with divine truth are accurate,
  • but that we cannot accept historical,
    geographical, or scientific statements in
    Scripture.
  • The idea that some portions of Scripture are more
    inspired than others, so that truth and error
    become a matter of degree.
  • This is sometimes applied to what is know as
    mystical inspiration

28
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration
  • Mechanical or dictation theory
  • The concept theory
  • Partial inspiration
  • Neoorthodox view of inspiration

29
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Neoorthodox view of inspiration
  • This view acknowledges that there are errors in
    the Bible and thus the Bible cannot be taken as
    literally true.
  • God speaks through the Scriptures and uses them
    as a means by which to communicate the truth to
    us.
  • The Bible under this theory becomes true only as
    it is comprehended and truth is realized by the
    individual reader.
  • Like the view of partial inspiration, the
    individual becomes the final authority concerning
    what is true and what is false.

30
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration
  • Mechanical or dictation theory
  • The concept theory
  • Partial inspiration
  • Neoorthodox view of inspiration
  • Naturalistic inspiration

31
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Naturalistic inspiration
  • This is the most extreme view of unbelief and
    holds that the Bible is just like any other book.
  • The Bible under this concept becomes merely
    another book of religion, expressing ancient
    views of spiritual experience of men in the past.
  • This view destroys any distinctive claim for the
    divine authority of the Bible and leaves without
    explanation the amazing factual accuracy of the
    Bible.

32
Inspired of God
  • Theories of Inspiration
  • Verbal, plenary inspiration
  • Mechanical or dictation theory
  • The concept theory
  • Partial inspiration
  • Neoorthodox view of inspiration
  • Naturalistic inspiration

33
Inspired of God
  • The best evidence is found in the fact that
    the Book supports its claims.
  • Its power has been manifested in
    the transformed lives of millions of
    those who have put their trust in
    the words and
    promises of Scripture.

34
Inspired of God
  • The Testimony of Christ
  • Whenever Christ quoted Scripture - as He did
    frequently - He quoted it as having authority and
    in full recognition that it had come by the
    inspiration of the Holy Spirit
  • Christ affirmed that not one jot or one tittle of
    the law would remain unfulfilled
  • Christ affirmed the Scripture cannot be broken.

Matthew 518
John 1035
35
Inspired of God
  • The Testimony of Christ
  • Again and again the New Testament affirms
    accurate fulfillment of the Old Testament

Matthew 817
Matthew 122-23
Matthew 414
Matthew 214-5
Matthew 157-8
Matthew 1217
Matthew 2631
Matthew 2229
Matthew 2142
Matthew 279-10
Matthew 2656
Matthew 2735
36
Inspired of God
  • The Testimony of Christ
  • Even when affirming a dispensational change or a
    modification of a rule of life, the authority and
    inspiration of the original statement in
    Scripture are not questioned. Matthew 197-12
  • Quotations from the Old Testament extend to every
    important section and frequently are from books
    that are most disputed by liberal critics, such
    as Deuteronomy, Jonah, and Daniel.

Daniel 927
Deuteronomy 616
Matthew 1240
Daniel 1211
Matthew 2415
37
Inspired of God
  • The Testimony of Christ
  • Jesus Christ not only affirmed the inspiration
    and infallible accuracy of the Old Testament, but
    He predicted the writing of the New Testament.
    John 1612-13
  • Christ stated that the disciples would be
    witnesses to the truth.
  • Jesus gave to the disciples authority in their
    speaking of the truth.

Acts 18
John 1527
Luke 1022-23
Matthew 2819
John 1320
Hebrews 23-4
Luke 1016
John 1714,18
38
Inspired of God
  • The Testimony of Christ
  • Just as David wrote by the Spirit Matthew 2243
  • and as the psalmist was inspired,
  • Hebrews 37-11 Psalm 957-11
  • so the New Testament likewise claims
    inspiration.
  • In 1 Timothy 518, both Deuteronomy 254 and
    Luke 107 are quoted as equally inspired
    Scripture.
  • In 2 Peter 315-16, the epistles of Paul are
    classified as Scripture which should be received
    as the Word of God like all other Scripture.

39
Inspired of God
  • Important Passages on Inspiration
  • 2 Timothy 315-17
  • 15 and that from childhood you have known the
    sacred writings holy scriptures which are
    able to give you the wisdom that leads to
    salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.
  • 16 All Scripture is inspired by God and
    profitable for teaching, for reproof, for
    correction, for training in righteousness
  • 17 so that the man of God may be adequate,
    equipped for every good work. (NAS)

40
Inspired of God
  • Important Passages on Inspiration
  • The expression by inspiration of God is one
    word in the New Testament Greek, qeovpneusto"
    (theopneustos), meaning God-breathed.
  • It would be impossible for God to be the author
    of error.
  • The inspiration extends not so much to the
    authors but to the Word of God itself.
  • While the authors were fallible and subject to
    error, God breathed through them His infallible
    Word
  • How could God inspire Scripture while on the one
    hand allowing for human authorship and
    individuality and on the other hand producing the
    inspired Word of God without error?

