Political Cartoons - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Political Cartoons PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 1f99b6-NmEwY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Political Cartoons

Description:

Political Cartoons – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:4687
Avg rating:5.0/5.0
Slides: 94
Provided by: asuc
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Political Cartoons


1
Political Cartoons
  • by Alleen Pace Nilsen
  • and Don L. F. Nilsen

2
Caricatures
  • Caricatures are probably the oldest form of
    pictorial humor, where caricare in Latin means
    to overload, or exaggerate.
  • The main stylistic devices here are distortion
    and exaggeration, and the main subject, famous
    people.
  • (Hempelmann and Samson 2008 613)

3
The Word Cartoon
  • The term Cartoon originally comes from the
    Italian word cartone and means a strong, heavy
    paper or pasteboard. It denotes a full-size
    drawing made on paper as a study for further
    drawings, such as a painting or tapestry.
  • Punch applied the term to satirical drawings by
    publishing some parody drafts for frescoes (also
    called cartoons) and making the terms new
    meaning permanent.
  • (Hempelmann Samson 2008 613-614)

4
Jokes and Cartoons
  • Cartoons are jokes told in a picture (drawing,
    painting, etc.) comprising one or only a few
    panels.
  • Cartoons by Gary Larson, for example, show his
    typical rounded shapes, round people with small
    heads and white glasses.
  • These can be contrasted with the more realistic
    and detailed drawing style of Robert Crumb.
  • (Hempelmann Samson 2008 614)

5
Jokes vs. Cartoons
  • Jokes are told in a linear way.
  • In the picture part of a cartoon, on the other
    hand, usually no clear order of processing is
    forced in the way text does, but there are
    tendencies to follow a general order which can
    crucially be directed by the artist creating
    entry points and paths in their pictures.
  • Another enormous formal difference is iconicity,
    as can be seen in visual puns.
  • (Hempelmann Samson 2008 617)

6
Cartoon Charactersand the Expression of Emotion
  • Characters in cartoons have faces, so their
    emotions can be depicted unobtrusively by giving
    them expressions, while characters in jokes would
    have to be explicitly described as having certain
    emotions or words used that reflect emotional
    states.
  • (Hempelmann Samson 2008 617)

7
Conversational Cartooning vs.Conversational
Joking
  • Conversational cartooning is theoretically
    possible, but we should assume its rare
    occurrence.
  • Conversational joking, on the other hand, is
    common.
  • (Hempelmann Samson 2008 618)

8
Comics vs. Cartoons
  • Comicsin contrast to cartoonsare orientated
    towards stories, their artwork is more detailed,
    more often anatomically correct, and the drawing
    more often closely resembles reality.
  • (Hempelmann Samson 614)

9
Verbal vs. Visual HumorJokes vs. Cartoons
  • In an article entitled, Cartoons Drawn Jokes?
    Christian Hempelmann and Andrea Samson point out
    that jokes usually have no authors, are
    folkloristic products, while cartoons usually do
    have an author with a distinct drawing style and
    topical preferences who also signs his or her
    work.
  • This entails that we should not expect to find
    spontaneous cartooning in analogy to
    conversational joking.
  • (Hempelmann Samson 2008 610-611)

10
  • There are two main differences between verbal,
    linguistic jokes and pictorial, visual cartoons
    The aesthetic (formal) difference and the
    different loci (and probably modi) of cognitive
    processing, both surfacing as formal
    differences.
  • (Hempelmann Samson 2008 611-612)

11
Six Categories of Cartoon Research
  • 1. Studies of reactions to cartoonshow good they
    are, the extent to which they produce laughter or
    smiling, how funny they are. These studies
    investigate the effect of incongruity and
    complexity on the perception of humor. (Shultz,
    Suls, Hirt and Genshaft)
  • 2. Studies that focus on the content of cartoons,
    such as gender stereotypes (Herzog, Love,
    Deckers, Thompson, Zerbinos), social stereotypes
    (Bogardus, Anderson Jolly), political and
    social aspects (Abe), or sexual themes in
    cartoons (Brodzinsky Rubien, Felker Hunter,
    Derks, Herzog Hager, Giarelli Tulman).
  • (Hempelmann Samson 2008 611-612)

