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Title: Parking Management Best Practices Workshop

Parking Management Best Practices Workshop
  • Todd Litman
  • Victoria Transport Policy Institute
  • Presented at the
  • Perth, Australia
  • 26 March 2009

Creating Paradise
  • Paradise is not a distant destination, it is
    something we create in our own communities.

Sustainable Planning
  • Sustainability emphasizes the integrated
    nature of human activities and therefore the need
    to coordinate planning among different sectors,
    jurisdictions and groups.

Preventing Problems
  • Sustainability planning is to development
    what preventive medicine is to health it
    anticipates and manages problems rather than
    waiting for crises to develop.

Paradigm Shifts
  • Growth - expanding, doing more.
  • ?
  • Development - improving, doing better.
  • Mobility - physical movement.
  • ?
  • Accessibility - obtaining desired goods, services
    and activities.

  • Would we have a sustainable transportation
    system if all automobiles were solar powered?

Past Visions of Future Transport
1958 Firebird
1949 ConvAIRCAR Flying Car
Supersonic Concord
2001 A Space Odyssey
Wheeled Luggage
Trends Supporting Multi-Modalism
  • Motor vehicle saturation.
  • Aging population.
  • Rising fuel prices.
  • Increased urbanization.
  • Increased traffic and parking congestion.
  • Rising roadway construction costs and declining
    economic return from increased roadway capacity.
  • Environmental concerns.
  • Health Concerns

OECD Travel Trends
The Population is Aging
  • Between the 1940s and 1980s the population
    became more suburbanized. Now, about half of
    North Americans live in suburbs.

Value of Highway Expansion
  • When the highway system was being developed in
    the 1950s and 60s it provided high returns on
    investment. Now that the system is mature,
    economic returns have declined.

Optimal Modal Split
International Mode Split
(Bassett, et al. 2008)
What is The Transportation Problem?
  • Traffic congestion?
  • Road construction costs?
  • Parking congestion or costs?
  • Excessive costs to consumers?
  • Traffic crashes?
  • Lack of mobility for non-drivers?
  • Poor freight services?
  • Environmental impacts?
  • Inadequate physical activity?
  • Others?

Current Transport Planning
  • Current planning tends to be reductionist
    each problem is assigned to a single agency with
    narrowly defined responsibilities. For example
  • Transport agencies deal with congestion.
  • Environmental agencies deal with pollution.
  • Welfare agencies deal with the needs of
    disadvantaged people.
  • Public health agencies are concerned with
    community fitness.
  • Etc.

Reductionist Decision-Making
  • Reductionist planning can result in public
    agencies implementing solutions to one problem
    that exacerbate other problems facing society,
    and tends to undervalue strategies that provide
    multiple but modest benefits.

Win-Win Solutions
  • Put another way, more comprehensive planning
    helps identify Win-Win strategies solutions to
    one problem that also help solve other problems
    facing society.
  • Ask
  • Which congestion-reduction strategy also
    reduces parking costs, saves consumers money, and
    improves mobility options for non-drivers.

Comparing Benefits
Comparing Costs
Redefining Parking Problems
  • Parking problems are one of the most common
    complaints businesses and local officials face.
    They can constrain economic development.

Parking Problem?
Parking Problem?
Cook Street Village Parking Utilization
Unoccupied Weekday
Noon 44 Friday Night 50 Saturday
Morning 51
Parking Management Problem
  • Many areas dont really have a parking supply
    problem, they have a parking management problem -
    parking spaces that are unavailable to the
    motorists who need them.

New Solutions to Parking Problems
  • Conventional planning forces developers to
    supply abundant parking using inflexible
    standards. There are other ways to address
    parking problems through more efficient
    management, which reduces costs and allows better

Parking Management
  • Parking Management consists of various
    strategies that result in more efficient use of
    existing parking resources.

Changing Parking Paradigm
Management Strategies
  • Improved travel options (walking, cycling,
    ridesharing, public transit, telework and
    flextime, etc.).
  • Provide incentives to use efficient transport
    options (transit benefits, parking pricing,
    promotion campaigns).
  • Support policies and programs (telecommuting and
    flextime, commute trip reduction programs,
    transportation management associations).

