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MARKETING RESEARCH

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The U.S. is , by far, the biggest player in science and technology; it does 44 ... Only about 13% of leftovers carried home in doggie bags actually goes to the dogs. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MARKETING RESEARCH


1
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2
Marketing Research
  • www.census.gov
  • www.adage
  • www.gallup.com
  • www.ropercenter.uconn.edu
  • www.future.sri.com

3
RD Spending as a of GDP
  • - Japan 3.0
  • - U. S. 2.7
  • - Germany 2.5
  • - EU 1.9
  • - China 1
  • The U.S. is , by far, the biggest player in
    science and technology it does 44 of all the
    research in the world (1999)

Source WSJ 4June 03,B1 (OECD data 2000
4
R D Spending
  • 2001
  • Industry 68.7
  • Federal Government
    .. 26
  • Non Profit/ 5.4 Academic

5
Research Development Spending
  • (Booz, Allen Hamilton) Percent of Sales by
    Industry

11.5
407 bil in 2005 among top 1000 firms
Health
11
Software internet
7.5
Computing Electronics
Money does not buy effective innovation
4.0
Aerospace Defense
4.0
Technology
94 firms outperformed peers while spending less
on RD
3.9
Auto
2.2
Industrials
2.0
Consumer
1.5
Telecom
Paying for Innovation, WSJ, 13Nov06,B3
6
Technology R D Whos Leading . . . And Whos
Falling Back

  • RD Spending As of
  • Mil(s) Sales
  • Service Industries 205 1.0
  • Health Care 13,886 10.6
  • Automotive 13,441 4.0
  • Telecommunications 4,240 3.7 Food
    640 0.8
  • Office Equipment Services 17,212 8.0
  • Leisure Time Products 1,891 5.4
  • Aerospace Defense 4,210 4.2
  • Metals Mining 360 0.9

7
Factors Intensifying the Need for Marketing
Information
  • Local to National to International Markets
  • Basic needs to Wants
  • Price to Non Price Focus
  • Intense Competition
  • New Technology (innovation)
  • Government Regulations
  • Cost of Mistakes

8
  • Information Gaps
  • Create the need
  • for research
  • - Product - by age, gender
  • - Price - Attitudes
  • - Promotion - Reference
  • - Phys. Distr. Groups
  • - motives, income

Marketing Management
Consumer Needs Wants
Marketing Mix
9
Information Gap Examples
  • - 2/3 of Americans stop at a convenience store
    once a week.
  • - Only about 13 of leftovers carried home in
    doggie bags actually goes to the dogs.
  • Americans spend 15 times more on gambling than
    they give to churches.
  • Churches turn to research for help in saving new
    souls

WELCOME TO S-MART
10
Research links controllable company resources
and uncontrollable environmental events.
  • Research supports problem solving activities
  • - Planning
  • - Organizing
  • - Control
  • to understand and predict marketplace
    reaction to company efforts

11
Research Activities of American Firms
  • Percent of Firms Doing Research

97
Market Potential
97
Market Share
92
Sales Analysis
89
Sales Forecasting
83
Pricing Studies
76
New Prod. Acceptance
58
Sales Promotion
Social Value
39
23
Ecological Impact
12
Benefit- Costs Value of Research
BENEFITS
COSTS
  • Improve
  • information
  • Increase
  • confidence
  • - Reduce
  • Risk
  • - Money
  • Time
  • Mistakes

13
Example
Crest Spices Up Toothpaste War
  • U.S. toothpaste market 1.5 Billion dollars
    PG has 23 . . Colgate 27 market share
  • PGs Crest has a new product line . . .
    Whitening Expressions . .a home tooth whitening
    kit which had over 500 million in sales in the
    first 2 years
  • Flavors Herbal Mint, Cinnamon and Citrus

14
Market Research
  • P G placed small microchips in battery operated
    toothbrushes and found consumers brushed 20
    longer with Whitening Expressions than normal
    Crest
  • .99 cent sample tubes with a scratch and sniff
    adv wooed retailers

WSJ, 15 Sep 03, B1
15
Marketing Research
  • The systematic process of generating information
    for use in marketing decision(s).
  • Another View
  • Input Interpret the Environment
  • To
  • Output Influence Brand Demand

16
Characteristics of the Scientific Method
  • Systematic
  • Objectivity
  • Timely
  • Accuracy
  • Credibility (Ethics)