12
  • 3. Studies that use cartoons to address memory
    issues (Schmidt Williams), neuronal activation
    processes (Schmidt Williams), or neuronal
    activation patterns (Gallagher, Marjoram), or
    Theory of Mind and schizophrenia (Corcoran,
    Cahill, Frith, Marjoram)
  • 4. Research about cartoonists such as their
    childhoods (Fisher Fisher), their personalities
    and their Psychoticism and Neuroticism scores
    (Pearson), and gender differences (Samson
    Huber).
  • (Hempelmann Samson 2008 612)

13
  • 5. Studies investigating the influence of formal
    features on humor appreciation such as the degree
    of abstraction vs. realism (Sheppard), or the
    effects of the number of panels (Huber Leder).
  • 6. Studies relating cartoons to their own
    professional fields. Paolillo applied the
    General Theory of Verbal Humor Scale to cartoons
    Watson, Matthews and Allman investigated
    differences between language-dependent and
    picture-dependent cartoons in cognitive
    processing.
  • (Hempelmann Samson 2008 612)

14
  • A cartoonists craft may force them to limit
    their originality, because they have fewer than
    10 seconds to grab the attention of viewers, and,
    in fact, to tell whole stories.
  • We will start with two classic cartoons by David
    Levine for the New York Review of Books. No
    words are needed, but readers had to have
    cultural knowledge in order to Catch on.

15
(No Transcript)
16
(No Transcript)
17
  • After President Lyndon Johnson had gallbladder
    surgery he lifted his shirt to show his scar to
    reporters at a news conference. Levines drawing
    shows that his real scar was in the shape of
    Vietnam.
  • President Reagan, who was famous for cutting
    welfare is compared to Marie Antoinette who after
    being told that the people had no bread famously
    said, Let them eat cake.

18
  • Cultural Icons can be either
  • recognized visual symbols
  • or familiar words that can be parodied.
  • Cartoonists first have to help the viewers into
    the mindset of the original,
  • Then take them in a new direction.

19
  • As with Mike Peterss 1984 criticism of President
    Reagans military support of El Salvador
  • I pledge a billion to the flag
  • of the right wing government of El Salvador
  • And to the death squads for which it stands
  • One nation, underfed
  • Indefensible
  • With M-16s and Howitzers for all.

20
These words have come into English from various
cartoons POW! ZAP! WHAM! ZIP! ZOWIE! Teddy
Bear Gerrymander Yellow Journalism McCarthyism
(from Senator Simple J. Malarkey in the Pogo
Comic Strip)
21
ARACHNOPHOBIA ? IRAQNAPHOBIA
  • The term Iraqnaphobia was first used in the
    caption of an editorial cartoon by Clay Bennett
    that appeared in the August 3, 1990 edition of
    the St. Petersburg Times. The cartoon shows a
    spider labeled Iraq menacing Kuwait, and the
    caption reads Saddam Hussein Presents
    Iraqnophobia.
  • (Dahdal 11)

22
  • Under the heading Famous Quotes Throughout
    History Rodewalt drew these interpretations
  • Just a cold snap (a couple of dinosaurs)
  • Another of your stupid inventions (a cavewoman
    looking at her husbands newly carved wheel)
  • What an Idiot--Youll be sorry when you fall off
    the edge of the world. (Italians waving goodbye
    to Christopher Columbus)

23
  • No problem, white man say just passing through!
    (Indians pointing to a ship in the bay)
  • Maybe if you get a haircut people will take you
    seriously (Einsteins wife)
  • We will succeed in Iraq (President Bush holding
    his arms in a victory salute!)
  • 2004 Rodewalt
  • (CWS Cartoon Arts International )

24
Obituary Cartoons
  • Cartoonists hate doing them, because they have to
    be respectful, no matter what.
  • But their audiences love them, because they
    capture the essence of the person who has died.