41
Inspired of God
  • Important Passages on Inspiration
  • 2 Peter 121
  • For no prophecy was ever made by an act of human
    will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from
    God. (NAS)

42
Inspired of God
  • Important Passages on Inspiration
  • The word translated moved fevrw (theroo) is
    the word for carrying a burden.
  • The human authors are carried along to the
    destination intended by God much as a boat will
    carry its passengers to its ultimate destination.
  • The human authors were not left to their own
    devices and were not simply exercising ordinary
    power.
  • God was working through them, breathing out His
    word with them as the channels.

43
Inspired of God
  • Important Passages on Inspiration
  • Some Scripture was dictated expressly by God
    Exodus 201-17
  • Again and again the Old Testament declares that
    God said. Genesis 13
  • Another frequent expression is that the word of
    the Lord came to one of the prophets.

Jeremiah 12
Hosea 11
Jonah 11
Micah 11
Haggai 11
Zechariah 11
Zephaniah 11
44
Inspired of God
  • Important Passages on Inspiration
  • In other instances God spoke through vision or
    dreams
  • Daniel 21
  • Now in the second year of the reign of
    Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuchadnezzar had dreams and
    his spirit was troubled and his sleep
    left him.
  • or appeared in a vision.
  • Daniel 71
  • In the first year of Belshazzar king of
    Babylon Daniel saw a dream and visions
    in his mind as he lay on his bed then he
    wrote the dream down and related the
    following summary of it.

45
Inspired of God
  • Qualifying Considerations
  • In stating that the entire Bible is true and
    inspired of God, allowance must be made for the
    fact that sometimes the Bible records a lie as a
    lie, as in the case of the lie of Satan in
    Genesis 34
  • The Bible can also record the experiences and
    reasonings of men as illustrated in the Book of
    Job and Ecclesiastes.
  • some of the statements of Jobs friends are
    wrong,
  • and some of the philosophizing of Ecclesiastes
    does not go beyond human wisdom.

46
Inspired of God
  • Qualifying Considerations
  • Whenever the Bible states a fact as a fact it
    must be true whether this is in
  • a revelation of Gods own being,
  • His moral standards,
  • or His prophetic program,
  • or whether it involves
  • history,
  • geography,
  • or facts that are related to science.

47
Inspired of God
  • Qualifying Considerations
  • The Bible seems to contradict itself, as for
    instance in the account of the healing of the
    blind men at Jericho.
  • Varying accounts indicate two Matthew 2030 or
    one Mark 1046 Luke 1835 blind man and
  • where the incident is set as going into Luke
    1835 or going out Mark 1046 of Jericho.
  • The difficulty could be solved if all the facts
    were known.
  • There were two cities of Jericho one ancient,
    the other more modern.
  • Christ could be going out of one Jericho while
    entering the other.
  • Many supposed errors in the Bible have been
    cleared up by archaeological discoveries.

48
Inspired of God
  • Qualifying Considerations
  • Actually no one knows enough to contradict the
    statements of Scripture
  • Whether they refer to the creation of the world
    or the creation of man or whether they extend to
    some detail in narrative.
  • Properly understood, the Bible stands as the
    monument of Gods own veracity and truth and can
    be trusted in the same way as if God Himself were
    speaking directly to the individual reading the
    Scripture.
  • Although every attempt has been made to undermine
    and destroy the Bible, to those seeking truth
    about God it continues to be the only
    authoritative and inerrant source of divine
    revelation.

49
Inspired of God
  • 1. Define what is meant by the inspiration of the
    Bible.
  • The inspiration of the Bible is defined as
    teaching that God so directed the human authors
    that, without destroying their own
    individuality, literary style, or personal
    interest, His complete and connected thought
    toward man was recorded.
  • 2. To what extent is the Bible inspired?
  • There are several theories of inspiration
    which address the extent to which the Bible is
    inspired, but the only correct theory of
    inspiration is the verbal, plenary inspiration
    theory.

50
Inspired of God
  • 3. What is meant by verbal, plenary inspiration?
  • These terms apply only to the original
    manuscripts. By verbal inspiration it is meant
    that the Spirit of God guided in the choice of
    the words used in the original writings. The
    word plenary which means full inspiration,
    contends that God directed so that all the words
    that were used were equally inspired of God.
  • 4. To what extent is the Bible infallible and
    inerrant, and what do these terms mean?
  • Applicable again, only to the original
    manuscripts, all of Scripture is infallible,
    which means it is unfailingly accurate, and all
    of Scripture is inerrant, which means there are
    no errors.

