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Endangered Species and Biodiversity

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Title: Endangered Species and Biodiversity


1
Endangered Species and Biodiversity
  • Jennifer Lovelace
  • Elizabeth Schmid
  • Joseph Zargari

2
Multilateral Conventions
  • CITES
  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered
    Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (www.cites.org)
  • CBD
  • Conventional on Biological Diversity
    (http//www.biodiv.org/)
  • CMS
  • Convention on the Conservation of Migratory
    Species (http//www.wcmc.org.uk/cms/)
  • RAMSAR
  • The Convention on Wetlands
  • (http//www.ramsar.org/)
  • WHC
  • Convention Concerning the Protection of the World
    Cultural and Natural Heritage (http//whc.unesco.o
    rg/)

3
CITES
  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered
    Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

4
Governing Principles and RulesEndangered
Species and Biodiversity
5
CITES HISTORY Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora
  • 1963 A resolution drafted by the World
    Conservation Union called for CITES
  • March 3, 1973 Text of the Convention was agreed
    to
  • July 1, 1975 CITES entered into force
  • November 2003 164 countries are parties to this
    treaty, making it one of the largest conservation
    agreements in history.

6
CITES How does it work? Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
  • CITES subjects international trade in specimens
    of selected species to certain controls.
  • These require that all import, export, re-export
    and introduction from the sea of species covered
    by the Convention has to be authorized through a
    licensing system. ('Re-export' means export of a
    specimen that was imported.)

7
CITES How does it work? Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
  • The species covered by CITES are listed in three
    Appendices, according to the degree of protection
    they need.
  • Appendix I includes species threatened with
    extinction. Trade in specimens of these species
    is permitted only in exceptional
    circumstances.
  • Appendix II includes species not necessarily
    threatened with extinction, but in which trade
    must be controlled in order to avoid utilization
    incompatible with their survival.
  • Appendix III contains species that are protected
    in at least one country, which has asked other
    CITES Parties for assistance in controlling the
    trade.

8
CITES Appendix 1 Specimens Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
  • An import permit issued by the Management
    Authority of the State of import is required.
    This may be issued only if the specimen is not to
    be used for primarily commercial purposes and if
    the import will be for purposes that are not
    detrimental to the survival of the species. In
    the case of a live animal or plant, the
    Scientific Authority must be satisfied that the
    proposed recipient is suitably equipped to house
    and care for it.
  • An export permit or re-export certificate issued
    by the Management Authority of the State of
    export or re-export is also required.
  • An export permit may be issued only if the
    specimen was legally obtained the trade will not
    be detrimental to the survival of the species
    and an import permit has already been issued.
  • A re-export certificate may be issued only if the
    specimen was imported in accordance with the
    provisions of the Convention and, in the case of
    a live animal or plant, if an import permit has
    been issued.
  • In the case of a live animal or plant, it must be
    prepared and shipped to minimize any risk of
    injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.

9
CITES Appendix 2 Specimens Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
  • 1. An export permit or re-export certificate
    issued by the Management Authority of the State
    of export or re-export is required.
  • An export permit may be issued only if the
    specimen was legally obtained and if the export
    will not be detrimental to the survival of the
    species.
  • A re-export certificate may be issued only if the
    specimen was imported in accordance with the
    Convention.
  • 2. In the case of a live animal or plant, it must
    be prepared and shipped to minimize any risk of
    injury, damage to health or cruel treatment.
  • 3. No import permit is needed unless required by
    national law.

10
CITES Appendix 3 Specimens Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
  • 1. In the case of trade from a State that
    included the species in Appendix III, an export
    permit issued by the Management Authority of that
    State is required. This may be issued only if the
    specimen was legally obtained and, in the case of
    a live animal or plant, if it will be prepared
    and shipped to minimize any risk of injury,
    damage to health or cruel treatment.
  • 2. In the case of export from any other State, a
    certificate of origin issued by its Management
    Authority is required.
  • 3. In the case of re-export, a re-export
    certificate issued by the State of re-export is
    required

11
CITES ExceptionsConvention on International
Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora
  • The Convention allows or requires Parties to make
    certain exceptions to the general principles
    described above, notably in the following cases
  • for specimens in transit or being transhipped
  • for specimens that were acquired before CITES
    provisions applied to them (known as
    pre-Convention specimens)
  • for specimens that are personal or household
    effects
  • for animals that were bred in captivity
  • for plants that were artificially propagated
  • for specimens that are destined for scientific
    research
  • for animals or plants forming part of a
    travelling collection or exhibition, such as a
    circus.

