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NOTES FOR EXAM 3 BEGIN HERE Chapter 10: Conditioned Reinforcement

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Title: NOTES FOR EXAM 3 BEGIN HERE Chapter 10: Conditioned Reinforcement


1
NOTES FOR EXAM 3BEGIN HERE Chapter
10Conditioned Reinforcement
2
A scenario
  • Imagine you are lost
  • You finally stumble upon a landmark that is
    familiar to you
  • You become happy because you know how to get home
    from this spot
  • This spot is both a CS that elicits happiness
    as well as an SD for the behavior of getting
    home.
  • There is also a THIRD function of this stimulus
  • It has also served as a reinforcer for the
    stumbling around behavior that led you to it
  • In fact, if we consider any series of linked
    behaviors (like following directions or recipes,
    etc.), the consequence of completing each step is
    both a reinforcer for completing that step as
    well as an SD for completing the NEXT step

3
Conditioned Reinforcement
  • Conditioned reinforcement is when behavior is
    strengthened by consequence events that have an
    effect because of a learning history.
  • The critical aspect of this history involves a
    pairing between an arbitrary event and an already
    established reinforcer.
  • Once the arbitrary event increases the frequency
    of an operant behavior, it is called a
    conditioned reinforcer.

4
Chain Schedules and Conditioned Reinforcement
  • One way to investigate conditioned reinforcement
    is to construct sequences of behavior.
  • A chain schedule of reinforcement involves two
    or more simple schedules (CRF, FI, VI, FR, etc.)
    each of which is presented sequentially and is
    signaled by an arbitrary stimulus (each has its
    own SD).
  • Only the final or terminal link in this chain
    results in primary reinforcement.

5
Multiple Stimulus Functions
  • An unsignalled chain (or tandem schedule) is a
    sequence of two schedules (such as an FR150 - FI
    120 seconds) in which distinct SDs do not signal
    the different components
  • In equivalent tandem vs. chain schedules,
    performances will be BETTER on the chain than the
    tandem
  • This shows that distinct signals serve as both
    SDs and conditioned reinforcers.

6
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Chains
  • Operant chains are classified as homogeneous when
    the topography or form of response is similar in
    each component, i.e., a similar response
    requirement is in effect in all components.
  • A heterogeneous chain requires different
    responses in each link.

7
Teaching a backwards Chain
  • For complex tasks with many steps, often better
    to teach the final step FIRST and reinforce its
    completion
  • After practicing this final unit many times and
    reinforcing its completion many times, ACESS to
    this unit of SD - R - SR will now serve as am
    effective conditioned reinforcer for the second
    to last unit on the chain of behavior
  • More

8
Teaching a backwards Chain
  • After practicing the second to last and final
    unit many times, ACESS to the SECOND TO LAST unit
    of SD - R - SR will now serve as am effective
    conditioned reinforcer for the THIRD to last unit
    on the chain of behavior
  • And so on!
  • Note that we are not doing the behavior in
    reverse! We are simply completing the final step
    first in our teaching procedure

9
Determinants of Conditioned Reinforcement Strength
  • Frequency of Primary Reinforcement paired with
    the conditioned reinforcer
  • Variability of Primary Reinforcement paired with
    the conditioned reinforcer
  • Establishing Operations
  • Delay to Primary Reinforcement

10
Delay Reduction and Conditioned Reinforcement
  • Delay-reduction hypothesis
  • Stimuli closer in time to positive reinforcement,
    or further in time from an aversive event, are
    more effective conditioned reinforcers.
  • Stimuli that signal no reduction in time to
    reinforcement (S?) or no period of safety from an
    aversive event (Save) do not function as
    conditioned reinforcement.

