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The Play Years

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... accounts for differences in size of children between rich and poor nations ... related to low intake of iron rich foods: leafy vegetables, raisins and other ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Play Years


1
The Play Years
  • Biosocial Development for ages
  • 2 to 6

2
Three primary factors influencing physical growth
  • Genetic Background
  • Health care
  • Nutrition
  • this factor accounts for differences in size of
    children between rich and poor nations

3
Dietary issues
  • For all preschoolers, rate of growth slows during
    this developmental stage
  • This results in intake of fewer calories
  • How these calories are used becomes an important
    issue for developing bodies

4
Dietary issues for US children
  • Iron deficient anemia
  • related to low intake of iron rich foods leafy
    vegetables, raisins and other dried fruits, whole
    grains, eggs, high quality meats
  • Too much sugar intake
  • Too much fat intake
  • Too little fruit and vegetable intake

5
Experience and the Brain
  • Rapid rate of myelination of neurons occurs at
    this stage
  • Increasing neural connections due to experience
  • Specific areas of brain expanding relating to
    emotions, motor functioning, and intellect
  • Corpus callosum increases in size at age 5

6
Improved brain functioning
  • These physical developments allow preschoolers
    greater control of emotions, muscle coordination,
    and reaction time
  • Corpus Callosum growth allows hemispheres of
    brain better communication and the child can
    successfully involve both hemispheres in
    coordination,sensory, emotion, thinking and
    reaction tasks

7
Readiness for Reading and Math
  • Development of hemispheres and increased
    myelenation also aids with the visual pathway,
    strengthening cognitive abilities to recognize
    symbols while improving eye-hand coordination and
    enabling effective writing
  • These changes occur simultaneous to reading,
    writing, and math instruction in schools

8
Implications for learning
  • While maturation makes reading, math and writing
    tasks salient to the child, early exposure to
    rich language, literature and math concepts are
    recommended
  • Educational programs which keep activities at the
    appropriate developmental stage will increase
    motivation by providing early successful academic
    experiences

9
Injury control
  • Preventing injuries by planning ahead,
    controlling circumstances, preventing certain
    dangerous activities and adding safety features
    to other activities
  • regulation of child proof safety caps
  • car seat laws
  • mandatory fencing around pools
  • helmets worn by cyclists
  • flame-retardant sleep wear

10
Mastering Gross Motor Skills
  • Learned by teaching themselves and from other
    children, rather than through adult instruction

11
Childrens Art
  • Expresses symbolic understanding
  • Requires fine motor coordination
  • Enhances feelings of accomplishment
  • Provides a medium for self-correction
  • Detail in drawings parallel cognitive development
  • Encourages expression of self

12
Child Maltreatment
  • Abuse any action harmful to an individuals
    well-being
  • Neglect any inaction that harms or endangers a
    person
  • both terms include either physical and/or
    psychological harm
  • Maltreatment any intentional harm or
    endangerment to anyone under 18 years

13
Cultural Values that protect children from
Maltreatment
  • Children are not held responsible for their
    actions
  • Children are highly valued
  • Children are not the sole responsibility of
    parents
  • Aggression of any kind is frowned upon

14
Family contextual factors contributing to
maltreatment
  • Poverty
  • Social Isolation

15
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16
Possible Consequences of Maltreatment
  • Underweight
  • Slower to talk
  • Less able to concentrate
  • Delayed academic growth
  • Negative perception of others
  • Use of drugs
  • Enter poor relationships

17
Possible Consequences of Maltreatment
  • Become aggressors or victims
  • Sabbotage their careers
  • Establish unhealthy eating patterns
  • Engage in self-destructive behavior

18
Intergenerational Transmission
  • A destructive and inaccurate assumption that
    children who are abused will abuse their own
    children
  • Between 30 and 40 do become abusers, but the
    majority do not
  • This is a higher rate than the majority
    population
  • Adults who have processed and healed their own
    abuse are less likely to abuse

19
Public Policies that may Prevent Maltreatment
  • Primary Prevention
  • Build neighborhoods that support children and
    families (both financially and relationally)
  • Encourage planned parenthood
  • Encourage building of communities
  • Close the gap between rich and poor
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