12
CITES How does it work? Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
  • Each Party to the Convention must
    designate
  • one or more Management Authorities in charge of
    administering the licensing system AND
  • one or more Scientific Authorities to advise them
    on the effects of trade on the status of the
    species.

13
CITES How does it work? Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
  • A specimen of a CITES-listed species may be
    imported into or exported (or re-exported) from a
    State party to the Convention only if the
    appropriate document has been obtained and
    presented for clearance at the port of entry or
    exit.

14
CITES How does it work? Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
  • There is some variation of the requirements from
    one country to another and it is always necessary
    to check on the national laws.
  • Some Parties have domestic legislation with trade
    controls stricter than those required by CITES.

  • In these cases, compliance with CITES regulations
    may not be sufficient to ensure that trade is
    legal

15
CITES Dispute Resolution Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora
  • 1. Any dispute which may arise between two or
    more Parties with respect to the interpretation
    or application of the provisions of the present
    Convention shall be subject to negotiation
    between the Parties involved in the dispute.
  • 2. If the dispute can not be resolved through
    negotiation, the Parties may, by mutual consent,
    submit the dispute to arbitration, in particular
    that of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The
    Hague, and the Parties submitting the dispute
    shall be bound by the arbitral decision.

16
Organizations and InstitutionsEndangered
Species and Biodiversity
17
CITES
  • What is CITES?
  • How does CITES work?
  • CITES species
  • Member countries
  • CITES structure

18
What is CITES?
  • CITES- The Convention on International Trade in
    Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora is an
    international agreement between Governments.
  • CITES aim is to ensure that international trade
    in specimens of wild animals and plants does not
    threaten their survival.
  • CITES is an international agreement to which
    States (countries) adhere voluntarily

19
How does CITES work?
  • International trade of species controlled.
  • Authorization through licensing system
  • Three Appendices,

20
The CITES species
  • Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000
    species of plants are protected by CITES against
    over-exploitation through international trade
  • whole groups such as primates, cetaceans
    (whales, dolphins and porpoises), sea turtles,
    parrots, corals, cacti and orchids.
  • But in some cases only a subspecies or
    geographically separate population of a species
    (for example the population of just one country)
    is listed.

21
Member countries
  • bound to the provisions of CITES
  • The Diplomatic channel
  • Currently 164 Parties.

22
CITES Structure Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora
23
Law Enforcement Activities
  • Confiscated endangered species products at JFK
    airport, New York

24
CBD
  • Convention on Biological Diversity

25
Governing Principles and RulesEndangered
Species and Biodiversity
26
CBD History Convention on Biological Diversity
  • In 1992, the largest-ever meeting of world
    leaders took place at the United Nations
    Conference on Environment and Development in Rio
    de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • The biodiversity treaty gained rapid and
    widespread acceptance. Over 150 governments
    signed the document at the Rio conference, and
    since then more than 175 countries have ratified
    the agreement.

27
CBD Jurisdiction Convention on Biological
Diversity
  • The provisions of this Convention apply, in
    relation to each Contracting Party
  • (a) In the case of components of biological
    diversity, in areas within the limits of its
    national jurisdiction and
  • (b) In the case of processes and activities,
    regardless of where their effects occur, carried
    out under its jurisdiction or control, within the
    area of its national jurisdiction or beyond the
    limits of national jurisdiction.

28
CBD Purposes Convention on Biological
Diversity
  • The Convention has three main goals
  • The conservation of biodiversity,
  • Sustainable use of the components of
    biodiversity, and
  • Sharing the benefits arising from the commercial
    and other utilization of genetic resources in a
    fair and equitable way

29
CBD Issues Convention on Biological Diversity
  • Some of the many issues dealt with under the
    Convention include
  • Measures and incentives for the conservation and
    sustainable use of biological diversity.
  • Regulated access to genetic resources.
  • Access to and transfer of technology, including
    biotechnology.
  • Technical and scientific cooperation.
  • Impact assessment.
  • Education and public awareness.
  • Provision of financial resources.
  • National reporting on efforts to implement treaty
    commitments.