Parking Management Principles
  • Consumer choice. People should have viable
    parking and travel options.
  • User information. Motorists should have
    information on their parking and travel options.
  • Sharing. Parking facilities should serve multiple
    users and destinations.
  • Efficient utilization. Parking facilities should
    be sized and managed so spaces are frequently
  • Flexibility. Parking plans should accommodate
    uncertainty and change.
  • Prioritization. The most desirable spaces should
    be managed to favor higher-priority uses.
  • Pricing. As much as possible, users should pay
    directly for parking facilities.
  • Peak management. Special efforts should be made
    to deal with peak-demand.
  • Quality vs. quantity. Parking facility
    convenience, comfort and aesthetics should be
    considered as important as quantity.
  • Comprehensive analysis. All significant costs and
    benefits should be considered in parking

Why Parking Management?
  • In the past, parking planning mainly involved
    regulations and subsidies to increase supply.
  • Now more efficient management is increasingly
    used to address parking problems, particularly in
    growing cities, commercial centers and resort
  • Urban redevelopment.
  • More walkable communities.
  • Housing affordability.
  • Smart growth.
  • Reduced pavement.
  • Encourages transit use.
  • Creates more attractive streetscapes.
  • Improves motorist convenience.

Economic Benefits
  • Reduces local parking problems. Helps attract
  • Reduces development costs, often by 5-15.
  • Reduced development costs mean more total
    development, higher profits or cheaper rents.
  • Leverages reductions in per capita vehicle travel
    and associated external costs (congestion,
    roadway costs, accidents, energy consumption,
    pollution emissions, sprawl).
  • Supports more compact development and associated
    agglomeration efficiencies.

Economic Development Benefits
  • Reducing vehicle expenditures, particularly fuel,
    increases regional employment and business
  • Reducing business transport costs (congestion,
    parking, accident damages) increases productivity
    and competitiveness.
  • Agglomeration efficiencies.
  • Stimulates development and increases local
    property values.
  • Increases affordability, allowing businesses to
    attract employees in areas with high living

Land Use Impacts
Parking Land Requirements
Reducing Land Requirements
More efficient transportation, land use and
parking management can significantly reduce the
number of parking spaces required.
Parking Facility Costs
Parking Costs
  • Parking costs are a major portion of
    development costs, particularly for lower-priced
    building in urban areas with high land prices.
  • Typically, 5-15 of development costs, and
    more under some circumstances.

Impacts on Housing Affordability
  • Increases Affordability
  • Reduced parking facility costs (particularly if
  • Higher density reduces land requirements per
  • Allows more infill, redevelopment and design
  • Allows more diverse, affordable housing options
    (secondary suites, rooms over shops, loft

  • For much of the last century, transport and
    parking planning practices encouraged sprawl and
    automobile dependency.

Comparing Benefits
Particularly Beneficial
  • Downtowns and other activity centers
  • Urban infill
  • Transit oriented development
  • Walkable districts
  • Affordable housing
  • In conjunction with mobility management and smart
  • To support environmental and social objectives
  • Large special events
  • In resort communities

Shared Parking
  • Parking spaces are shared by multiple users,
    increasing efficiency
  • On-street parking
  • Public off-street parking
  • In lieu funding of public facilities as
    alternative to on-site requirements.

Typical Peak Periods
Sharing Parking
Regulate Parking
  • Manage and regulate the most convenient spaces
    to favor higher-value trips.
  • Duration (e.g. 60-minute maximum).
  • Time (e.g., no parking 9am-5pm).
  • Type of Use (deliveries, taxis)
  • User Type (customers, residents, disabled users).

More Accurate Standards
  • Reduce or adjust standards to more accurately
    reflect demand at a particular location, taking
    into account geographic, demographic and economic

Parking Standards
Parking Standards
  • Standards are often excessive and can usually
    be adjusted significantly downward
  • Surveys mostly performed in auto-dependent
  • 85th percentile.
  • 20th design day.
  • No pricing or cash out.
  • No parking management.