11
Concurrent-Chain Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Previously we talked about choice where the
    organism is free to switch back and forth between
    different response alternatives (called
    CONCURRENT SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT)
  • But often in the real world, once you choose one
    response alternative, you lock out the
    opportunity to do some other behavior for a
    period of time
  • that is, choosing one response COMMITS you to
    that particular response for at least some period
    of time

12
Concurrent-Chain Schedules of Reinforcement
  • How would we study such an idea in the lab?
  • we could ask which does a person prefer, working
    on an FR10 or a VI60s each for some set period of
    time?
  • this is a CONCURRENT CHAIN SCHEDULE
  • It involves two different components (an initial
    LINK, or menu, and a terminal LINK)

13
Concurrent-Chain Schedules of Reinforcement
  • subject is given a "menu" in which it must press
    a particular key to TURN ON a particular schedule
    of reinforcement.
  • There is no reinforcer given for making the
    initial link choice itself and the subject is
    given immediate access to whatever reinforcement
    schedule he chose
  • Subject must stay on that schedule for some
    specified time.
  • Then he can make a choice again.
  • What is our measure of choice in a concurrent
    chain schedule?
  • the proportion of times subject chooses one
    schedule over another

14
Concurrent-Chain Schedules of Reinforcement
  • IF we put in a delay to access to the terminal
    links, however, then a subject is LESS likely to
    choose that initial link because there is now an
    increased delay to reinforcement
  • For example, in a two-key concurrent-chain
    procedure with equivalent initial links but
    different lengths of delay to get to terminal
    links.

15
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcement
  • any event or stimulus paired with or,
    exchangeable for, many sources of primary
    reinforcement.
  • Generalized reinforcement does not depend on
    deprivation or satiation for any specific
    reinforcer.
  • Generalized social reinforcement for human
    behavior approval, attention, affection, praise

16
Tokens, Money and Generalized Reinforcement
  • Other conditioned reinforcers are economic since
    they are exchangeable for goods and services.
    Probably the most important such reinforcement is
    money.
  • A token economy is a set of contingencies based
    on token reinforcement the contingencies specify
    when and under what conditions, particular forms
    of behavior are reinforced with tokens. Tokens
    are exchangeable for a variety of backup
    reinforcers.

17
Chapter 11Correspondence Relations Imitation
and Rule-Governed Behavior
18
Correspondence Relations
  • People often do what others do. A child who
    observes an older sibling raid the cookie jar may
    engage in similar behavior.
  • This is a correspondence between the modeled
    behavior and the replicated behavior.
  • Technically, behavior of one person sets the
    occasion for (is an SD for) an equivalent
    response by the other.

19
Correspondence Relations Continued
  • There are other correspondence relations
    established by our culture. We often receive
    reinforcement if there is a correspondence
    between saying and doing.
  • A large part of socialization involves
    reinforcement for correspondence between what is
    said and what is done.

20
Correspondence Relations Continued
  • Other people reinforce our behavior if there is
    consistency (correspondence) between spoken
    words and later performance.
  • A minister who preaches moral conduct and lives a
    moral life is valued when moral words and moral
    deeds do not match, people become upset and act
    to correct the inconsistency. (They deliver
    punishment!)

21
Imitation
  • Learning by observation involves doing what
    others do
  • The behavior of an observer or learner is
    regulated by the actions of a model.
  • imitation requires that the learner emit a
    response that could only occur by observing a
    model emit a similar response.

22
Spontaneous Imitation
  • Innate or spontaneous imitation is based on
    evolution and natural selection rather than
    learning experiences
  • Implies imitation of others may be an important
    adaptive behavior.

23
Immediate vs. Delayed Imitation
  • Imitation may occur only when the model is
    present or it may be delayed for some time after
    the model has been removed.
  • delayed imitation is more complex since it
    involves remembering the modeled stimulus (SD),
    rather than direct stimulus control.

24
Operant and Generalized Imitation
  • It is possible to teach imitation as an operant
    behavior
  • discriminative stimulus is behavior of the model
    (SDmodel),
  • operant is a response that matches the modeled
    stimulus (Rmatch), and reinforcement is verbal
    praise (Srsocial).
  • Matching the model is reinforced, while
    non-correspondent responses are extinguished.

25
Operant and Generalized Imitation
  • If imitation is reinforced and nonimitation is
    extinguished, imitation of the model will
    increase.
  • On the other hand, nonimitation will occur if
    imitation is extinguished and nonimitation is
    reinforced.
  • Learner learns to do as the model does
    regardless of what the form of the model is!