25
(No Transcript)
26
(No Transcript)
27
(No Transcript)
28
  • For efficiency, cartoonists make use of common
    visual symbols
  • Pointing fingers or arrows
  • The Trojan Horse
  • Tombstones and the initials R.I.P.
  • Skulls/The Grim Reaper

29
(No Transcript)
30
(No Transcript)
31
  • The three monkeys
  • The Ghost of Christmas Past
  • Superman
  • Railroad tracks not matching up
  • A 1973 Boston Globe Cartoon by Paul Szep showed
    Vietnam as a maze.
  • Reprinted in 1975 with added symbolism.

32
Other Common Symbols include
  • Snakes
  • Wolves
  • Fantasy characters
  • Baby buggies (because they hide information)
  • And new interpretations of familiar sayings about
    big sticks (which a person should carry as he
    speaks softly), and where the buck stops.

33
(No Transcript)
34
(No Transcript)
35
(No Transcript)
36
(No Transcript)
37
(No Transcript)
38
(No Transcript)
39
(No Transcript)
40
(No Transcript)
41
(No Transcript)
42
  • Variations on the Statue of Liberty show how
    symbols can change over time while still
    retaining some of the original meaning.

43
(No Transcript)
44
(No Transcript)
45
  • Statue of Liberty cartoons while making many
    different political points still rely on images
    that in most peoples minds are feminine.

46
(No Transcript)
47
  • 1960 Doug MacPherson drew Fidel Castro and
    Nikita Krushev having a picnic on her head.
  • 1971 Daniel Aguila drew her with shortened
    robes under the cutline Lib and let lib!
  • 1980 Doug Marlett showed her sweeping dirt under
    a rug designed as a flag.

48
  • 1984 Signe Wilkinson showed her going through a
    sewing factory shouting OK, you huddled masses,
    I know youre in here!
  • 2001 After 9/11, a tear falling from one eye
  • And two sad eyes reflecting the burning Twin
    Towers

49
  • 2003 Expressing womanly impatience as she says
    Geez, two years and still no capture of Osameor
    Saddamor Al Qaidaor WMDor the Taliban, or
    Justice or A side note read In a city
    accustomed to the New York Minute.
  • 2005 Nick Adams won the 2005 Pulitzer Prize for
    showing President Bush sitting on top of her
    crown wearing earphones hooked to a satellite
    dish, which had replaced the flame in her
    extended arm.

50
(No Transcript)
51
(No Transcript)
52
(No Transcript)
53
(No Transcript)
54
  • The simplified shape of a fish is even more a
    part of what Carl Jung refers to as the
    Collective Unconscious.
  • In the early days of Christianity it was marked
    in the sand.
  • Today we see it on churches, cars, and religious
    messages, sometimes with a stylized cross serving
    as an eye
  • Or with the Greek initials inside that stand for
    Jesus Christ King of the Jews.

55
(No Transcript)
56
  • Weve also seen DARWIN placed inside the fish
  • And a bigger Christian fish eating a smaller
    Darwin fish with legs
  • Once the surprise was gone, the humor
    disappeared, but the symbol is still there.
  • One of our students observed that the O and X at
    the end of the Jack in the Box signs make
    basically the same design.

57
  • Also, note the shape of the popular metallic
    ribbons that are twisted to form a rounded top
    like a head with crossed pieces to look like the
    split tail of a fish.
  • These first became popular in the 1970s, when
    they were sold as lapel pins to be worn in memory
    of someone who died from AIDS or in support of
    AIDS research. Following 9-11, the design was
    co-opted to show patriotism and support for the
    war on terrorism.

58
  • They are made from magnetized metal and are about
    the size of a paperback book.
  • They come in all colors and mostly express some
    kind of support for the war on terrorism.
  • But we recently saw one proclaiming Pets are
    good for people. Separate pieces of metal in
    the shape of paw prints were placed around it.

59
  • More and more people put them sideways on their
    cars
  • They resemble the old fish pattern except with a
    rounded head.
  • Some drivers sport two, three, or more, so their
    vehicles resemble traveling aquariums.