30
CBD General Measures Convention on Biological
Diversity
  • Each Contracting Party shall
  • (a) Develop national strategies, plans or
    programmes for the conservation and sustainable
    use of biological diversity or adapt for this
    purpose existing strategies, plans or programmes
    and
  • (b) Integrate, as far as possible and as
    appropriate, the conservation and sustainable use
    of biological diversity into relevant sector or
    cross-sector plans, programmes and policies.

31
CBD Identification Convention on Biological
Diversity
  • Each Contracting Party shall
  • (a) Identify components of biological diversity
    important for its conservation and sustainable
    use having regard to the indicative list of
    categories set down in Annex I
  • (b) Monitor, through sampling and other
    techniques, the components of biological
    diversity identified pursuant to subparagraph (a)
    above, paying particular attention to those
    requiring urgent conservation measures and those
    which offer the greatest potential for
    sustainable use
  • (c) Identify processes and categories of
    activities which have or are likely to have
    significant adverse impacts on the conservation
    and sustainable use of biological diversity, and
    monitor their effects through sampling and other
    techniques and
  • (d) Maintain and organize, by any mechanism data,
    derived from identification and monitoring
    activities pursuant to subparagraphs (a), (b) and
    (c) above.

32
CBD Responsibilities Convention on Biological
Diversity
  • Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible
    and as appropriate
  • (a) Integrate consideration of the conservation
    and sustainable use of biological resources into
    national decision-making
  • (b) Adopt measures relating to the use of
    biological resources to avoid or minimize adverse
    impacts on biological diversity
  • (c) Protect and encourage customary use of
    biological resources in accordance with
    traditional cultural practices that are
    compatible with conservation or sustainable use
    requirements
  • (d) Support local populations to develop and
    implement remedial action in degraded areas where
    biological diversity has been reduced and
  • (e) Encourage cooperation between its
    governmental authorities and its private sector
    in developing methods for sustainable use of
    biological resources.

33
CBD Responsibilities Convention on Biological
Diversity
  • Each country shall provide educational programs
    for public awareness about the importance of
    conservation and biodiversity.
  • Developed countries shall help developing
    countries by encouraging research and training
    them for the identification, conservation and
    sustainable use of biodiversity.

34
CBD Cooperation Convention on Biological
Diversity
  • Each country shall engage in technical and
    scientific cooperation in the field of
    conservation and sustainable use of biological
    diversity.
  • Each country shall exchange information relevant
    to the conservation and sustainable use of
    biological diversity, taking into account the
    special needs of developing countries.

35
CBD Incentives Convention on Biological
Diversity
  • Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible
    and as appropriate, adopt economically and
    socially sound measures that act as incentives
    for the conservation and sustainable use of
    components of biological diversity.

36
CBD Financial Resources Convention on
Biological Diversity
  • Each Contracting Party undertakes to provide, in
    accordance with its capabilities, financial
    support and incentives in respect of those
    national activities which are intended to achieve
    the objectives of this Convention, in accordance
    with its national plans, priorities and
    programmes.

37
CBD Reporting Convention on Biological
Diversity
  • Each government that joins the Convention is to
    report on what it has done to implement the
    accord, and how effective this is in meeting the
    objectives of the Convention.
  • These reports are submitted to the Conference of
    the Parties (COP) - the governing body that
    brings together all countries that have ratified
    the Convention.
  • The reports can be viewed by the citizens of all
    nations. The Convention secretariat works with
    national governments to help strengthen reporting
    and to make the reports of various countries more
    consistent and comparable, so that the world
    community can get a clearer picture of the big
    trends.
  • Part of that work involves developing indicators
    for measuring trends in biodiversity,
    particularly the effects of human actions and
    decisions on the conservation and sustainable use
    of biodiversity. The national reports,
    particularly when seen together, are one of the
    key tools for tracking progress in meeting the
    Convention's objectives.

38
CBD Dispute Settlement Convention on
Biological Diversity
  • 1 The parties concerned shall seek solution by
    negotiation.
  • 2. If the parties concerned cannot reach
    agreement by negotiation, they may jointly seek
    mediation by a third party.
  • 3. For a dispute not resolved in accordance with
    paragraph 1 or paragraph 2 above, a country may
    accept one or both of the following means of
    dispute settlement as compulsory
  • (a) Arbitration
  • (b) Submission of the dispute to the
    International Court of Justice.

