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Housing Choice: Most Promising Housing Strategies

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No housing planning requirement in Indiana, but now in Illinois. Affordable Housing ... Boom/Bust Economy. Politics of Housing (Texas) State Level ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Housing Choice: Most Promising Housing Strategies


1
Housing Choice Most Promising Housing Strategies
  • 2005 American Planning Association State National
    Planning Conference
  • San Francisco, CA
  • March 20, 2005

2
  • Bill Klein, AICP
  • Director of Research, American Planning
    Association
  • bklein_at_planning.org
  • Stuart Meck, FAICP
  • Senior Research Fellow, American Planning
    Association
  • smeck_at_planning.org
  • Lynn M. Ross
  • Research Associate, American Planning Association
  • lross_at_planning.org

3
Housing Choice Scoping Sessions
  • Sponsored by Fannie Mae Foundation
  • 6 half-day sessions held Fall 2004
  • North Carolina, Southern New England,
    Oregon-Washington, Midwest, Texas, and
    California.
  • Participants from various disciplines.

4
Key Discussion Components
  • Each Scoping Session Addressed
  • Housing Need
  • Politics of Housing
  • Affordable Housing Production and Retention
  • Most Promising Strategies

5
North Carolina
6
Housing Need(North Carolina)
  • Regional differences
  • East
  • Metropolitan areas
  • Coastal areas and resort areas
  • Impact of second home owners
  • Section 8 waiting list
  • Demand for one person units

7
Politics of Housing(North Carolina)
  • Lack of overarching housing policy
  • Housing policy and production functions spread
    out
  • No dedicated source of funding

8
Affordable Housing Production and Retention
(North Carolina)
  • Lack of capacity for rehabilitation
  • Limitations on investment tax credits
  • Shortage of land for multifamily housing
  • Difficulty in amending state building code
  • Lack of express authority of inclusionary zoning
  • Race-based opposition

9
North CarolinaMost Promising Housing Strategies
  • Education on handling money and credit
  • Authorization for inclusionary zoning
  • Statewide minimum housing code
  • Development of rental housing production capacity
  • Incentivized housing trust fund for realtors and
    bankers
  • Education campaign on benefits of affordable
    housing

10
Southern New England
11
Housing Need (Southern New England)
  • Transition from industrial to service economy
  • Changes in household size and composition
  • Immigration, especially for key target areas
  • Loss of subsidy for very low income hshds
  • Stratification/segregation
  • Focus on workforce hsng impacts very low income

12
Politics of Housing (Southern New England)
  • Anti-tax feelings drive the discussion
  • Resources down to ¼ what they once were
  • Anti-development feelings generally
  • Fear of in-migration, impact on schools
  • Perception of excess profits by developers
  • Legitimate infrastructure needs
  • The Governor must lead

13
Affordable Housing Production and
Retention(Southern New England)
  • Devolution of Federal responsibilities
  • More sophisticated ways to stop dev
  • Loss of by-right zoning for multi-family
  • Lack of certainty in process
  • Diminished profitability, fewer for-profits
  • Impact fees pacing and phasing mechanisms
    off-site improvements

14
Southern New England Most Promising Housing
Strategies
  • Massachusetts Chapter 40R Smart Growth Zoning
    Districts
  • 2 carrots for higher density
  • Rhode Island Public Laws, Chapter 286
  • R.I. Affordable Housing Act
  • Inclusionary Housing Strategies
  • Voluntary vs. mandatory inclusionary tools

15
Oregon-Washington
16
Housing Need(Oregon-Washington)
  • Most counties in Washington and Oregon have
    affordable housing need
  • Age and income cohorts affect housing
  • Immigration impactHispanics represent 1 in 3 new
    households
  • Portland, Corvallis becoming more expensive
  • Seattlevery expensive

17
Politics of Housing(Oregon-Washington)
  • Strong state growth management structure
  • Limitation on use of inclusionary zoning in
    Oregon
  • No dedicated source of funds
  • Voluntary housing goals from Portland Metro
  • Reliance on sales tax and commercial activity

18
Affordable Housing Production and Retention
(Oregon-Washington)
  • Land inside Portland growth boundary not ready
    for development
  • Hard to find individual building lots for under
    100,000
  • Hope VI working well in Seattle
  • Investment tax creditstoo many soft costs