51
Inspired of God
  • 5. How can you explain that the Bible records
    untrue statements of men?
  • Although the Bible may record on occasion the
    statements of men which are untrue or even the
    false teaching of Satan as in Genesis 34, in
    all these cases, while the statement attributed
    to Satan or men is faithfully recorded, it is
    clear that God does not affirm the truth of
    these statements.
  • 6. To what extent does inspiration extend to
    copies and translations of the Bible?
  • Copies and translations of the Bible are not
    inspired.

52
Inspired of God
  • 7. Define the mechanical or dictation theory of
    inspiration and indicate why it is inadequate.
  • Some have held that God actually dictated the
    Scripture and that the writers of the Bible were
    only stenographers. If God had dictated the
    Bible, however, the style of writing and
    vocabulary of the Bible would be the same
    throughout.
  • 8. What are the problems of the concept theory of
    inspiration?
  • Some have attempted to weaken the complete
    inspiration of the Bible and allow for human
    authorship by saying that God inspired the
    concept but not the precise words. This view,
    however, has grave problems, as the human authors
    may have only partially understood what God was
    revealing to them, and in restating it in their
    own words could inject considerable error.

53
Inspired of God
  • 9. What are the problems of the theory of partial
    inspiration or degrees of inspiration?
  • All forms of partial inspiration leave the
    reader the final judge, and accordingly, the
    authority of Scripture becomes the authority of
    the person reading the Scripture, with no two
    readers agreeing exactly as to what is truth and
    what is not.
  • 10. How does the neoorthodox view of inspiration
    differ from the orthodox view?
  • While not necessarily denying that supernatural
    elements exist in the writing of Scripture, this
    view acknowledges that there are errors in the
    Bible and thus the Bible cannot be taken as
    literally true.

54
Inspired of God
  • 11. Why must the naturalistic view of the Bible
    be rejected?
  • This view destroys any distinctive claim for
    the divine authority of the Bible and leaves
    without explanation the amazing factual accuracy
    of the Bible.
  • 12. What did Christ teach concerning the
    inspiration of the Bible?
  • Whenever Christ quoted Scripture as He did
    frequently He quoted it as having authority
    and in full recognition that it had come by the
    inspiration of the Holy Spirit.

55
Inspired of God
  • 13. How do quotations of the Old Testament uphold
    the inspiration of the Old Testament?
  • Quotations from the Old Testament extend to
    every important section and frequently are from
    books that are most disputed by liberal critics,
    such as Deuteronomy, Jonah, and Daniel. It is
    logically impossible to question the inspiration
    of the Old Testament without questioning the
    character and veracity of Jesus Christ.
  • 14. What indications are given in the New
    Testament that it is also inspired of God?
  • As the New Testament was written, the writers
    were conscious that they were guided by the
    Spirit of God and freely claimed that the New
    Testament was inspired equally with the Old.

56
Inspired of God
  • 15. Discuss the contribution of 2 Timothy 316.
  • The expression by inspiration of God is one
    word in the New Testament Greek, theopneustos,
    meaning God-breathed. By this it is meant
    Scripture proceeds from God and by this fact
    takes on the same perfections that characterize
    God Himself.
  • 16. What does 2 Peter 121 contribute as to the
    method of inspiration?
  • According to 2 Peter 121, whether they were
    oral prophets or writing prophets, the
    explanation is that they were moved carried
    along by the Holy Spirit.

57
Inspired of God
  • 17. Indicate the extent to which the Bible
    affirms its own inspiration?
  • The Bible affirms human authorship just as much
    as it does the divine authorship of the Bible.
    Again and again the New Testament affirms
    accurate fulfillment of the Old Testament. It
    would be impossible for God to be the author of
    error. The inspiration extends not so much to
    the authors but to the Word of God itself.

58
Inspired of God
  • 18. How does inspiration relate to the truth of
    human experiences and reasonings as illustrated
    in the Book of Job and Ecclesiastes?
  • The Bible can also record the experiences and
    reasonings of men as illustrated in the Book of
    Job and Ecclesiastes. Here what the Scripture
    actually quotes them as thinking or saying must
    be tested by the clear affirmations of truth
    elsewhere in the Bible. Accordingly, some of
    the statements of Jobs friends are wrong, and
    some of the philosophizing of Ecclesiastes does
    not go beyond human wisdom.

59
Inspired of God
  • 19. What should be our response to seeming
    contradictions in the Bible?
  • Through patient study, seeming contradictions
    in the Bible can be solved if all the facts are
    known.
  • 20. Taking the subject of inspiration as a whole,
    why is it so important?
  • Properly understood, the Bible stands as the
    monument of Gods own veracity and truth and can
    be trusted in the same way as if God Himself
    were speaking directly to the individual reading
    the Scripture.
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