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Integumentary and Skeletal Systems I' Structure of Integument A' Layers 1' basement membrane 2' epid

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Title: Integumentary and Skeletal Systems I' Structure of Integument A' Layers 1' basement membrane 2' epid


1
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsI.
Structure of Integument A. Layers 1.
basement membrane 2. epidermis 3. cuticle
Cuticle

Gland Cells
2
3. cuticle
2. epidermis
gland cell
1. basement membrane
3
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsI.
Structure of Integument A. Layers 3.
cuticle a. Layers of cuticle 1)
endocuticle (non-sclerotized) a)
light bands b) dark bands
4
Dark bands
endocuticle
Light band with lamellae
epidermis
5
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsI.
Structure of Integument A. Layers 3.
cuticle a. Layers of cuticle 1)
endocuticle a) light bands b) dark bands
2) exocuticle (sclerotized)
6
exocuticle
(molted exoskeleton exuviae)
7
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsI.
Structure of Integument A. Layers 3.
cuticle a. Layers of cuticle 1)
endocuticle 2) exocuticle 3)
epicuticle
8
epicuticle
9
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsI.
Structure of Integument A. Layers 3.
cuticle a. Layers of cuticle
b. Chemical composition chitin fibers
embedded in a matrix of proteins 1)
chitin 25
C8H13O5N
10
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsI.
Structure of Integument A. Layers 3.
cuticle a. Layers of cuticle b.
Chemical composition 1) chitin 2)
proteins 50
11
Types of cuticular proteins -- resilin
rubber like scaffolding -- sclerotins
undergo tanning process (sclerotization) --
arthropodins
12
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsI.
Structure of Integument A. Layers 3.
cuticle a. Layers of cuticle b.
Chemical composition 1) chitin 2)
proteins 3) phenols quinones tanning
process
13
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsI.
Structure of Integument A. Layers B. External
integumentary processes 1. spines --
multicellular -- hollow outgrowths of cuticle
lined with epidermis
14
Spiny Devil Katydid
15
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsI.
Structure of Integument A. Layers B.
External integumentary processes 1. spines
2. setae
16
Structure of Insect Seta
collar of chitin
seta
cuticle
Tormogen cell (forms socket)
Tirchogen cell (secretes seta)
17
Seta with sensory function sensillum
seta
cuticle
dendrite
Tormogen cell (forms socket)
Sensory neuron
Tirchogen cell (secretes seta)
axon
18
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsI.
Structure of Integument A. Layers B.
External integumentary processes C. Molting
and Growth -- molting ecdysis --
emergence from cuticle eclosion -- cast off
cuticle exuviae -- all molting and growth
occurs during developmental stages adult
insects do not molt or grow in size
19
  • Exoskeleton presents insects with two problems
  • Must molt to grow (molting ecdysis)

exuviae
20
  • Exoskeleton presents insects with two problems
  • Must metamorphosize into adult ( imago)

egg
larva
larva
imago
pupa
21
  • Molting and Growth 1. hormonal regulation
  • a. neurosecretory cells in pars
    intercerebralis produce prothoracicotropic
    hormone (PTTH) stored in corpora alata released
    into hemolymph
  • b. carried to prothoracic gland
  • stimulates release of ecdysone
  • c. ecdysone binds with nuclear
  • receptors in cells of epidermis
  • ? gene regulatory protein
  • enters nuclei of epidermal cells
  • activates gene programs

22
  • ecdysone causes 3 responses from epidermal cells
  • apolysis forms exuvial space
  • secrete molting fluid (chitinases proteases)
    digests old endocuticle from bottom up
  • secrete new cuticle
  • under old exocuticle
  • epicuticle ? exocuticle
  • ? endocuticle
  • e. Brain releases eclosion
  • hormone causes old
  • exocuticle to split
  • insect ecloses
  • f. Expands new cuticle by pumping hemolymph
  • or air release bursicon to cause
    sclerotizatoin

Exocuticle
Endocuticle
23
  • Molting and Growth 2. molting and metamorphosis
  • -- ecdysone produced by prothorasic gland
    controls molting promotes adult characteristics
  • -- juvenile hormone (JH) produced by corpora
    alata promotes larval characteristics