39
CBD Challenges Convention on Biological
Diversity
  • Some of the major challenges to implementing the
    Convention on Biological Diversity and promoting
    sustainable development are
  • Meeting the increasing demand for biological
    resources caused by population growth and
    increased consumption, while considering the
    long-term consequences of our actions.
  • Increasing our capacity to document and
    understand biodiversity, its value, and threats
    to it.
  • Building adequate expertise and experience in
    biodiversity planning.
  • Improving policies, legislation, guidelines, and
    fiscal measures for regulating the use of
    biodiversity.
  • Adopting incentives to promote more sustainable
    forms of biodiversity use.
  • Promoting trade rules and practices that foster
    sustainable use of biodiversity.
  • Strengthening coordination within governments,
    and between governments and stakeholders.
  • Securing adequate financial resources for
    conservation and sustainable use, from both
    national and international sources.
  • Making better use of technology.
  • Building political support for the changes
    necessary to ensure biodiversity conservation and
    sustainable use.
  • Improving education and public awareness about
    the value of biodiversity.

40
Organizations and InstitutionsEndangered
Species and Biodiversity
41
CBD Structure Convention on Biological
Diversity
42
Biological Diversity promotes nature and
human well-being.
  • International Action
  • Biosafety Protocol
  • Thematic programmes

43
International Action
  • The Convention's ultimate authority is the
    Conference of the Parties (COP), consisting of
    all governments (and regional economic
    integration organizations) that have ratified the
    treaty.
  • This governing body reviews progress under the
    Convention, identifies new priorities, and sets
    work plans for members. The COP can also make
    amendments to the Convention.

44
The Biosafety Protocol
  • greater agricultural productivity and improved
    human nutrition.
  • Living Modified Organisms (LMOs)
  • Agricultural and pharmaceutical LMOs

45
CMS
  • Convention on Migratory Species
  • (the Bonn Convention)

46
CMS Background Convention on Migratory Species
  • Since the Convention's entry into force on
    November 1, 1983, its membership has grown
    steadily to include 84 (as of 1 September 2003)
    Parties from Africa, Central and South America,
    Asia, Europe and Oceania.
  • The U.S. participates in the CMS, but is not yet
    a party.

47
CMS Its ProgenyConvention on Migratory Species
  • Several Agreements have been concluded to date
    under the auspices of CMS. They aim to conserve

  • Bats in Europe (EUROBATS)
  • Cetaceans of the Mediterranean and Black Seas
    (ACCOBAMS)
  • Small cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas
    (ASCOBANS)
  • Seals in the Wadden Sea
  • African-Eurasian migratory waterbirds (AEWA)
  • the Siberian Crane
  • the Slender-billed Curlew
  • Marine turtles

48
CMS PurposeConvention on Migratory Species
  • To conserve terrestrial, marine and avian
    migratory species throughout their range.

49
CMS PurposeConvention on Migratory Species
  • Parties to CMS work together to conserve
    migratory species and their habitats by
  • Providing strict protection for the endangered
    migratory species listed in Appendix I of the
    Convention
  • By concluding multilateral Agreements for the
    conservation and management of migratory species
    listed in Appendix II and
  • By undertaking co-operative research activities.

50
CMS Appendix 1Convention on Migratory Species
  • 1. Appendix I shall list migratory species
    which are endangered.
  • 2. A migratory species may be listed in
    Appendix I provided that reliable evidence,
    including the best scientific evidence available,
    indicates that the species is endangered.

51
CMS Appendix 1Convention on Migratory Species
  • A migratory species may be removed from
    Appendix I when the Conference of the Parties
    determines that
  •  
  • reliable evidence, including the best scientific
    evidence available, indicates that the species is
    no longer endangered, and
  • the species is not likely to become endangered
    again because of loss of protection due to its
    removal from Appendix I.

