Endangered species classification - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 34
About This Presentation
Title:

Endangered species classification

Description:

CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. What causes extinction ... Nationally: The ESA the Endangered Species Act 1973 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:483
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 35
Provided by: rayhi
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Endangered species classification


1
Endangered species classification

2
References but not assigned
  • Mace, G.M. and R. Lande. 1991. Assessing
    extinction threats towards a reevaluation of
    IUCN threatened species categories. Conservation
    Biology 5 148-157

3
Purpose of endangered species listing
  • To highlight species at risk
  • hopefully leading to .
  • cause action to be taken, where possible, to
    reduce risk of extinction

4
Types of listing
  • U.S. Endangered Species Act
  • IUCN Red Book
  • CITES Convention on International Trade in
    Endangered Species

5
What causes extinction
  • Gradual decline in abundance due to negative
    rates of increase
  • Loss of habitat
  • Introduction of exotic pests
  • Harvesting
  • Pollution affecting reproduction and survival
  • Climate change
  • Catastrophic events
  • The asteroid that killed the dinosaurs
  • El Nino events, bad climates

6
What makes species vulnerable to extinction
  • Low (especially negative) rates of increase
  • Small population sizes
  • Few breeding sites
  • Large fluctuations in abundance

7
(No Transcript)
8
(No Transcript)
9
1994 IUCN Red List Categories
  • EXTINCT (EX) A taxon is Extinct when there is no
    reasonable doubt that the last individual has
    died.

10
EXTINCT IN THE WILD (EW)
  • A taxon is Extinct in the wild when it is known
    only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or
    as a naturalised population (or populations) well
    outside the past range. A taxon is presumed
    extinct in the wild when exhaustive surveys in
    known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate
    times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its
    historic range have failed to record an
    individual. Surveys should be over a time frame
    appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life
    form.

11
CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR)
  • A taxon is Critically Endangered when it is
    facing an extremely high risk of extinction in
    the wild in the immediate future, as defined by
    any of the criteria A to E.

12
ENDANGERED (EN)
  • A taxon is Endangered when it is not Critically
    Endangered but is facing a very high risk of
    extinction in the wild in the near future, as
    defined by any of the criteria A to E.

13
VULNERABLE (VU)
  • A taxon is Vulnerable when it is not Critically
    Endangered or Endangered but is facing a high
    risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term
    future, as defined by any of the criteria A to E.

14
LOWER RISK (LR)
  • A taxon is Lower Risk when it has been evaluated,
    but does not satisfy the criteria for any of the
    categories Critically Endangered, Endangered or
    Vulnerable. Taxa included in the Lower Risk
    category can be separated into three
    subcategories
  • 1. Conservation Dependent (cd). Taxa which are
    the focus of a continuing taxon-specific or
    habitat-specific conservation programme targeted
    towards the taxon in question, the cessation of
    which would result in the taxon qualifying for
    one of the threatened categories above within a
    period of five years.
  • 2. Near Threatened (nt). Taxa which do not
    qualify for Conservation Dependent, but which are
    close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
  • 3. Least Concern (lc). Taxa which do not qualify
    for Conservation Dependent or Near Threatened.

15
DATA DEFICIENT (DD)
  • A taxon is Data Deficient when there is
    inadequate information to make a direct, or
    indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction
    based on its distribution and/or population
    status. A taxon in this category may be well
    studied, and its biology well known, but
    appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution
    are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a
    category of threat or Lower Risk. Listing of taxa
    in this category indicates that more information
    is required and acknowledges the possibility that
    future research will show that threatened
    classification is appropriate. It is important to
    make positive use of whatever data are available.
    In many cases great care should be exercised in
    choosing between DD and threatened status. If the
    range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively
    circumscribed, if a considerable period of time
    has elapsed since the last record of the taxon,
    threatened status may well be justified.

16
NOT EVALUATED (NE)
  • A taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet
    been assessed against the criteria.

17
The Criteria
  • A. Reduction in population size
  • B. Restricted geographic range
  • C. Small population size and declining
  • D. Very small population size
  • E. Quantitative assessment of risk of extinction

18
Numerical values
19
(No Transcript)
20
Special issues for marine species
  • A fisheries management plan can cause a 50
    decline, should this cause a listing
  • Marine distributions are very different from
    terrestrial
  • Marine abundance is very high relative to the
    species that IUCN rules were built around

21
What is a species
To be considered an ESU under the ESA, a
population (or group of populations) must be
reproductively isolated from conspecific
populations, and must contribute substantially to
the ecological/genetic diversity of the species
(Waples 1991).
22
What happens when listed
  • Relevant agency (NMFS, USFWS) must develop and
    implement a recovery plan
  • All taking is prohibited. The term "take"
    includes "to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot,
    wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect.
  • Some taking is permitted in the form in
    incidental catch

23
(No Transcript)
24
Case studies
25
Chinook Salmon ESUs
26
Take of endangered salmon
  • Still goes on

27
Stellers sea lion
28
(No Transcript)
29
(No Transcript)
30
Gulf of Alaska Small set of structuring
variables operating at different speeds - Whammo!
31
Key recovery actions
  • Prohibition on shooting
  • Reduction of incidental take
  • Subsistence take
  • Disturbance
  • Fisheries closures near rookeries
  • Intense monitoring and research

32
(No Transcript)
33
Relevant Legislation
  • Nationally The ESA the Endangered Species Act
    1973
  • Internationally CITES Convention on
    International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
    Fauna and Flora. 1975 administered by UN
    Environment Program
  • 25,000 plants
  • 5,000 animals listed

34
Summary
  • ESA is powerful legislation has teeth and
    causes change thus not popular with those
    affected
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com