60
  • People respond to particular shapes without
    necessarily thinking of how or why.
  • They feel the fish shape is appropriate to a
    controversial issue that touches all of us deeply
    whether it is viewing the end of life as
    associated with terrorism or the beginning of
    life as associated with creation and evolution.

61
Iraq and the American Flag
62
(No Transcript)
63
  • Coffins have a similar impact. At first the Bush
    administration forbade photographs, but the
    drawings were even more heart-rending because
    cartoonists added their own touches.
  • Walt Handelsman drew coffins each covered with a
    funeral bouquet His cutline Theyll be Greeted
    with Flowers.
  • Another cartoonist stood coffins on end as an
    eerie reminder of the domino theory that guided
    American policies in Vietnam.

64
  • The Abu Ghraib prison scandal again shows shape
    as a hidden persuader.
  • The most heart-wrenching photos were of Private
    Lynddie England holding a naked man on a dog
    leash, a pyramid of naked Iraquis, and a hooded
    prisoner silhouetted in a ragged, black blanket.
  • Out of 40 Abu Ghraib cartoons reprinted in Best
    of the Year collections, more than half featured
    this man on the box.

65
!
66
(No Transcript)
67
  • !It was the most dramatic of the images.
  • The simplicity of design made it easy to
    highlight.
  • It inspired viewers to pull related images from
    their own minds as in comparing it to the Ku Klux
    Klan.

68
!!
69
!!!
70
Related PowerPoints
  • Art and Humor
  • Comix
  • Optical Illusions
  • Visual Literacy

71
PULITZER PRIZES 1974-1978
  • 1974 PULITZER PRIZE PAUL SZEP
  • http//www.szep.com/szep_thisweek.htm
  • 1975 PULITZER PRIZE GARRY TRUDEAU
  • http//www.ucomics.com/doonesbury/bio.phtml
  • 1976 PULITZER PRIZE TONY AUTH
  • http//www.gocomics.com/tonyauth/
  • 1977 PULITZER PRIZE PAUL SZEP
  • http//www.szep.com/szep_thisweek.htm
  • 1978 PULITZER PRIZE JEFF MACNELLY
  • http//www.macnelly.com/

72
PULITZER PRIZES 1979-1983
  • 1979 PULITZER PRIZE HERBERB BLOCK
  • http//www.loc.gov/rr/print/swann/herblock/
  • 1980 PULITZER PRIZE DON WRIGHT
  • http//www.comicspage.com/donwright/donwright.html
  • 1981 PULITZER PRIZE MIKE PETERS
  • http//www.grimmy.com/editorials.php
  • 1982 PULITZER PRIZE BEN SARGENT
  • http//www.ucomics.com/bensargent/
  • 1983 PULITZER PRIZE DICK LOCHER
  • http//www.comicspage.com/locher/dicklocher.html

73
PULITZER PRIZES 1984-1988
  • 1984 PULITZER PRIZE PAUL CONRAD
  • http//www.ucomics.com/paulconrad/
  • 1985 PULITZER PRIZE JEFF MACNELLY
  • http//www.macnelly.com/
  • 1986 PULITZER PRIZE JULES FEIFFER
  • www.julesfeiffer.com
  • 1987 PULITZER PRIZE BERKELEY BREATHED
  • http//www.berkeleybreathed.com/pages/index.asp
  • 1988 PULITZER PRIZE DOUG MARLETTE
  • http//dougmarlette.com

74
PULITZER PRIZES 1989-1992
  • 1989 PULITZER PRIZE JACK HIGGINS
  • http//www.suntimes.com/higgins/higgins350.html
  • 1990 PULITZER PRIZE TOM TOLES
  • http//www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/opinion/toles
    .html
  • 1991 PULITZER PRIZE JIM BORGMAN
  • http//borgman.enquirer.com
  • 1992 PULITZER PRIZE SIGNE WILKINSON
  • http//www.philly.com/mld/dailynews/news/special_p
    ackags/signe/