26
Operant and Generalized Imitation
  • Donald Baer and his associates provided a
    behavior analysis of imitation called generalized
    imitation
  • involves several modeled stimuli (SDs) and
    multiple operants (Rmatch).
  • In each case, what the model does sets the
    occasion for reinforcement of a similar response
    by the child all other responses are
    extinguished.
  • This training results in a stimulus class of
    models and an imitative response class. The
    child now imitates whichever response that the
    model performs.

27
Generalized Imitation
  • The next step is to test for generalization of
    the stimulus and response class.
  • Baer and Sherman (1964) showed that a new-modeled
    stimulus would set the occasion for a novel
    imitative response, without any further
    reinforcement.
  • Generalized imitation accounts for the appearance
    of novel imitative acts in children- even when
    these specific responses were never reinforced.

28
Rules, Observational Learning, and Self-Efficacy
  • For Skinner, following the rules is behavior
    under the control of verbal stimuli SDs.
  • That is, statements of rules, advice, maxims, or
    laws are discriminative stimuli that set the
    occasion for behavior.
  • Rules, as verbal descriptions, may affect
    observational learning.

29
Rule-Governed Behavior
  • A large part of human behavior is regulated by
    verbal stimuli.
  • The common property of these kinds of stimuli is
    that they describe the operating contingencies of
    reinforcement.
  • Formally, rules, instructions, advice, and laws
    are contingency-specifying stimuli, (they
    describe the SDR? Sr relations of everyday
    life.)
  • The term rule-governed behavior is used when the
    listeners (readers) performance is regulated by
    contingency-specifying stimuli.

30
Rule-Governed and Contingency-Shaped Behavior
  • People are said to solve problems either by
    discovery or by instruction.
  • From a behavioral perspective the difference is
    between the direct effects of contingencies
    (discovery) and the indirect effects of rules
    (instruction).
  • When performance is attributed to direct exposure
    to reinforcement contingencies, behavior is said
    to be contingency-shaped.
  • As previously noted, performance set up by
    constructing and following instructions (and
    other verbal stimuli) is termed rule-governed
    behavior.

31
Rule-Governed and Contingency-Shaped Behavior
  • The importance of reinforcement contingencies in
    establishing and maintaining rule-following is
    clearly seen with ineffective rules and
    instructions.
  • When rules describe delayed and improbable
    events, it is necessary to find other reasons to
    follow them.

32
Instructions and Contingencies
  • In his discussion of rule-governed and
    contingency-shaped behavior, Skinner (1969)
    speculated that instructions may affect
    performance differently than the actual
    contingencies of reinforcement.
  • One way to test this idea is to expose humans to
    reinforcement procedures that are accurately or
    inaccurately described by the experimenters
    instructions.
  • If behavior varies with the instructions while
    the actual contingencies remain the same, this
    would be evidence for Skinners assertion.

33
Instructions and Contingencies
  • Instructions are complex discriminative stimuli.
  • Instructional control is a form of rule-governed
    behavior.

34
Chapter 12Verbal Behavior
35
Language and Verbal Behavior
  • In contrast with the term language, verbal
    behavior deals with the performance of a speaker
    and the environmental conditions that establish
    and maintain such performance
  • Verbal behavior refers to the vocal, written and
    gestural performance of a speaker, writer or
    communicator. This behavior operates on the
    listener, reader or observer, who then arranges
    reinforcement of the verbal performance.

36
Speaking, Listening and the Verbal Community
  • Verbal behavior refers to the behavior of the
    speaker, writer or gesturer.
  • The verbal community the practices and customary
    ways a given culture reinforces the behavior of a
    speaker

37
Operant Functions of Verbal Behavior Mands
  • A mand is a response class of verbal operants
    whose form (what is said or written) is regulated
    by specific establishing operations (deprivation,
    satiation, etc.)
  • In lay terms, mands involve asking for something
    you need to happen
  • It is commonly said that a mand specifies its
    own reinforcer as in Give me a cookie but such
    commands are only a small part of mands.