Adjustment Factors
  • Adjustment Factors
  • Residential and employment density
  • Land use mix
  • Transit accessibility
  • Carsharing
  • Walkability
  • Cycling facilities
  • Population demographics (age, employment,
    income, etc.)
  • Pricing
  • Parking mobility management
  • Proximity to overflow parking

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Adjust For Urban Location
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Reform Standards
  • Establish adjustment factors for reducing parking
    minimums to reflect geographic, demographic and
    management factors.
  • Eliminate parking minimums altogether.
  • Implement parking maximums, with a schedule of
    gradual, predictable requirements implemented
    over several years, for various land use types
    and geographic locations.

Downtown Auckland Parking Maximums
  • No minimum parking requirements.
  • Maximums based on building floor area.
  • Varies depending on type of street.
  • For most of the central business district,
    maximum permitted parking ranges from
    approximately 0.5 to 1.0 spaces per 100 square

Other Parking Maximums
  • Portland. In 1975, the city caped downtown
    parking supply at approximately 40,000 parking
    spaces, including existing and new facilities.
    This reduced the overall downtown parking supply
    from approximately 3.4 down to about 1.5
    long-term spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. in 1990.
    Maximums very depending on location. This policy
    is considered successful, helping make the
    downtown an attractive place for businesses,
    residents and tourists, and doubled transit mode
    split from 20-25 in the early 1970s to 48 in
    the mid-1990s.
  • San Francisco. The city of San Franciscos
    Transit First policy allows a maximum of 7 of
    a buildings gross floor to be used for parking,
    and new buildings must have an approved parking
    plan. In some cases, only short term parking is
    approved, in others a mix of long, short and
    carpool parking is allowed. These were
    implemented in conjunction with construction of
    municipal, priced parking.
  • Boston. In 1977, the City of Boston adopted a
    freeze on commercial parking, but not parking
    reserved for individuals or company use within
    office buildings.
  • Seattle. The City of Seattle allows a maximum of
    one parking space per 1,000 sq. ft. of downtown
    office space.
  • London. The City of London has maximum parking
    standards which vary with public transport
    accessibility. In the city center, one space is
    allowed per 1,500 square meters of commercial
    space, declining to 1 space per 300 square metres
    in outer areas.

Remote Parking
  • Encouraging longer-term parkers (e.g., employees)
    to use less-convenient, off-site parking, so more
    convenient spaces are available for priority
    users (e.g. customers).
  • Negotiate sharing agreements for offsite,
    overflow parking.
  • Provide directions to offsite parking facilities.

Improve User Information
  • Provide convenient information on parking
    availability and price, using maps, signs,
    brochures and electronic communication.

Improve User Information
Whenever you indicate that parking is prohibited,
also indicate where parking is available.
  • Parking is never really free, consumers either
    pay directly or indirectly. Paying directly tends
    to be more fair and efficient, and typically
    reduces parking demand about 20.

Efficient Prices
  • Set to achieve maximum 85 occupancy.
  • Vary by location and time.
  • Adjusted as needed to reflect changing demands.
  • Motorists can choose between cheaper but less
    convenient, and premium service and priced
  • Motorists pay for just he amount of time they are

Paying Directly Returns Savings
  • Paying directly is more equitable and
    efficient, since users pay in proportion to the
    costs they impose. Free facilities force
    everybody to pay, including non-drivers and
    motorists who reduce their vehicle use. Paying
    directly gives individual consumers the savings
    that result when they drive less, providing a new
    opportunity to save money.
  • Consumer Reduces Vehicles or Trips
  • ?
  • Reduced Congestion, Road Parking Facility
    Costs, Reduced Crashes, etc.
  • ?
  • Economic Savings

Parking Pricing
  • Charge more frequently for on-street parking
    (e.g., meters on residential streets, with
    discounts or exemptions for residents).
  • Expand when and where parking is priced (e.g.,
    evenings and Sundays, residential streets).
  • Use time and location-based prices to encourage
    more efficient use of parking facilities.
  • Reduce long-term discounts and early bird
    specials. Shift to shorter time periods (e.g,
    hourly rather than daily).