75
PULITZER PRIZES 1993-1996
  • 1993 PULITZER PRIZE STEVE BENSON
  • http//www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/opinions/
    benson/
  • 1994 PULITZER PRIZE MICHAEL RAMIREZ
  • http//cagle.slate.msn.com/politicalcartoons/PCcar
    toons/ramirez.asp
  • 1995 PULITZER PRIZE MIKE LUCKOVICH
  • http//www.ajc.com/opinion/content/opinion/luckovi
    ch/index.html
  • 1996 PULITZER PRIZE JIM MORIN
  • http//www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/editoria
    l/cartoons/

76
PULITZER PRIZES 1997-2000
  • 1997 PULITZER PRIZE WALT HANDELSMAN
  • http//www.newsday.com/ny-walt-july2005,0,77592.ph
    otogallery
  • 1998 PULITZER PRIZE STEVE BREEN
  • http//www.injersey.com/breen/portfolio/1,1959,0,0
    0.html
  • 1999 PULITZER PRIZE DAVID HORSEY
  • http//seattlepi.nwsource.com/horsey/
  • 2000 PULITZER PRIZE JOEL PETT
  • http//www.newseum.org/pett/about.htm

77
PULITZER PRIZES 2001-2004
  • 2001 PULITZER PRIZE ANN TELNAES
  • www.anntelnaes.com
  • 2002 PULITZER PRIZE CLAY BENNETT
  • www.claybennett.com
  • 2003 PULITZER PRIZE DAVID HORSEY
  • http//seattlepi.nwsource.com/horsey/
  • 2004 PULITZER PRIZE MATT DAVIES
  • http//www.comicspage.com/mattdavies/matt_about.ht
    ml

78
PULITZER PRIZES 2005-2008
  • 2005 PULITZER PRIZE NICK ANDERSON
  • http//www.cartoonistgroup.com/properties/anderson
    /home.php
  • 2006 PULITZER PRIZE MIKE LUCKOVICH
  • http//www.ajc.com/opinion/content/opinion/luckovi
    ch/index.html
  • 2007 PULITZER PRIZE WALT HANDELSMAN
  • http//www.newsday.com/ny-walt-july2005,0,77592.ph
    otogallery
  • 2008 PULITZER PRIZE MICHAEL RAMIREZ
  • http//cagle.slate.msn.com/politicalcartoons/PCcar
    toons/ramirez.asp

79
  • References 1
  • Abe, Goh. Political and Social Satirical
    Cartoons in Nepal. A Collection of Treatises on
    Language and Literature 15 (1998) 53-70.
  • Anderson, Ronald E., and Elaine Jolly.
    Stereotyped Traits and Sex Roles in Humorous
    Drawings. Communication Research 4 (1977)
    453-479.
  • Attardo, Salvatore, and Diana Popa, Eds. New
    Approaches to the Linguistics of Humor. Galati,
    Romania Dunarea de Jos, 2007.
  • Attardo, Salvatore, and Victor Raskin. Script
    Theory Revis(it)ed Joke Similarity and Joke
    Representation Model. HUMOR International
    Journal of Humor Research 4.3-4 (1991) 293-347.
  • Baumgartner, Jody C, and Jonathan S. Morris, Eds.
    Laughing Matters Humor and American Politics in
    the Media Age. New York, NY Routledge, 2008.
  • Behrens, Roy R. Beyond Caricature On Types of
    Humor in Art. The Journal of Creative Behavior
    11.3 (1977) 165-175.

80
  • References 2
  • Bogardus, Emory S. Sociology in the Cartoon.
    Sociology and Social Research 30 (1945) 139-147.
  • Bonaiuto, Paolo. Art, Science, and Humor The
    Study of Humorous Experience at the Intersection
    between Psychology and the Art World. Empirical
    Studies of the Arts 24.1 (2006) 3-41.
  • Boskin, Joseph. The Humor Prism in 20th Century
    America. Detroit, MI Wayne State University
    Press, 1997.
  • Brodzinsky, David M., and Janet Rubien. Humor
    Production as a Function of Sex and Subject,
    Creativity and Cartoon Content. Journal of
    Consulting and Clinical Psychology 44 (1976)
    597-600.
  • Brooks, Charles, Ed. Best Editorial Cartoons of
    the Year. Gretna, LA Pelican, 1979-2007.