38
Operant Functions of Verbal Behavior Tacts
  • A tact is a response class of verbal operants
    whose form (what is said or written) is regulated
    by specific nonverbal discriminative stimuli
  • tact is derived from contact in that tacts
    are verbal operants that make contact with the
    environment.
  • In lay terms, tacts involve pointing something
    out, commenting about something, labeling or
    identifying something

39
Does the form of the Verbal Behavior identify the
type? NOPE
  • Behavior Honey, you sure look sexy tonight!
  • Is this a tact or a mand?
  • Identifying the type of verbal behavior depends
    on the FUNCTION of the behavior!
  • What function does this statement have?

40
Training Verbal Operants Mands
  • To teach manding, the most direct procedure is to
    manipulate an establishing operation (remove the
    toy), and then reinforce the verbal response
    (can I have the toy?) with the specified
    consequence (guess what it is!).
  • Sometimes called teaching requesting

41
Training Verbal Operants Tacts
  • To teach tacting, a speaker must emit a verbal
    operant whose form (what is said) is a function
    of a nonverbal discriminative stimulus
    reinforcement is non-specific to that stimulus.
  • A child comes home from preschool and when seeing
    her mother the child says, Let me tell you what
    I learned today and the child names several
    parts of the body and points to where they are.
    These would be tacts that would likely be
    reinforced by praise and hugs from the proud
    parent. (Mother may need to PROMPT that tacting
    by the child What did you do in school today?)

42
Additional Verbal Relations Intraverbals
  • An intraverbal is a verbal operant (what the
    listener says) controlled by a verbal
    discriminative stimulus (what the speaker says)
    but there is no one-to-one relation between the
    intraverbal and its SD.
  • If you overhear me saying. Ill be damned! to
    which you covertly reply I sure hope so your
    response is an intraverbal
  • Teaching a child ABCs You say ABCDEFG and the
    child says HIJK-ellamennopee
  • Free association therapy demonstrates this when
    the therapist says Mother and you say
    dominatrix (haha!)

43
Additional Verbal Relations Echoics
  • An echoic is a verbal operant in response to a
    verbal SD but with a point-to-point
    correspondence between the SD and operant. If you
    swear after hitting your thumb with a hammer
    (Damn!) and your four year-old-son subsequently
    repeats your expletive, his response is an echoic.

44
Additional Verbal Relations Textuals
  • A textual is a verbal operant in which the verbal
    SD (written or spoken words made by another) and
    the response the listener makes correspond to
    each other but not with a formal PHYSICAL
    similarity.
  • In lay terms, you are READING aloud (or to
    yourself) or TAKING NOTES

45
Symbolic Behavior and Stimulus Equivalence
  • Stimulus equivalence occurs when presentation of
    one class of stimuli occasion responses made to
    other stimulus classes.
  • Example Most Americans will have a specific
    response to the written or spoken word or image
    of Osama Bin Laden.
  • The word in any recognizable form or media, or
    the image of the person whether in cartoon
    caricature, photograph or video footage, will
    occasion the same response.
  • Stimulus equivalence is said to exist when
    reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity can be
    shown to be in effect between distinct stimuli.

46
Basic Equivalence Relations
  • Reflexivity (also referred to as identity
    matching or matching to sample) a picture of
    Bin Laden is matched up with an identical picture
    of Bin Laden. (AA)
  • Symmetry stimulus A is interchangeable with
    stimulus B, or AB and BA a picture of Bin
    Laden is matched up with the phrase head of Al
    Queida and vice versa.
  • Transitivity consists of showing that stimulus A
    B and stimulus BC and if the learner responds
    to A as interchangeable or equivalent to C then
    transitivity is in effect between A, B and C. If
    stimulus A (a picture of Bin Laden) is equivalent
    to stimulus B, head of Al Queida and B is
    equivalent to written words OSAMA BIN LADEN as
    stimulus C if the picture of Bin Laden (stimulus
    A) is matched up with the written words OSAMA BIN
    LADEN (stimulus C) then transitivity is shown.
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