24
if JH above threshold level ecdysone promotes
molting, but larval characteristics are retained
? next larval stage
JH Titer in Hemolymph
Threshold JH
if JH below threshold level ecdysone promotes
molting and development of adult characteristics
? imago
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 Pupa Adult
25
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsI.
Structure of Integument II. Insect Skeleton
composed of plates ( sclerites)
separated by membranous areas ( conjunctiva)
A. Head 1. cranium -- joined to
body by cervix -- composed of 4-7 fused
segments, each with paired appendages
26
Insect Cranium
Coronal suture
Frontal suture
Frons
Gena
clypeus
Labial plap
labrum
Maxillary palp
mandible
27
cranium side view
28
Internal Components of Cranium Tentorium
(attachment points for muscles cradles the brain)
Dorsal tentorial arm
Foramen magnum
Posterior tentorial arm
clypeus
Anterior tentorial arm
labrum
29
cranium modifications
30
Order Homoptera Lantern fly head
31
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton A. Head 1. cranium 2.
sensory structures a. compound eyes
-- composed of ommatidia
32
Insect Head sensory structures
Compound eye
33
Compound Eyes
34
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton A. Head 1. cranium 2.
sensory structures a. compound eyes
b. ocelli
35
Insect Head sensory structures
ocellus
Compound eye
36
Compound Eyes and Ocelli
ocelli
37
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton A. Head 1. cranium 2.
sensory structures a. compound eyes
b. ocelli c. antennae
38
Insect Head sensory structures
Antennal socket
scape
pedicel
flagellum
39
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40
Figure 20.43d
41
(No Transcript)
42
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton A. Head 1. cranium 2.
sensory structures 3. mouthparts a.
generalized plan
43
Insect Mouthparts
clypeus
Labial plap
labrum
Maxillary palp
mandible
44
Mouthparts generalized plan
gena
frons
maxilla
clypeus
maxillary palp
labrum
labial palp
mandibles
45
Mouthparts generalized plan
46
Mouthparts hypopharynx and cibarium
47
Mouthparts hypopharynx and cibarium
pharynx
hypopharynx
mouth
clypeus
salivary duct
cibarium
labrum
labium
48
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton A. Head 3. mouthparts
a. generalized plan b. feeding types
1) mandibulate (chewing)
49
Mandibulate Mouthparts
50
Mandibulate Mouthparts modifications
51
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52
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton A. Head 3. mouthparts
a. generalized plan b. feeding
types 1) mandibulate 2)
haustellate (liquid feeders) a)
external fluid feeders (nectar animal
secretions, etc.)
53
Haustellate Mouthparts external fluid feeders
54
Haustellate mouthparts siphoning
galea
55
Haustellate Mouthparts sponging
proboscis
labella
56
Haustellate mouthparts Chewing-lapping
57
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton A. Head 3. mouthparts
a. generalized plan b. feeding types
1) mandibulate 2) haustellate
a) external fluid feeders b)
internal fluid feeders
(blood plant sap)
58
Haustellate mouthparts internal fluid feeders
59
Haustellate mouthparts mosquito
60
Haustellate mouthparts flea
61
Haustellate mouthparts cicada
62
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton A. Head 3. mouthparts
a. generalized plan b. feeding types
1) mandibulate 2)
haustellate 3) immature stages
63
Mouthparts immature stagesmandibulate
mouthparts
64
Mouthparts of immature stagesspinnerets of
lepidoterans and hymenopterans (maxillae
hypopharynx labium)
65
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66
Mouthparts of immature stagesspinnerets of
lepidoterans and hymenopterans
67
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII.
Insect Skeleton A. Head B. Thorax 1.
structure a. generalized thoracic
segment
68
Insect Thorax
roof notum or tergum floor sternum side
pleuron
69
Generalized Mesothoracic Segment
(tergum)
conjunctiva
sclerites
70
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton B. Thorax 1. structure
a. generalized thoracic segment 1) tergum
(notum) a) postnotum
71
Generalized Mesothoracic Segment tergum
alinotum
postnotum
phragma of pronotum
phragma
72
Generalized Mesothoracic Segment internal
phragma
wing
hemocoel
73
pronotum
mesonotum
metanotum
phragma
dorso-longitudinal flight muscles
74
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton B. Thorax 1. structure
a. generalized thoracic segment
1) tergum (notum) a) postnotum
b) alinotum
75
Generalized Mesothoracic Segment tergum
alinotum
postnotum
scutum scutellum
scutoscutellar suture
anterior notal process
phragma
posterior notal process
76
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton B. Thorax 1. structure
a. generalized thoracic segment
1) tergum (notum) 2) pleuron a)
pleural suture
77
Generalized Mesothoracic Segment pleuron
epimeron
episternum
pleural suture
78
Generalized Mesothoracic Segment
pleural ridge
pleural suture
pleural apophysis
79
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton B. Thorax 1. structure
a. generalized thoracic segment 1)
tergum (notum) 2) pleuron
a) pleural suture b) wing
articulation points
80
Generalized Mesothoracic Segment pleuron
pleural wing process
basalar
subalar
epimeron
episternum
pleural suture
81
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton B. Thorax 1. structure
a. generalized thoracic segment 1)
tergum (notum) 2) pleuron
a) pleural suture b) wing
articulation points c) leg
articulation points
82
Generalized Mesothoracic Segment pleuron
pleural wing process
basalar
subalar
epimeron
episternum
pleural suture
coxal articulation
coxal cavity
trochantin
83
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII.
Insect Skeleton B. Thorax 1.
structure a. generalized thoracic
segment 1) tergum (notum) 2)
pleuron 3) sternum
84
Generalized Mesothoracic Segment
basisternum
sternellum
sternacostal suture
85
Generalized Mesothoracic Segment
sternal apophysis
sternacosta
sternacostal suture
86
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII.
Insect Skeleton B. Thorax 1.
structure a. generalized thoracic
segment 1) tergum (notum) 2)
pleuron 3) sternum b. Pronotum
87
pronotum modifications
88
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII.
Insect Skeleton B. Thorax 1.
structure a. generalized thoracic
segment b. pronotum 2. legs
a. generalized structure
89
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90
Tarsal Claws and Arolium
91
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII.
Insect Skeleton B. Thorax 1.
structure 2. legs a. generalized
structure b. modifications
92
Insect Legs Types of movement
cursorial fossorial raptorial
saltatorial natatorial
93
Insect Legs specialized structures Honey
bee
Foreleg antenna cleaner
Hindleg corbiculum
94
Pollen Forager
95
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII.
Insect Skeleton B. Thorax 2. legs
a. generalized structure b.
modifications 3. wings a.
generalized structure
96
Honey Bee Forewing
Wing veins
97
Insect Wing cross section
cuticle
epidermis
wing vein
hemocoel with hemolymph
trachea
98
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton B. Thorax 2. legs 3.
wings a. generalized structure
b. wing coupling devices
99