SCIENTIFIC METHOD
17
A Theoretical Framework (Increases Credibility
provides A systems view)
  • facts become meaningful, understandable, and
    render an explanation through the theoretical
    framework surrounding the problem area understudy

I touched all the bases just like the old man
wanted, but…(SOB) I missed home plate!
18
Limitations of the Scientific Method
  • Emotional involvement of investigator
  • Non precise measurements
  • Time pressure for results
  • Complexity of consumer behavior
  • Costs may not benefits

19
Research Process (A Framework)
APPLICATION
INTERPRETATION
ANALYSIS
DATA COLLECTION
SAMPLE DESIGN
Primary Data
Secondary Data
RESEARCH DESIGN
PROBLEM DEFINIION
20
Phase 1 Problem Definition
  • Analyze the situation (use exploratory research
    methods) evaluate secondary data
  • State clear research objectives
    - if. . . then . . . Decisions
  • Research Maxim if you do not know what you are
    looking for, you will
    not find it

21
LISTEN To Your Customer
Information Gaps
  • - Ford sends one representative
  • every four months (avg.)
  • - Toyota sends one representative per month
    (avg.)

22
Iceberg Effect Identify Symptoms vs. Causes
  • Simple (S R)
  • Complex Interactions

10 is visible
90 is invisible
Competition
Marketing Mix
Consumer Behavior
Technology
23
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24
Degree of Problem Definition Research Design
  • Uncertain Aware Certain
  • (Vague problem)
  • Exploratory Descriptive Casual
  • Research Research Research

Three major types of research studies
Research Design is a master plan for research
studies …who, what, where, when, how?
25
Validity Versus Reliability
Validity
High
Low
High
Reliability
Low
26
Types Of Data
PRIMARY DATA Data collected and analyzed
specifically for the purpose at hand, Ex. Sample
data from customers
SECONDARY DATA Data previously collected by
someone else for some purpose other than the one
at hand, Already published
  • External Sources
  • Government sources
  • Trade Association
  • Commercial sources
  • Internet sources
  • http//zikmund.swcollege.com
  • Examples
  • Syndicated services
  • Nielsen diaries

27
Evaluating Data
Source quality
Who collected data? What was the original
purpose? How was data collected?
Data quality
How relevant is the data? How accurate reliable
is the data? How recent is the data?
Data compatibility
Is the data compatible with other sources? How
comparable is the data with other sources?
28
Evaluation Criteria for Data
Information type
PRIMARY SECONDARY
  • Relevance to problem
  • Timeliness of information
  • Quality of information
  • Cost of information
  • Speed of acquisition






29
SURVEY OF BUYING POWER SCRANTON, WILKES BARRE,
and HAZELTON
  • U.S. Population Rank
  • 283 million 623,800 86th
  • Median Age
  • 35.9 yrs. 40.7 13th
  • EBI
  • 5,230 billion 10.2 billion 91th
  • Median Income
  • 43,400 xx,000 232th/323

30
Foreign Based Marketing Research
  • Limitations/obstacles
  • Secondary data
  • non existent -- low credibility
  • Sampling
  • incomplete telephone directories
  • unavailable street maps

31
Focus Groups, a type of exploratory research
32
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33
City of Human Guinea Pigs
Exploratory Research Technique
  • PG products are found in 98 of American
    households
  • Cincinnati participants are happy to help in the
    name of research and to know their opinions are
    shaping PGs products
  • Studies act as school fundraisers

34
Focus Group Bloomsburg Retailing Viewed From
Three Distinct Perspectives
Exploratory Research Technique
  • Older Consumers Working Consumers
  • - limited expenditures - economy is
    causing minimum
  • - buy basics purchases
  • - sees average/good - sees limited variety
  • variety - mobile, parking is inconvenient
  • - captured in town - willing to travel to
    get it
  • market
  • College Student
  • - spending limited amounts - waits
    to go home
  • - sees poor variety - very selective
  • - can walk to stores

35
Focus Group Research In The Real World
Exploratory Research Technique
  • Participants will bring misconceptions with them
    to the table
  • Their feedback could be biased because of the
    Guinea Pig effect
  • Increase in cynicism and suspicion about the
    value of the information and the intent of the
    researcher