Parking Pricing Impacts
  • Cost-recovery parking prices (or cash out)
    typically reduces affected automobile trips
    10-30 and increases transit ridership 50-100

Parking Cash Out
17 Reduction
Improve Pricing Methods
  • Multiple payment options (coins, bills, credit
    cards, debt cards, cell phone payments).
  • Charge only for the amount of time parked.
  • Are easy to understand and use.
  • Enforcement is respectful and friendly.

Unbundle Parking
  • Rent and sell parking spaces separately from
    building units. For example, rather than renting
    an apartment with two free parking spaces for
    1,000 per month, rent the unit for 800, and
    each parking space for 100 per month.

Smart Growth (Density, Design, Diversity)
  • More compact, infill development.
  • Mixed land use.
  • Increased connectivity.
  • Improved walkability.
  • Urban villages.
  • Increased transportation diversity.
  • Better parking management.
  • Improved public realm.
  • More traffic calming and speed control.

Sprawl Vs Smart Growth
Land Use Impacts On Travel
Land Use Impacts On Travel
Health Target
Location-Efficient Development
  • Locate affordable housing in accessible areas
    (near services and jobs, walkable, public
  • Diverse, affordable housing options (secondary
    suites, rooms over shops, loft apartments).
  • Reduced parking requirements.
  • Reduces property taxes and utility fees for
    clustered and infill housing.

Transit Oriented Development
  • Transit can be a catalyst for multi-modal
    urban villages.
  • Walkable, mixed-use neighborhood around transit
  • Programs and incentives to use transit.
  • Reduced parking requirements.

Mobility Management
Mode Shifts
  • How do we convince people who drive luxury
    cars to shift mode?

Encourage Public Transport Use
  • Quality service (convenient, fast, comfortable).
  • Nicer bus stops and stations.
  • Affordable fares.
  • Support (improved walking conditions, park ride
    facilities, commute trip reduction programs).
  • Parking pricing or cash out.
  • Integrated with special events.
  • Convenient information.
  • Positive Image.

Attracting Discretionary Riders
  • Quality service (convenient, fast, comfortable).
  • Low fares.
  • Support (walkable communities, park ride
    facilities, commute trip reduction programs).
  • Convenient information.
  • Parking pricing or cash out.
  • Integrated with special events.
  • Positive Image.

Transit Station Level-Of-Service
  • Clean
  • Comfort (seating, temperature, quiet)
  • Convenience (real-time user information, easy
    fare payment)
  • Accessible (walkability, bike parking, nearby
    housing, employment, nearby shops)
  • Services (refreshments, periodicals, etc.)
  • Security

Improve Walkability
Improved walking conditions
  • Expands the range of parking spaces that serves a
    destination, increasing its functional supply.
  • Allows more park once trips, so customers leave
    their vehicle in a central location and walk to
    various destinations, reducing the total number
    of parking spaces needed.
  • Allows walking and transit trips to substitute
    for driving, reducing parking demand.

Walking Level of Service
Bicycle Parking
  • Allow bicycle parking and changing facilities to
    substitute for a portion of automobile parking.
  • Mandate minimum bicycle parking.
  • Include a combination of short-term and long-term
    bicycle parking.

Bicycle Parking Requirements
Employee Trip Reduction Programs
  • Employers encourage employees to walk,
    bicycle, carpool, ride transit and telework
    rather than drive to work.

Ridesharing Puget Sound Example
  • The Puget Sound region has the most successful
    vanpool program in North America. About 7 of
    commute trips over 20 miles in length are by
    vanpooling. A marketing study suggests that this
    could double or triple. More than a third of
    suburban automobile commuters would consider
    vanpooling, if it had
  • More flexibility.
  • High Occupant Vehicle priority lanes and parking.
  • More financial incentives.
  • Integration with public transit.
  • Employer support.

