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Topic 4 Mark: Jesus as Suffering Messiah

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Jesus' sacrificial death reveals him to be Son of God. ... Can't be revealed until after death (9:9) ... 15 Condemnation, Death, Burial (Friday) Trial before ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic 4 Mark: Jesus as Suffering Messiah


1
Topic 4 Mark Jesus as Suffering Messiah
  • Circumstances of origin
  • Author
  • Anonymous (all the gospels are).
  • Tradition going back to Papias (c. 135)
    attributes to Mark, a disciple of Peter (see
    Harris, p. 128).
  • Evaluation.
  • Place
  • Tradition Rome
  • Others Syria Palestine
  • Date 65-70
  • Neros persecution (64)
  • Fall of Jerusalem (70)
  • Purpose Written in a time of crisis to
    strengthen Christians faced with suffering for
    the faith.

2
  • Key themes in Mark
  • Gods agent in eschatological conflict with evil
  • Portrays Jesus ministry in terms of a cosmic
    battle with evil.
  • Kingdom of God final reign of God, after evil
    is destroyed.
  • Sense of urgency fast-paced immediately 42
    times.
  • Exorcisms Jesus vs. demons God vs. Satan
    (322-27).
  • Final victory won on Cross.
  • Powerful Son of God who dies sacrificially.
  • Background of Son of God
  • OT heavenly beings (angels) humans (Israel
    king).
  • Judaism Messiah any righteous person who bears
    Gods character.
  • Greek world Son of God superhuman
    miracle-worker.
  • Occurences of Son of God in Mk.
  • Superscription (11)
  • Baptism (110-11) heavenly voice This is My
    Son.
  • Exorcisms (311 57)
  • Transfiguration (97) heavenly voice This is
    My Son.
  • Trial (1461)
  • Death (1539) climax of Mk. centurion only
    human affirmation

3
  • B. Key themes in Mark (cont.)
  • 3. Heavenly Son of Man who must suffer.
  • Background of Son of Man
  • OT a human being
  • Apoc. lit. heavenly Cosmic Judge who comes on
    clouds at End Time (Dan. 714).
  • Gospels most freq. title for Jesus used three
    ways
  • Eschatological Son of Man (Mk. 1326-27 838).
  • Cosmic Judge who comes at end riding on clouds,
    etc.
  • Parousia expectation (second coming).
  • Earthly Son of Man (210, 27) has authority.
  • Suffering Son of Man (831 931 1033-34)
    Passion Predictions.
  • The Messianic Secret
  • Famous term coined by W. Wrede (1901).
  • Jesus identity as Messiah is kept hidden
    (827-33).
  • Cant be revealed until after death (99).
  • Only Jesus sacrificial death reveals what kind
    of Messiah he is.

4
  • B. Key themes in Mark (cont.)
  • Centrality of the Passion
  • M. Kähler a passion narrative with an extended
    introduction.
  • Six chapters devoted to Passion Week (ch.
    11-16).
  • Ministry begins after arrest of John the Baptist
    (114).
  • Plot to kill Jesus as early as 36.
  • Passion Predictions central in ch. 8-10.
  • Jesus death is a sacrifice for others (1045
    1424 1538).
  • Call to discipleship
  • Disciple pupil, learner, follower.
  • Abandon all to follow Jesus (teaching, example)
  • Willingness to suffer and die (834-38).

5
  • Outline of Mark
  • Galilee (1-8) Journey (8-10) Jerusalem (11-16)
  • (pop. success) (Peters Confession (rejection
    death)
  • Passion Predictions)
  • 11-13 Introduction
  • John the Baptist eschatological prophet
    forerunner of Messiah
  • Baptism of Jesus called to be servant Messiah
  • Temptation 40 days testing in wilderness
  • 114-826 Galilee Ministry
  • ch. 1 Beginnings only after Johns arrest
  • Preaching the Kingdom of God (114-15) main
    theme in teaching of historical Jesus (all 3
    Synoptics)
  • Calling first disciples Simon (Peter) Andrew
    James John
  • Healing unclean spirit fever leprosy etc.
  • Fame spreads crowds gather.

Baptism Temptation
Galilee Ministry
6
  • 114-826 Galilee Ministry (cont.)
  • ch. 2-3 Controversies over various issues
  • Forgiving sins (21-12)
  • Eating with tax collectors and sinners (213-17)
  • Fasting (218-22)
  • Sabbath observance (223-36)
  • Exorcisms (322-30)
  • Perplexity of Jesus family (321, 31-35)
  • Appointment of the Twelve (313-19)
  • Disciple pupil, learner, follower.
  • Apostle one sent out as authorized messenger.
  • Twelve symbolize restoration of Israel.
  • Disciples include more than the 12.