52
CMS Appendix 1Convention on Migratory Species
  • Parties that are Range States of a
    migratory species listed in Appendix I shall
    endeavour
  • to conserve and restore those habitats of the
    species which are of importance in removing the
    species from danger of extinction
  • to prevent, remove, compensate for or minimize,
    the adverse effects of activities that seriously
    impede or prevent the migration of the species
    and
  • to prevent, reduce or control factors that are
    endangering or are likely to further endanger the
    species, including strictly controlling the
    introduction of, or controlling or eliminating,
    already introduced exotic species.

53
CMS Appendix 1Convention on Migratory Species
  • Exceptions may be made to this prohibition of the
    taking of Appendix 1 animals only if
  • the taking is for scientific purposes
  • the taking is for the purpose of enhancing the
    propagation or survival of the affected species

  • the taking is to accommodate the needs of
    traditional subsistence users of such species or

  • extraordinary circumstances so require provided
    that such exceptions are precise as to content
    and limited in space and time. Such taking should
    not operate to the disadvantage of the species.

54
CMS Appendix 2Convention on Migratory Species
  • Appendix II shall list migratory species which
    have an
  • unfavorable conservation status and
  • which require international agreements for their
    conservation and management,
  • as well as those which have a conservation status
    which would significantly benefit from the
    international cooperation that could be achieved
    by an international agreement.
  • If the circumstances so warrant, a migratory
    species may be listed both in Appendix I and
    Appendix II.

55
CMS Appendix 2Convention on Migratory Species
  • Parties that are Range States of migratory
    species listed in Appendix II shall try to
    conclude Agreements that would benefit the
    species and give priority to those species in an
    unfavorable conservation status.

56
Organizations and InstitutionsEndangered
Species and Biodiversity
57
CMS StructureConvention on Migratory Species
58
CMS StructureConvention on Migratory Species
  • Conference of Parties
  • Decision-Making Organ
  • Reviews Implementation
  • Adopts Budgets, Resolutions, Amendments to
    Species Lists

59
CMS StructureConvention on Migratory Species
  • Scientific Council
  • Experts Appointed by CMS Parties
  • Advises on Scientific Matters

60
CMS StructureConvention on Migratory Species
  • Standing Committee
  • Regional Representation
  • Provides General Policy, Operational, Financial
    Direction

61
CMS StructureConvention on Migratory Species
  • Secretariat
  • Develops and promotes agreements
  • Disseminates Information
  • Facilitates Meetings

62
RAMSAR
  • Convention on Wetlands

63
Governing Principles and RulesEndangered
Species and Biodiversity
64
RAMSAR HistoryConvention on Wetlands
  • The Convention was adopted in the Iranian city of
    Ramsar in 1971, and came into force in 1975.
  • As of August 1, 2003, 137 states were Contracting
    Parties and many others were poised to join.
  • Ramsar is the only global environmental treaty
    dealing with a particular ecosystem.

65
RAMSAR PurposeConvention on Wetlands
  • Provides the framework for national action and
    international cooperation for the conservation
    and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
  • The convention covers all aspects of wetland
    conservation and wise use, recognizing wetlands
    as ecosystems that are extremely important for
    biodiversity conservation in general and for the
    well-being of human communities.

66
RAMSAR CommitmentsConvention on Wetlands
  • Designate at least one site that meets the Ramsar
    criteria for inclusion in the List of Wetlands of
    International Importance (the Ramsar List), and
    ensure the maintenance of the ecological
    character of each Ramsar site. Countries are
    expected to include in the List as many wetlands
    that meet the criteria as possible.
  • Include wetland conservation within their
    national land-use planning, so as to promote the
    wise use of all wetlands within their territory
  • Establish nature reserves on wetlands, and
    promote training in wetland research, management
    and wardening
  • Consult with other Parties about the
    implementation of the Convention, especially with
    regard to transfrontier wetlands, shared water
    systems, shared species, and development projects
    affecting wetlands.