forewing
hindwing
hindwing
forewing
100
frenulum
Lepidoptera
Hymenoptera
jugum
101
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII.
Insect Skeleton B. Thorax 2. legs
3. wings a. generalized
structure b. wing coupling devices
c. modifications
102
Order Coleoptera
elytra
103
Figure 20.30a
104
Order Mantodea
105
Figure 20.30c
106
Order Diptera True Flies
haltere
107
Order Isoptera Order Hymenoptera ants
108
Order Anoplura Order Siphonaptera
109
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII.
Insect Skeleton C. Abdomen 1.
generalized structure
110
(cerci)
conjunctiva
111
Order Hymenoptera
petiole
112
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII. Insect
Skeleton C. Abdomen 1. generalized
structure 2. external genitalia a.
female 1) ovipositor valvifers and
valvulae
113
Order Hymenoptera Parasitoid wasp
ovipositor
114
Order Hymenoptera Parasitoid wasp
115
Order Hymenoptera Parasitoid wasp
116
Order Hymenoptera Parasitoid wasp
117
Order Hymenoptera Mud Dauber Building Nest
118
Order Hymenoptera Mud Dauber Provisioning Nest
119
Order Hymenoptera Mud dauber
120
Order Hymenoptera Mud dauber nest
121
Order Hymenoptera Paper wasps
122
Order Hymenoptera Paper wasp nest
123
Order Hymenoptera Yellow jackets
124
Order Hymenoptera Hornet nest
125
Order Hymenoptera Hornet nest
126
Honey Bee Stinger
127
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII.
Insect Skeleton C. Abdomen 1.
generalized structure 2. external genitalia
a. female 1) ovipositor 2)
ovicapt
128
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII.
Insect Skeleton C. Abdomen 1.
generalized structure 2. external genitalia
a. female b. male adeagus
129
Drone genitalia
130
Integumentary and Skeletal SystemsII.
Insect Skeleton C. Abdomen 1.
generalized structure 2. external genitalia
3. abdominal prolegs
131
(No Transcript)
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