81
  • References 3
  • Cagle, Daryl, and Brian Fairrington, Eds. The
    Best Political Cartoons of the Year, 2005
    Edition. New York, NY Que Publishing. 2005.
  • Cagle, Daryl, and Brian Fairrington, Eds. The
    Best Political Cartoons of the Year, 2006
    Edition. New York, NY Que Publishing. 2006.
  • Carroll, Patrick J., Jason R. Young, and Michael
    S. Guertin. Visual Analysis of Cartoons A View
    from the Far Side. in Eye Movements and Visual
    Cognition Scene Perception and Reading Ed. Keith
    Rayner. New York, NY Springer, 1992.
  • Chapman, Anthony J., and Hugh C. Foot, eds.
    Humour and Laughter Theory, Research, and
    Applications London, England John Wiley, 1976.
  • Corcoran, Rhiannon, Connie Cahill, and
    Christopher D. Firth. The Appreciation of Visual
    Jokes in People with Schizophrenia A Study of
    Mentalizing Ability. Schizophrenia Research 24
    (1997) 319-327.

82
  • References 4
  • Dahdal, Sylvia H. Defending the Indefensible
    Words of War or War of Words? Tempe, AZ ASU LIN
    515 Paper, April 18, 2006.
  • Derks, Peter. Category and Ratio Scaling of
    Sexual and Innocent Cartoons. Humor
    International Journal of Humor Research 5.3
    (1992) 19-33.
  • Derks, Peter, and Sanjay Arora. Sex and Salience
    in the Appreciation of Cartoon Humor. HUMOR
    International Journal of Humor Research 6.1
    (1993) 57-69.
  • Dirr, Karen L., and Alice A. Katz. Cartoons vs.
    Realistic Illustration Picture Preference of
    Adolescent Patients. Journal of Biocommunication
    16.4 (1989) 2-7.
  • Egan, Timothy. "Defiantly Incorrect The Humor of
    John Callahan." Living Language. Ed. Alleen Pace
    Nilsen. Needham Heights, MA Allyn and Bacon,
    1999.

83
  • References 5
  • El Refaie, Elisabeth. Understanding Visual
    Metaphor The Example of Newspaper Cartoons.
    Visual Communication 2 (2003) 75-95.
  • Felker, Donald W., and Dede M. Hunter. Sex and
    Age Differences in Response to Cartoons Depicting
    Subjects of Different Ages and Sex. Journal of
    Psychology 76 (1970) 19-21.
  • Fischer, Roger A. Them Damned Pictures. New
    Yaven, CT Archon Books, 1996.
  • Fisher, Seymour, and Rhoda L. Fisher. Pretend the
    World Is Funny and Forever A Psychological
    Analysis of Comedians. Hillsdale, NY Erlbaum,
    1981.
  • Gallagher, Helen L., Francesca Happé, Nicola
    Brunswick, Paul C. Fletcher, Uta Frith, and
    Christopher D. Frith. Reading the Mind in
    Cartoon and Stories An fMRI Study of Theory of
    Mind in Verbal and Nonverbal Tasks.
    Neuropsychologia 38 (2000) 11-21.

84
  • References 6
  • Gerberg, Mort. Cartooning The Art and the
    Business. New York, NY William Morrow, 1989.
  • Giarelli, Ellen, and Lorraine Tulman.
    Methodological Issues in the Use of Published
    Cartoons as Data. Qualitative Health Research
    13.7 (2003) 945-956.
  • Goldstein, Jeffrey H., and Paul E. McGhee, eds.
    The Psychology of Humor Theoretical Perspectives
    and Empirical Issues. New York, NY Academic
    Press, 1972.
  • Gombrich, Ernst H. Art and Illusion. New York,
    NY Pahidon, 2002.
  • Gombrich, Ernst H. The Cartoonists Armoury. in
    Meditations on a Hobby Horse, 3rd Edition Ed.
    Ernst H. Gombrich. New York, NY Phaidon, 1978.