67
Organizations and InstitutionsEndangered
Species and Biodiversity
68
What is Ramsar? Sites of International
Importance
69
What is RAMSAR?
  • An Intergovernmental treaty
  • There are presently 138 Contracting Parties to
    the Convention, with 1317 wetland sites
    designated for inclusion in the Ramsar List of
    Wetlands of International Importance

70
Which Contracting Parties have the most Wetlands
of International Importance?
  • 169 United Kingdom
  • 64 Australia
  • 51 Sweden
  • 49 The Netherlands
  • 48 Spain
  • 46 Italy
  • 45 Ireland
  • 38 Denmark
  • 36 Canada
  • 35 Russian Federation
  • 31 Germany

71
The  Criteria for Identifying Wetlands of
International Importance
  • Criteria based on species and ecological
    communities
  • Specific criteria based on waterbirds
  • Specific criteria based on fish

72
WHC
  • World Heritage Convention

73
Governing Principles and RulesEndangered
Species and Biodiversity
74
WHC PurposeWorld Heritage Convention
  • The primary mission of the World Heritage
    Convention (WHC) is to identify and conserve the
    world's cultural and natural heritage, by drawing
    up a list of sites whose outstanding values
    should be preserved for all humanity and to
    ensure their protection through a closer
    cooperation among nations.

75
WHC ContentsWorld Heritage Convention
  • The Convention defines the kind of natural or
    cultural sites which can be considered for
    inscription on the World Heritage List, and sets
    out the duties of States Parties in identifying
    potential sites and their role in protecting and
    preserving them.
  • By signing the Convention, each country pledges
    to conserve not only the World Heritage sites
    situated on its territory, but also to protect
    its national heritage.

76
WHC ContentsWorld Heritage Convention
  • The Convention further describes the function of
    the World Heritage Committee, how its members are
    elected and their terms of office, and specifies
    the professional advisory bodies to which it can
    turn for advice in selecting the sites to be
    listed.
  • The Convention explains how the World Heritage
    Fund is to be used and managed and under what
    conditions international financial assistance may
    be provided.

77
WHC How it worksWorld Heritage Convention
  • The application for a site to be inscribed on the
    World Heritage List must come from the country
    itself. UNESCO makes no recommendations for
    listing.
  • The application has to include a plan detailing
    how the site is managed and protected in national
    legislation.

78
WHC How it worksWorld Heritage Convention
  • The World Heritage Committee meets once a year
    and examines the applications on the basis of
    technical evaluations.
  • These independent evaluations of proposed
    cultural and natural sites are provided by two
    advisory bodies,
  • International Council on Monuments and Sites
    (ICOMOS) and
  • World Conservation Union (IUCN).
  • A third advisory body, the International Centre
    for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration
    of Cultural Property, (ICCROM) provides expert
    advice on restoring monuments and organizes
    training courses.

79
WHC Criteria for SelectionWorld Heritage
Convention
  • To be included on the World Heritage List, sites
    must satisfy the selection criteria.
  • These criteria are explained in the Operational
    Guidelines which, besides the text of the
    Convention, is the main document on World
    Heritage.
  • The criteria have been revised regularly by the
    Committee to match the evolution of the World
    Heritage concept itself.

80
WHC Cultural HeritageWorld Heritage Convention
  • Cultural heritage should
  • represent a masterpiece of human creative genius,
    or
  • exhibit an important interchange of human values
    over a time or within a cultural area, on
    developments in architecture, monumental arts,
    town planning or landscape design, or
  • bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony
    to a cultural tradition or to a civilization
    which is living or has disappeared, or
  • be an example of a type of building or
    architectural or technological ensemble, or
    landscape which illustrates significant stages in
    human history, or
  • be an example of a traditional human settlement
    or land-use which is representative of a culture,
    especially when it is vulnerable under the impact
    of irreversible change, or
  • be associated with traditions, ideas, beliefs, or
    with artistic and literary works of outstanding
    universal significance.

81
WHC Natural PropertiesWorld Heritage Convention
  • Natural properties should
  • be outstanding examples representing major stages
    of the earth's history, including the record of
    life, significant ongoing geological processes in
    the development of landforms, or significant
    geomorphic features, or
  • be outstanding examples representing significant
    ongoing ecological and biological processes in
    the evolution and development of terrestrial,
    fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and
    communities of plants and animals,
  • contain areas of exceptional natural beauty and
    aesthetic importance, or
  • contain the most important and significant
    natural habitats for conservation of biological
    diversity, including those containing threatened
    species of outstanding universal value from the
    point of view of science or conservation.

82
WHC Natural PropertiesWorld Heritage Convention
  • Since 1992 significant interactions between
    people and the natural environment have been
    recognized as cultural landscapes.

