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Digestive System

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The Digestive System is responsible for breaking down foodstuff and converting ... Anatomy of the Digestive System. Begins at the MOUTH. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Digestive System


1
Digestive System
2
What is the Digestive System?
  • Also called the GI Tract or Alimentary Canal
  • The Digestive System is responsible for breaking
    down foodstuff and converting into energy or
    using the nutrients in the foodstuff for
    necessary body functions.

3
Anatomy of the Digestive System
  • Begins at the MOUTH.
  • The mouth is responsible for MECHANICAL
    DIGESTION. The teeth break down food by chewing
    (MASTICATION).
  • The mouth is also the place where CHEMICAL
    DIGESTION begins. The SALIVARY GLANDS
    (sublingual, parotid, and submandibular glands)
    are responsible for producing an environment for
    food breakdown.

4
  • Next, the food enters the ESOPHAGUS (food tube)
    which connects the mouth to the STOMACH.
  • After food enters the stomach, acids are released
    to continue with chemical digestion.
  • From the stomach, food enters the SMALL INTESTINE
    by traveling through the DUODENUM.

5
  • The small intestine is responsible for absorption
    of nutrients.
  • From the small intestine, food enters the LARGE
    INTESTINE (colon) where water absorption takes
    place.
  • After the stool is solidified, it travels to the
    RECTUM and ANUS for removal from the body.

6
Accessory Digestive Organs
  • Liver
  • - detoxifies the blood.
  • - stores sugar as GLYCOGEN.
  • Pancreas
  • - secretes INSULIN, a hormone that allows
    glucose to enter the bodies cells.
  • - also manufactures and secretes GLUCAGON, a
    hormone that raises blood sugar and SOMATOSTATIN,
    a hormone which helps regulate sleep.

7
Combining Forms for the Digestive System
  • ORAL CAVITY (Mouth)
  • or / o AND stomat / o refer to the mouth.
  • IE stomat / itis - inflammation of the
  • mouth
  • or / al - pertaining to the mouth

8
  • gloss / o AND lingu / o
  • both mean TONGUE.
  • gloss / ectomy - surgical removal of
    the tongue
  • lingu / al - pertaining to the tongue

9
  • dent / o AND odont / o mean TEETH.
  • dent / ist - specialist of the teeth
  • Orth / odont / ist - specialist that
    straigtens teeth.

10
  • gingiv / o means GUM(s)
  • gingiv / itis - inflammation of the gums

11
  • PHARYNX (throat) and ESOPHAGUS
  • esophag / o - esophagus
  • esophag / o / scope - an instrument to
    view the esophagus

12
  • gastr / o means stomach
  • gastr / o / scopy - a visual examination of
    the stomach

13
  • pharyng / o means pharynx (throat)
  • pharyng / itis - inflammation of the throat

14
  • pylor / o means pylorus (a part of the stomach)
  • pylor / o / tomy - an incision into the
    pylorus

15
  • SMALL INTESTINE and LARGE INTESTINE (colon)
  • an / o - anus
  • an / al - pertaining to the anus

16
  • append / o
  • appendic / o - appendix
  • append / ectomy - excision of the
    appendix
  • appendic / itis - inflammation of the
    appendix

17
  • col / o
  • colon / o - colon
  • col / o / centesis - puncture of the
    colon
  • colon / o / scope - instrument to view or
    examine the colon

18
  • duoden / o means duodenum
  • duoden / o / stomy - to form an opening
    (mouth) in the duodenum

19
  • enter / o means intestine
  • enter / o / pathy - disease of the
    intestine
  • enter / it is - inflammation of the
    intestine

20
  • ile / o means ileum (part of the small
    intestine)
  • ile / o / stomy - to form an opening
    (mouth) in the ileum

21
  • jejun / o means jejunum (part of the small
    intestine)
  • jejun / o / rrhaphy - to suture a rupture of
    the jejunum

22
  • proct / o means anus or rectum
  • proct / o / logist - specialist or one who
    studies the rectum

23
  • rect / o means rectum
  • NOTE there are multiple word roots for many
    organs.
  • rect / o / cele - hernia of the rectum

24
  • sigmoid / o means sigmoid colon (part of the
    large intestine that is S shaped)
  • sigmoid / o / scopy - a visual examination
    of the sigmoid colon

25
Common Suffixes
  • -dynia
  • -algia
  • Refer to pain.
  • stomat / o / dynia - pain in the mouth
  • NOTE a combining vowel is not needed when using
    algia.
  • stomat / algia - pain in the mouth

26
  • The combining form
  • sial / o
  • Refers to the salivary glands or saliva.
  • What does sial / o / rrhea mean?
  • flow of saliva

27
  • The prefix Dia- means through.
  • What is the literal translation of
  • Dia / rrhea?
  • through flow - frequent passage of watery
    bowel movements?

28
Pertaining to..
  • The following suffixes all mean the same thing.
  • -al vertebr / al
  • -ar vascul / ar
  • -ary maxill / ary
  • -ic thromb / ic

29
FYI
  • When defining a medical word, first define the
    SUFFIX. Next, look at the beginning of the word
    (PREFIX or ROOT). Finally, look at the middle of
    the word (ROOT).
  • sub / lingu / al
  • -al means pertaining to
  • sub- means beneath
  • / lingu / means tongue
  • Therefore, sublingual means to something
    pertaining to the beneath the tongue.
  • A sublingual dose of nitroglycerin is placed
    beneath the tongue.

30
-osis
  • This suffix refers to an abnormal condition.
  • stomat / osis means an abnormality of the
    mouth.

31
Myc /
  • Word root meaning FUNGUS.
  • myc / osis is an abnormal condition of a
    fungus.

32
Pharynx, Esophagus, and Stomach
  • gastr / ic
  • gastr / itis
  • gastr / algia
  • gastr / dynia
  • gastr / rrhea

All refer to the stomach.
33
What Do The Following Mean?
Removal of the stomach
  • Gastr / ectomy
  • Esophag / o / plasty
  • Gastr / tome

Surgical repair of the esophagus
Instrument to cut the stomach
34
  • hemat / o - blood
  • emesis - vomit
  • hemat / emesis - to vomit blood
  • NOTE a combining vowel is NOT needed.

35
Other Definitions
  • epi - above or upon
  • epigastric pain is pain above the
    stomach.
  • dys - bad, painful, or difficult
  • -pepsia digestion
  • dyspepsia literally means painful digestion or
    heartburn

36
  • -phagia means to swallow or eat.
  • dys / phagia is difficultly swallowing
  • aer - means air
  • aer / o / phagia means swallowing air.
  • infants frequently have this as they suck milk
    from a bottle.

37
Small Intestine and Colon
  • The small intestine is broken into three parts
  • duodenum duoden / o
  • jejunum jejun / o
  • ileum ile / o

38
  • duoden / o / stomy

To form a new opening
First part of small intestine
Combining vowel
39
  • col / o / stomy - form a new hole in
  • the colon
  • col / o / rrhaphy - suture the colon

40
  • The SIGMOID COLON becomes the RECTUM.
  • sigmoid / itis - inflammation of the
  • sigmoid colon
  • rect / o / stenosis - a narrowing of the
  • rectum

41
Accessory Organs
  • Combining Form Meaning
  • Cholangi / o bile vessel
  • Cholecyst / o gall bladder
  • Choledoch / o bile duct
  • Hepat / o liver
  • Pancreat / o pancreas
  • Sial / o saliva
  • Lith / o stone,
    calculus

42
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