85
  • References 7
  • Hagen, Margaret A., and David Perkins. A
    Refutation of the Hypothesis of the Superfidelity
    of Caricatures Relative to Photographs.
    Perception 12 (1983) 55-61.
  • Hempelmann, Christian F., and Andrea C. Samson.
    Cartoons Drawn Jokes? in Raskin (2008)
    609-640.
  • Hempelmann, Christian F., and Andrea C. Samson.
    Visual Puns and Verbal Puns Descriptive or
    False Analogy? in Attardo and Popa (2007)
    180-196.
  • Herzog, Thomas R. Gender Differences in Humor
    Appreciation Revisited. HUMOR International
    Journal of Humor Research 12 (1999) 411-423.
  • Herzog, Thomas R., and Andrew J. Hager. The
    Prediction of Preference for Sexual Cartoons.
    HUMOR International Journal of Humor Research
    8.4 (1995) 385-405.

86
  • References 8
  • Herzog, Thomas R., and David A. Larwin. The
    Appreciation of Humor iln Captioned Cartoons.
    The Journal of Psychology 122 (1988) 597-607.
  • Hess, Stephen, and Sandy Northrop. Drawn and
    Quartered The History of American Political
    Cartoons. Montgomery, AL Elliott and Clark
    Publishing, 1996.
  • Hirt, Michael, and Judy Genshaft. The Effects of
    Incongruity and Complexity on the Perception of
    Humor. Personality and Individual Differences 3
    (1982) 453-455.
  • Huber, Oswald, and Helmut Leder. Are More
    Compact Cartoons More Humorous? HUMOR
    International Journal of Humor Research 10
    (1997) 91-103.
  • Jones, James M., Gary A. Fine, and Robert G.
    Brust. Interaction Effects of Picture and
    Caption on Humor Ratings of Cartoons. The
    Journal of Social Psychology 108 (1979) 193-198.

87
  • References 9
  • Karabas, Seyfri. Hairy Turkish Cartoons. HUMOR
    International Journal of Humor Research 3.2
    (1990) 193-215.
  • Kazanevsky, Vladimir. The History of the Cartoon
    in the USSR. HUMOR International Journal of
    Humor Research 8.2 (1995) 167-176.
  • Keener, Polly. Cartooning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ
    Prentice Hall, 1992.
  • Kunzle, David. The Early Comic Strip Narrative
    Strips and Picture Stories in the European
    Broadsheed From c. 1450 to 1825. Berkeley, CA
    University of California Press, 1973.
  • Lamb, Chris. Drawn to Extremes The Use and Abuse
    of Editorial Cartoons. New York, NY Columbia
    University Press, 2004.

88
  • References 10
  • Lessard, Denys. Puns and Cartoons. Semiotica
    85.1-2 (1991) 73-89.
  • Lewis, Paul, Christie Davies, Giselinde Kuipers,
    Rod A. Martin, Elliott Oring, and Victor Raskin.
    The Muhammad Cartoons and Humor Research A
    Collection of Essays. HUMOR 21.1 (2008) 1-46.
  • Love, Ann Marie, and Lampert H. Deckers. Humor
    Appreciation as a Function of Sexual, Aggressive,
    and Sexist Content. Sex Roles 20 (1989)
    649-654.
  • Lowis, Michael J., and Johan M. Nieuwoudt. Use
    of a Cartoon Rating-Scale as a Measure for the
    Humor Construct. Journal of Psychology 129.2
    (1995) 133-144.
  • Maddocks, Peter. So You Want to be a Cartoonist?
    London, England Unwin, 1982.