83
WHC ProtectionWorld Heritage Convention
  • The credibility of World Heritage stems from
    countries' regular reporting on the condition of
    sites, on measures taken to preserve them, and on
    their efforts to raise public awareness of
    cultural and natural heritage.
  • If a country is not fulfilling its obligations
    under the Convention, it risks having its sites
    deleted from the World Heritage List.
  • In practice, countries take their responsibility
    very seriously, and the World Heritage Committee
    will be alerted - by individuals, NGOs, or other
    groups - to possible dangers to a site.
  • If the alert is justified, and the problem
    serious enough, the site will be placed on the
    List of World Heritage in Danger. Endangered
    sites on this list are entitled to particular
    attention and emergency action.

84
Organizations and InstitutionsEndangered
Species and Biodiversity
85
Convention Concerning the Protection of the World
Cultural and Natural Heritage
  • Defining and conserving the world's heritage
  • Induction of Countries

86
State Parties
  • World Heritage Convention member framework
  • s nomination of sites
  • s management plans

87
The General Assembly
  • Election of World Heritage Committee and its
    function

88
The World Heritage Committee
  • A brief overview
  • What is the World Heritage Committee?
  • What authority does it command?

89
Trilateral Treaties
90
North American Agreement on Environmental
Cooperation
  • Created the CEC, the Commission on Environmental
    Cooperation, which addresses regional
    environmental concerns, helps prevent potential
    trade and environmental conflicts, and promotes
    the effective enforcement of environmental law.
  • The Agreement complements the environmental
    provisions of the North American Free Trade
    Agreement (NAFTA).

91
North American Agreement on Environmental
Cooperation
  • OBLIGATIONS
  • (a) periodically prepare and make publicly
    available reports on the state of the
    environment
  • (b) develop and review environmental emergency
    preparedness measures
  • (c) promote education in environmental matters,
    including environmental law
  • (d) further scientific research and technology
    development in respect of environmental matters
  • (e) assess, as appropriate, environmental
    impacts and
  • (f) promote the use of economic instruments for
    the efficient achievement of environmental goals.

92
North American Agreement on Environmental
Cooperation
  • EXPORTS OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES
  • Each Party shall consider prohibiting the export
    of a pesticide or toxic substance whose use is
    prohibited within the Party's territory.

93
within the space of our lifetime, just a few
human generations, we shall -- in the absence of
greatly expanded conservation efforts --
impoverish the biosphere to an extent that will
persist for at least 200,000 human
generations(1)
- Norman Myers
94
Diversity
  • At least 3.4 billion years of life on Earth
  • History of life on Earth shows a pattern of
    diversification and speciation.
  • Biodiversity may now be at its highest level.
    (2)
  • Only 1.7 million out of an estimated 10-30
    million species have been identified and
    categorized. (3)
  • 40,000 species of plants, animals,fungi, and
    microbes are regularly exploited for human
    benefit. (4)
  • The endangered species trade is worth 5-17
    billion/year (5)
  • At least half of the worlds species live in
    tropical rainforests.

95
(6)
96
Species Extinction
  • Extinction is a normal byproduct of the process
    of evolution
  • Most species exist for 2-5 million years
  • 99 percent of species that ever existed have
    become extinct. (7)
  • There have been 5 or 6 mass extinctions
  • 50-200 species become extinct each day
  • Current rates of species extinction are 50-100
    times greater than the background rate(8)

97
Number of Threatened Species (9)
Threatened includes critically endangered,
endangered and vulnerable
98
Number of Endangered and Extinct Animals (1996)
(10)
99
Primary Causes of Species Extinction (11)

100
(12)
101
Definitions of Extinction (13)
  • Formal Definition total disappearance from the
    Earth with no reported sightings for an extended
    period of time (e.g. over 50 years)
  • Commercial Extinction Commercial harvesting
    leaves species nearly extinct.
  • Positive feedback - harvesting slows/stops and
    recovery is possible
  • Species becomes prized for its rarity and
    harvesting increases causing extinction
  • Population Extinction Extinction of distinct
    populations of a species
  • Regional Extinction Extinction of a population
    within a political boundary

102
Does CITES Effectively protect Endangered Species?
103
Measuring the success of CITES (14)
  • Has the convention improved the status of the
    species of wild flora and fauna it seeks to
    protect?
  • In order to prove that CITES has been successful,
    a species must
  • Have been threatened with extinction as a result
    of unsustainable international commercial trade
    immediately before listing in being listed in
    Appendix I, and
  • Have recovered as a result of listing to the
    point where it could be transferred to Appendix
    II.