Transportation Management Associations
  • Transportation Management Associations (TMAs)
    are private, non-profit, member-controlled
    organizations that provide transportation
    services in a particular area, such as a
    commercial district, mall, medical center or
    industrial park.
  • TMAs provide an institutional framework for
    implementing Mobility Management.

Mobility Management Marketing
  • Targeted marketing to inform residents about
    their travel options and encourage alternatives
    to driving.
  • The TravelSmart program offers personalized
    transit, rideshare and cycling information, and
    trial transit and vanpooling services. It
    typically reduces automobile trips 5-15.

  • Automobile rental services intended to
    substitute for private vehicle ownership.

Better Use of Existing Supply
  • Spaces for smaller vehicles and motorcycles.
  • Angled rather than parallel curb parking.
  • Car stackers.
  • Valet parking.
  • Use currently unused spaces.
  • Flexible spaces.

Address Negative Impacts
  • Develop overflow parking plan to address
    occasional peaks.
  • Address specific spillover problems.
  • Improve enforcement.
  • Design parking facilities to fit well into their
  • Improve relations with neighbors.
  • Compensate for spillover impacts.

Improve Enforcement and Control
  • Frequently
  • Effectively
  • With maximum consideration

Contingency-Based Planning
  • Contingency-Based Planning deals with
    uncertainly by identifying specific responses to
    possible future conditions.

Contingency-Based Plan
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Significant Benefits
  • Improved management can often reduce parking
    requirements by 20-60 compared with what would
    be required by conventional planning, without
    reducing user convenience or total costs.
    Conversely, it can improve user convenience
    without increasing supply or total costs.

Changes Required
  • Change the way we think about and solve parking
  • New zoning codes and development practices.
  • New organizational relationships to provide
    parking management and brokerage services.

Example - Old Pasadena
  • The city proposed pricing on-street parking to
    increase turnover and make spaces available to
    customers. Local merchants initially opposed the
    idea. As a compromise, the city agreed to
    dedicate revenues to improving downtown public
    facilities and services. In 1993 a Parking Meter
    Zone (PMZ) was established within revenues
    invested in.
  • Street furniture
  • Trees
  • Police patrols
  • Better street lighting,
  • More street and sidewalk cleaning
  • Pedestrian facility improvements
  • Downtown marketing

Example - Ashland Strategies
  • Increase time limits enforcement.
  • Encourage employees to park outside the Core
  • Reduce on-street time limits (e.g., 2-hours to
    90 minutes, 4-hours to 2-hours) to increase
  • Expand the Core zone boundaries to increase the
    number of on-street visitor spaces.
  • Price parking (on-and/or off-street).
  • Encourage use of alternative modes (shuttles,
    transit, ridesharing).
  • Create new parking supply.
  • Develop special regulations as needed, such as
    for disabled access, delivery and loading areas,
    or to accommodate other particular land uses.

Example - Seattle

Seattle has a proactive parking management
program that helps stakeholders consider a broad
range of possible parking solutions and
encourages neighborhoods to develop parking plans
that meet their needs.
Example - Seattle
  • Seattle Parking Management website
  • Begins with the question, How May We Serve You?
  • Discusses parking management concepts.
  • Describes management strategies suitable for
    various areas (business districts, residential
    areas, etc.).
  • Identifies how residents and businesses can
    initiate changes.
  • Answers common questions concerning parking
  • Provides parking regulation and enforcement
  • Offers instructions on using new parking payment
  • Includes various parking planning documents,
    including Your Guide To Parking Management.

Stanford University
  • Adding more than 2.3 million square feet of
    building space without increasing peak period
    vehicle traffic. Plan includes
  • A 1.5 mile transit mall.
  • Free transit system with timed transfers to rail.
  • Bicycle network.
  • Staff parking cash-out.
  • Ridesharing program.
  • Other transportation demand management elements.