89
  • References 11
  • Mankoff, Robert. The New Yorker Book of Political
    Cartoons. Princeton, NJ Bloomberg Press, 2000.
  • Marjoram, Dominic, Dominic E. Job, Heather C.
    Walley, Viktoria-Eleni Gountouna, Andrew M.
    McIntosh, Enrico Simonotto, David
    Cunningham-Owens, Eve C. Johnstone, and Stephen
    Lawrie. A Visual Joke fMRI Investigation into
    Theory of Mind and Enhanced Risk of
    Schizophrenia. NeuroImage 31.4 (2006)
    1850-1858.
  • Mauro, Robert, and Michael Kubovy. Caricature
    and Face Recognition. Memory and Cognition 20.4
    (1992) 433-440.
  • McKay, T. D., and M. E. McKay. Captioned and
    Non-Captioned Cartoons Effects of Structural
    Properties on Ratings of Humor. Perceptual and
    Motor Skills 54 (1982) 143-146.

90
  • References 11
  • Morris, Ray. Visual Rhetoric in Political
    Cartoons A Structuralist Approach. Metaphor and
    Symbolic Activity 8 (1993) 195-210.
  • Nilsen, Alleen Pace. Living Language. Boston, MA
    Allyn and Bacon, 1999.
  • Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen.
    Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.
    Westport, CT Greenwood Press, 2000.
  • Paolillo, John C. Gary Larsons Far Side
    Nonsense? Nonsense! HUMOR International Journal
    of Humor Research 11 (1998) 261-290.
  • Pearson, Paul. Personality Characteristics of
    Cartoonists. Personality and Individual
    Differences 4 (1983) 227-228.

91
  • References 12
  • Raskin, Victor, ed. Primer of Humor Research. New
    York, NY Mouton de Gruyter, 2008.
  • Rhodes, G., S. Brennan, and S. Carey.
    Identification and Ratings of Caricatures
    Implications for Mental Representations of
    Faces. Cognitive Psychology 19 (1987) 473-497.
  • Samson, Andrea C., and Oswald Huber. The
    Interaction of Cartoonists Gender and Formal
    Features of Cartoons. HUMOR International
    Journal of Humor Research 20.1 (2007) 1-25.
  • Schmidt, Stephen R., and Alan R. Williams.
    Memory for Humorous Cartoons. Memory and
    Cognition 29 (2001) 305-311.
  • Sheppard, Alice. Developmental Levels in
    Explanations of Humour from Childhood to Late
    Adolescence. in Chapman and Foot 1976
    225-228.

92
  • References 13
  • Sheppard, Alice. Effect of Mode of
    Representation on Visual Humor.
    PsaychologicalReports 52 (1983) 299-305.
  • Shultz, Thomas R. A Cognitive-Developmental
    Analysis of Humour. in Chapman Foot 1976
    11-36.
  • Suls, Jerry M. A Two-Stage Model for the
    Appreciation of Jokes and Cartoons An
    Information-Processing Analysis. in Goldstein
    and McGhee (1972) 81-100.
  • Thompson, Teresa L., and Eugenia Zerbinos.
    Gender Roles in Animated Cartoons Has the
    Picture Changed in 20 Years? Sex Roles 32
    (1995) 651-673.
  • Trostle, J. P. Ed. Attack of the Political
    Cartoonists Insights and Assaults from Today's
    Editorial Pages. Madison, WI Dork Storm Press,
    2004.

93
  • References 14
  • Tsakona, Villy. Language and Image Interaction
    in Cartoons Towards a Multimodal Theory of
    Humor. Journal of Pragmatics In Press.
  • Tversky, B., and D. Baratz. Memory of Faces Are
    Caricatures Bettern than Photographs? Memory and
    Cognition 13 (1985) 45-49.
  • Watson, Karli K., Benjamin J. Matthews, and John
    M. Allman. Brain Activation During Sight Gags
    and Language-Dependent Humor. Cerebral Cortex 17
    (2006) 314-324.
  • Whitaker, Steve. The Encyclopedia of Cartooning
    Techniques. East-Roseville Simon and Schuster,
    1994.
  • Wright, Thomas. A History of Caricature and
    Grotesque in Literature and Art. London, England
    Chatto and Windus, 1875.
About PowerShow.com