104
Measuring the success of CITES (continued) (15)
  • A 1996 review commissioned by the parties found
    that only two species seemed to have benefited
    from CITES listing.
  • However, experts from the IUCN Survival
    Commission found that the status of one of the
    two species, the nile crocodile, may have
    improved, not as a result of applying the
    standard CITES medicine, but as a consequence of
    departing from that prescription. Specifically,
    it was only when CITES shifted from a policy of
    restricting trade to one of promoting the
    sustainable use of crocodiles that crocodile
    numbers increased. (Transfer from Appendix I to
    Appendix II which has made ranches possible and
    profitable)

105
CITES
  • Forced governments to develop and strengthen
    conservation plans
  • The US adopted the Endangered Species Act in
    order, in part, to comply with CITES.
  • Increased awareness of endangered species
    (especially charismatic species such as pandas
    and elephants) and other conservation issues
  • Reduced demand for products of endangered species
    (?)
  • Provides a starting point for broader
    conservation initiatives

106
Weaknesses of CITES
  • CITES focuses on specific species rather than on
    ecosystems
  • CITES does not address the most significant
    threats to most species
  • Habitat destruction
  • Reduction in range
  • Pollution and pesticides
  • Introduced species
  • Even where trade is a major threat to a species,
    CITES may not be effective
  • Illegal trade continues
  • Domestic trade continues
  • CITES fails to recognize the possible benefits
    from trade(16)
  • CITES does not address conservation at a local or
    community level
  • Outright ban on certain products (Appendix I
    listing) may disproportionately burden
    developing countries, and marginalized
    communities

107
CITES and CBD
  • In 1996, the Secretariats of CITES and CBD signed
    a memorandum of understanding which provides for

  • institutional cooperation between the
    secretariats
  • exchange of information coordination of work
    programs
  • joint conservation action.
  • In the memorandum the secretariats agree to
    consult their Contracting Parties with a view to
    encouraging effective conservation and
    promoting the sustainability of any use of
    wildlife as a part of the biological diversity of
    our planet. (17)
  • This may be evidence that there will be a shift
    in CITES policy
  • Pure conservation to sustainable use
  • Species-specific approach to ecosystem approach

108
Amazon Mahogany and the Rainforest Action Network
  • In 1997 Rainforest Action Network (RAN) and 136
    other conservation groups convinced the US to
    support listing of Amazon Mahogany in Appendix II
    of CITES.
  • Amazon Mahogany was listed in Appendix III and
    was subject to trade regulation.
  • In November 2003 its listing changed now it is
    an Appendix II specimen.
  • Although the Mahogany itself is threatened, the
    regulation of mahogany will positively impact the
    entire ecosystem.
  • Thus the current CITES framework can be used to
    protect entire ecosystems if trade in keystone
    species is restricted.

109
Conclusions
  • The focus of endangered species conservation
    should shift from a species-centered approach to
    an ecosystem approach.
  • More emphasis should be placed on the factors
    which have the greatest impact on species
    survival (maintaining habitats).
  • Communities need to be involved in the planning
    and decision making process in order to achieve
    compliance as well as sustainability goals
  • Despite its specificity, CITES may be able to
    provide a workable framework for protecting
    endangered species if it is implemented in
    conjunction with other biodiversity-related
    conventions and treaties, especially CBD.

110
Sources
  • CITES official page www.cites.org
  • Convention on Biodiversity web page
    www.biodiv.org
  • IUCN - World Conservation Union www.iucn.org
  • IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species
    www.redlist.org
  • World Resources Institute www.wri.org
  • American University International Law and Policy
    Reference Source www.wcl.american.edu/environment
    /iel/thirteen.cfm
  • Resource Africa (An African perspective on
    natural resource management and conservation)
    www.resourceafrica.org
  • Rainforest Action Network www.ran.org
  • Edward O. Wilson. The Diversity of Life. (1992)
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