Campus Transport Management
  • U-Pass programs, bulk purchase of transit passes
    for students and staff.
  • Gradually raise parking fees. Use revenues to
    support alternatives.
  • Replace cheap monthly and annual passes with
    daily and hourly fees.
  • Offer discounted rates for less convenient
    parking lots.
  • Establish employee commute trip reduction
  • Provide vanpool services to suburban locations.
  • Establish overflow parking plan.
  • Improve campus walking conditions.
  • Cooperative transport and parking management
    programs with nearby businesses.

Example - DOrsay Hotel
  • 162 rooms and 35,000 square feet of retail space.
  • Would normally require 302 parking spaces,
    costing 4.8 m.
  • Adjustments to reflect the location (many
    visitors arrive without a car) allowed reduction
    to 218 spaces.
  • Agreement that 56 of those spaces to be leased
    from nearby city-owned lots.
  • Saved 2.0 m, making project financially

Example - Soma Apartments
  • Mixed-use development
  • 74 affordable family apartments
  • 88 small studios
  • Child care center
  • Market
  • Totals 246 bedrooms and 24,000 sq-ft
    commercial space. Would normally require
  • 250-350 spaces.
  • Contains 66-spaces, with parking rented
    separately from housing units, significantly
    reducing rents.

Transit Oriented Development Area
  • A transit village has high-density
    development within 1/4-Mile of a station, and
    medium density development within 1/2-Mile.

What Can Fit Within 1/4 Mile?
  • 1/4-mile 100 net acres.
  • 10,000 surface parking spaces (125 space/acre).
  • 3,000 higher-density housing units (30du/acre).
  • 5,000 employees (50 employees/acre) with 1,600
    parking spaces (0.5 spaces/employee).

Building For People or Cars?
  • Automobiles make wonderful servants but
    terrible masters.
  • Design your community for people, and then
    accommodate motor vehicles. Dont design
    communities for automobile traffic and then try
    to accommodate people.

Parking Management Benefits
  • Economic
  • Reduced road parking facility costs.
  • Reduces congestion, improves mobility.
  • Generates revenues
  • Supports efficient development.
  • Social
  • Improved travel options for non-drivers.
  • Improved safety and fitness.
  • Environmental
  • Energy conservation and pollution reduction.
  • Reduced land consumption.

Implementing Parking Management
  • Implement parking management as a package,
    including suitable positive incentives to reward
    people for more efficient parking behavior cost
    savings, improved street environment, improved
    parking options.

Implementation Strategies
  • Educate decision makers (designers, developers,
    lenders, planners, local officials, residents)
    about parking management strategies and benefits.
  • Allow more flexible parking requirements,
    including trade-offs for parking management
  • Create support structures, such as transportation
    management associations and parking brokerage
  • Allow or mandate parking management strategies
    sharing, unbundling, pricing, overflow plans,
  • In lieu funding of public facilities as
    alternative to on-site requirements.

Transport and Land Use Management
  • Smart Growth (also called New Urbanism) -
    Encourage more clustered, mixed, multi-modal,
    infill development. Allows more shared parking
    and use of alternative modes.
  • Mobility Management - Various strategies and
    programs can encourage more efficient travel
    patterns. Reduces automobile trips and parking

Reform Planning Practices
  • Least-cost planning equal funding for mobility
    management solutions.
  • Multi-modal planning create a diverse and
    integrated transportation system.

Supported by Professional Organizations
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers.
  • American Planning Association.
  • American Farmland Trust.
  • Federal, state, regional and local planning and
    transportation agencies.
  • International City/County Management Association
  • National Governors Association
  • Health organizations.
  • And much more...

Motorists Benefit Too
  • More balanced transport policy is no more
    anti-car than a healthy diet is anti-food.
    Motorists have every reason to support these
  • Reduced traffic and parking congestion.
  • Improved safety.
  • Improved travel options.
  • Reduced chauffeuring burden.
  • Often the quickest and most cost effective way to
    improve driving conditions.

  • Parking Management Strategies, Evaluation and
  • Parking Requirement Impacts On Housing
  • Parking Taxes Options and Implementation
  • Online TDM Encyclopedia
  • and more...