7
  • 114-826 Galilee Ministry (cont.)
  • ch. 4 Parables (Make list of Synoptic parables
    covered study carefully.)
  • Mustard Seed (vv. 30-32)
  • Contrast small start, big result.
  • K of G is already present (embryonically) in
    Jesus ministry but not yet in its fullness.
    (Assures that it will come.)
  • Sower (vv. 3-9)
  • Contrasts wasted seed with successful seed.
  • Despite failures/setbacks Jesus ministry will
    bring K of G.
  • Allegorical interpretation (v. 14-20) perhaps
    added by early church admonishes proper response
    to preaching of word.
  • ch. 4-5 Miracles four types
  • Calming a storm nature miracle
  • Gerasene demoniac exorcism
  • Raising Jairus daughter resuscitation
  • Healing a hemorrhaging woman healing
  • Note Marks framing technique.
  • Jairus daughter / Hemorrhaging woman / Jairus
    daughter

8
  • 114-826 Galilee Ministry (cont.)
  • Perspectives on Jesus miracles
  • Not unique to Jesus.
  • Do not prove claims about Jesus.
  • Opponents acknowledge Jesus miracles but
    attribute to Satan (322-30).
  • To the eyes of faith, they are signs of the
    in-breaking Kingdom of God (327 cf. Lk. 1120).
  • ch. 6-8 Tensions and withdrawals
  • ch. 6 Rejection in Nazareth
  • Mission of the Twelve preaching and healing
  • Death of John the Baptist
  • Feeding 5,000 (Messiah for Israel)
  • ch. 7 Controversy over ritual purity
  • Healing Gentiles
  • ch. 8 Feeding 4,000 (Messiah for Gentiles)
  • Refusal to give a sign
  • Rebuke of disciples blindness
  • Healing a blind man (822-26)

9
  • Healing a blind man (822-26) framing
  • 827-1052 Journey to Jerusalem central
    transition section
  • Peters Confession at Caesarea Philippi (827-33)
    turning point in Mks plot
  • You are the Messiah/Christ first open
    declaration
  • Command to silence and announcement of
    passion
  • Passion Predictions (831 931 1033-34) on
    way to Jerus.
  • Prediction misunderstanding rebuke.
  • Closest followers fail to understand until after
    Cross/Res.
  • Healing a blind man (1046-52) framing
  • 111-168 Jerusalem Ministry
  • ch. 11 Arrival in Jerusalem several symbolic
    actions
  • Triumphal entry (Sunday) demonstration of
    Jesus kingship
  • Cleansing the Temple (Monday) prophetic action
    against temple corruption
  • Symbolizes purification or doom of Temple?
  • Mks framing by Cursing the fig tree
    interprets as judgment
  • Cursing the fig tree/Cleansing the Temple/Cursing
    the fig tree
  • ch. 12 Teaching in the Temple (Tuesday)
  • Parable of Wicked Tenants scathing attack on
    religious leaders

10
  • 111-168 Jerusalem Ministry (cont.)
  • ch. 13 Eschatological discourse
  • Warnings persecution war destruction of
    temple cosmic catastrophes
  • Promises Parousia of Son of Man salvation of
    the faithful
  • End is near (v. 29-30) time is uncertain (v.
    32).
  • ch. 14 Betrayal, Last Supper, Arrest
  • Anointing in Bethany (Wed.)
  • Judas Iscariots plot to betray Jesus
  • Last Supper (Thursday evening)
  • Passover meal (Syn. not in Jn.)
  • Upper room in Jerusalem
  • Predicts betrayal
  • Interprets his death
  • covenant sacrifice
  • (v. 22-25)

11
  • ch. 14 Betrayal, Last Supper, Arrest (cont.)
  • Gethsemane olive grove on Mount of Olives
    prayer of agony
  • Arrest kiss of Judas prohibits defense by
    sword disciples scatter

12
  • ch. 14 Betrayal, Last Supper, Arrest (cont.)
  • Trial before Sanhedrin (Jewish council)
  • Accused of threatening Temple (doesnt stick)
  • Condemned for blasphemy
  • Peters Denial
  • Denies Jesus three times
  • Frames Sanhedrin trial

Modern church built on traditional site of
Caiaphas house. Steps may be first-century.
13
  • ch. 15 Condemnation, Death, Burial (Friday)
  • Trial before Pontius Pilate (Roman governor)
  • Accused of insurrection, sedition (claiming to be
    king)
  • Pilates reluctance to condemn
  • Release of Barabbas (an insurrectionist) failed
    attempt to satisfy chief priests by offering to
    pardon Jesus
  • Condemned, mocked, scourged
  • Crucifixion
  • At Golgotha (Calvary), between two rebels, about
    9 a.m.
  • Death about 3 p.m. cosmic signs darkness,
    earthquake, tearing of temple veil
  • Who killed Jesus?
  • Wrong to blame the Jews
  • Historically, executed by Rome
  • Theologically, died for sins of all
  • Burial
  • In a tomb by Joseph of Arimathea
  • Unusual for crucifixion victim to get proper
    burial

Gordons Calvary
14
  • ch. 16 Discovery of Empty Tomb (Sunday)
  • Women come at dawn to anoint Jesus body.
  • Angel announces resurrection of Jesus.
  • Instructions to go to Galilee, where Jesus will
    appear.
  • They went out and said nothing to anyone, for
    they were afraid (v. 8).
  • Did Mark tell resurrection appearance in Galilee?

Garden Tomb
15
  • Ending of Mark uncertain (Greek manuscripts have
    different endings)
  • Abrupt ending (ends at 168) oldest mss.
  • Longer ending (adds v. 9-20) most later mss.
    Received Text
  • Shorter ending (adds brief ending) few mss.
  • Lost ending ?
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