36
Exploratory Technique Sentence Completion
37
Exploratory Research Leads to Hypothesis
Development
(a )Case Analysis (b ) Theory Literature (c)
Experts/ Management Experience (d ) Focus
Group Research
Research Purpose
Research Questions
Hypotheses
Research Design
38
Observation Techniques
Examples of Descriptive Research
  • Supermarket Scanners
  • Nielsen People Meters
  • Eye Tracking Sensors
  • Mystery Shoppers
  • Garbage Analysis

39
What does your GARBAGE say about you?
40
Experiments
  • Hold all variables constant while
    manipulating (independent) variables of interest
    to measure their effect on dependent variables
  • Objective cause effect
  • (x)
    (y)

Marketplace Or Field
Laboratory
41
The Search For Cause And Effect
  • X …. causes …. Y
  • Simplistic Price Sales
  • (Independent) (Dependent)
  • Complex A Price Sales
  • B Product
  • C Promotion
  • D Phys. Distr.

42
Thematic Apperception Test
WINE
WINE
7
55
43
Major Survey Methods
TELEPHONE
E-MAIL/FAX
MAIL
PERSONAL
INTERVIEW
44
Economic Cost
Survey Criteria
Flexibility
Source Bias
Sample Cooperation
45
Phase 3 Collecting the Data
Mail and Personal Online
Telephone Interview
Survey Classifications
Cross Sectional Longitudinal
46
Questionable Questions
Measurement Techniques
  • Disguised - Non disguised
  • Disguised Question Wording Why do you suppose
    your neighbors children wear Jordache Jeans?
  • Purpose Avoid Social Desirable Response(s)
  • How many employees do you have broken down by
    sex?
  • What do you usually have for lunch?

47
Below Are Two Questions Asked of the Same 1,031
People, Asking Essentially the Same Thing.
Loaded Questions
  • I would be disappointed Cuts in funding for
  • if Congress cut its public television are
  • funding for public justified. . . to reduce
  • television. federal spending.
  • Cuts would be . . .

6------Dont Know----------10
Not OK 37
Not OK 54
OK 40
OK 52
48
Measurement
Research Limitations
  • Measures are only as good as your ruler
  • Example
  • Moderate Alcohol Consumption
  • American Standard 1 or 2 drinks per day
  • Great Britain 3 drinks per day
  • British drinks contain 2/3 the alcohol of U.S.
    drinks

49
Ethical Behavior In Marketing Research
  • Confidentiality
  • Research Integrity
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Social Issues

50
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51
Ethics in Research
  • Ultraviolet Ink
  • A researcher asked to use ultraviolet ink on
    pre-coded mail questionnaires. The cover letter
    indicated the survey was anonymous, but he said
    he needed respondent identification to permit
    cross tabulations of the data.
  • Approve Disapprove
  • Research Directors 29 71
  • Line Marketers 23 77

52
Sampling Methods
  • Target Market
  • Population
  • Sample Frame
  • Types of Sampling
  • Probability
  • Non probability
  • Sample Size

53
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54
Probability and Non-probability Sampling Methods
random sample
Probability
Systematic
Stratified
Cluster
Area
Convenience
Non probability
Quota
Judgment
55
Normal Distribution
MEAN
56
Triple -S Disease(s)
  • A self selected sample
  • (Self serving study)
  • (Small statistical samples)

57
Data (Interpret-Analyze)
Information
Phase 4
58
Data Analysis Guides
  • - Validate Data Collection Process
  • - Do analysis prior to looking at data
  • - Avoid self justification
  • - Participate in all facets of study
  • Be creative Consider your audience
  • Make Benchmark Comparisons with competitors (TQM)

59
Graphical Distortion by Compressing the Vertical
Axis
Sales, Uncle Deweys Distillery. It appears that
sales are growing quite nicely.
250
200
Thousand of Cases
150
100
Sales, Uncle Deweys Distillery On second
thought, maybe his business is on the rocks.
1000 500 0
Thousand of Cases
60
Graphic Distortion by Taking a Slice from the
Vertical Axis
Monthly patronage, Family Theater
1000 500 0
Number of patrons
May June July
The same theater patronage totals, but showing
a dramatic increase here
1000
Number of patrons
900
May June July
61
Forward Research Report To Management For…
  • Action Non-Action
  • Formal Written Document
  • Report relevance, accuracy deficiencies
  • Executive Summary
  • Technical Report Contains More Detail

Clear Concise Complete
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