19
Oregon-Washington Most Promising Housing
Strategies
  • Oregon LCDC needs to develop capacity to assist
    local governments with affordable housing
  • Needs to be a mechanism to pledge affordable
    housing as a condition of UGB expansions
  • Real estate transfer tax for affordable housing,
    lift ban on exclusionary zoning in Oregon
  • Banking land for affordable housing
  • Citizen education
  • More short term activity to produce affordable
    units

20
Midwest
21
Housing Need(Midwest)
  • Participants were from Indiana
  • Loss of jobsno longer strong industrial base
  • Central Indiana housing affordable, northern part
    of state more need
  • Lack of high-end housing in Indianapolis
  • Imbalance of housing choices in Indy region
  • Lack of very low income housing
  • Homelessness

22
Politics of Housing(Midwest)
  • State has 66 public housing authorities
  • But state oversees public housing
  • No dedicated revenue source for affordable
    housing
  • No housing planning requirement in Indiana, but
    now in Illinois

23
Affordable Housing Production and Retention
(Midwest)
  • Manufactured housing filling needs in rural areas
    of state
  • Special exception requirements for manufactured
    housing
  • Fort Wayne citywide housing strategy
  • Affordable housing trust fund in Indianapolis
  • Owner-occupied downtown housing in Indy

24
Midwest Most Promising Housing Strategies
  • Illinois Comprehensive Housing Plan
  • Illinois Affordable Housing Planning and Appeal
    Act
  • Cooperative efforts outside government
  • Training local planning commissions concerning
    affordable housing
  • UniGov approach to housing to share burdens and
    benefits

25
Texas
26
Housing Need (Texas)
  • Immigrant Influx
  • Household Composition
  • Spatial Component- Rural v. Urban
  • Jobs- Housing Balance
  • Change in Poverty Dynamics
  • Boom/Bust Economy

27
Politics of Housing(Texas)
  • State Level
  • Not typically a Governors Office issue
  • A Regional Issue for the Legislature
  • Local Level
  • NIMBY
  • Race and Income Segregation
  • Property Values

28
Affordable Housing Production and
Retention(Texas)
  • Low Income Housing Tax Credit
  • Regulatory Barrier Removal
  • State Programs
  • Role of the Non-profit Sector
  • Manufactured Housing

29
Texas Most Promising Housing Strategies
  • S.M.A.R.T. HousingTM program
  • Austin
  • Land Assemblage Redevelopment Authority (LARA)
  • Houston
  • Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA)
  • San Antonio

30
California
31
Housing Need(California)
  • Sharp population growth
  • Immigration
  • Inadequate production of housing overall
  • Two markets
  • Those who bought early
  • Those who are trying to get in
  • Speculative housing in Sacramento region

32
Politics of Housing(California)
  • Proposition 13 and impact
  • Housing policy not a priority for any governor
  • Lack of comprehensive approach
  • Local government barrierslarger houses, larger
    lots

33
Affordable Housing Production and Retention
(California)
  • Builders wary of affordable housing market
  • Regulatory barriers
  • Private, but not public, enforcement of state
    housing element law
  • Lack of certainty
  • San Diego SRO

34
California Most Promising Strategies
  • More housing generally
  • Accessory dwelling units
  • Higher densities
  • Statewide inclusionary zoning
  • Maintaining Section 8
  • The Urban Williamson Act
  • Linking affordable housing to job development
  • Building affordable housing in smaller clusters

35
Top 10 Most Common Themes
  • 10. Impact of Local/Regional Tax Structure
  • 9. Inadequate State Funding for Housing
  • 8. Lack of Support at State Legislative Level
  • 7. Use of Tax Credits
  • 6. Wages vs. Cost of Living

36
Top 10 Most Common Themes
  • 5. Service Gap for the Very Low Income
  • 4. Change in Household Composition
  • 3. Impact of Federal Programs
  • 2. Need for More Education, Training, and
    Capacity-Building Programs
  • 1. Not In My Backyard

37
Learn More
  • APA Website, www.planning.org
  • Affordable Housing Reader
  • Free online reader features 100 APA published
    articles.
  • Housing and Community Development Division
  • Learn about the division activities, join, read
    the newsletter.
  • Housing Choice online (coming soon)
  • Complete session summaries, theme analysis,
    strategy descriptions.

38
Thank you for attending!
  • 2005 American Planning Association National
    Planning Conference
  • San Francisco, CA
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