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NATIONAL FOOD POLICY CAPACITY STRENGTHENING PROGRAMME Module 6: Food Composition Data in Nutrition:

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Need for nutrient values of recipes in terms of energy, protein, iron and calcium/serving/100 g ... residues and for residues of veterinary drugs in foods. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NATIONAL FOOD POLICY CAPACITY STRENGTHENING PROGRAMME Module 6: Food Composition Data in Nutrition:


1
NATIONAL FOOD POLICY CAPACITY STRENGTHENING
PROGRAMME Module 6 Food Composition Data in
Nutrition Principles and Policy Applications
Lect 16 Food Composition Tables and Policy
Applications
  • Lalita Bhattacharjee, NFPCSP,FAO
  • Biplab K.Nandi, FAO RAP
  • Harun Yusuf, NFPCSP,FAO
  • 28 March 2007

2
Conceptual framework for understanding the
possible causes of low food consumption and poor
nutritional status
Care practices Child care Feeding
practices Nutrition education Food
preparation Eating habits Intra household food
distribution
Socio economic political environment National
level Population Education Macro economy Policy
environment Natural resource endowment Agricultura
l sector Market conditions Sub national level
Household characteristics Livelihood
systems Social institutions Cultural attitudes
Food availability ( trends availability) Producti
on Imports Utilization
Stability of food supplies access
(variability) Food production Incomes,Markets,
Social entitlements
Food consumption Energy intake Nutrient intake
Nutritional Status
Food utilization by the body
Access to food (trends levels) Purchasing
power market integration Access to markets
Health and sanitation Health care
practices Hygiene, water quality,
sanitation, food safety and quality
3
Changes in food composition in diets world wide
  • Relative contribution of vegetable and animal
    products in total supplies of energy, protein and
    fat
  • Extent of food diversification observed in
    different parts of the world
  • Changing importance of staple foods in aggregate
    food supplies

4
FAOs involvement in Food Composition Activities
(1)
  • Food Composition activities fell within Article
    1.1 of FAOs Constitution, namely, The
    Organization shall collect, analyze, interpret
    and disseminate information relating to
    nutrition, food and agriculture.
  • Food composition was explicit in the ICN and as
    part of the Strategies and Actions on Food
    Quality and Safety , which in Section IV, 9 j,
    read as Support and encourage …. the
    development and use of local food composition
    information.

5
FAOs involvement in Food Composition Activities
(2)
  • Since 6 decades, the area of food composition
    data has been playing a major role in FAOs
    activities.
  • The early development of the World Food Surveys
    was linked to such data, and, over the years,
    FAOs support for agricultural planning and
    production has relied on knowledge about the
    nutritional value of foods
  • Food composition data has always been crucial
    when providing assistance to governments in
    determining the nutritional adequacy of national
    diets and nutritional status of their people.

6
FAOs involvement in Food Composition Activities
(3)
  • The FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
    (RAP) has been promoting regional food
    composition activities as part of its regional
    programme under the Asia- Pacific Network for
    Food and Nutrition (ANFN).
  • FAO also worked with regional partners and
    facilitated several expert consultations for
    ASEANFOODS, SAARCFOODS and, more recently, with
    the establishment of NEASIAFOODS.

7
Food composition data indispensable tool for
dietary assessment (1)
  • Data obtained through household and national food
    consumption surveys are the preferred source of
    food consumption estimates
  • Provide more information on food consumption than
    food balance sheets.
  • HH food consumption surveys collect data from
    people who are purchasing and eating the food
  • Data obtained can reveal consumption
    characteristics of specific vulnerable groups and
    those from urban or rural populations

8
Food composition data indispensable tool for
dietary assessment (2)
  • Dietary assessment may be collected at national,
    HH or individual
  • Assessment of food composition at the national
    level is generally based on FBS
  • At HH /individual level food composition data
    provides useful information on nutritional
    adequacy

9
Considerations for selecting appropriate methods
for community use
  • Foods/nutrients of primary interest ( basic food
    groups/food guides, dietary variety, energy,
    macro micronutrients)
  • Group vs individual data
  • Absolute vs relative intake estimates
  • Population characteristics (age, sex, motivation,
    education/literacy, cultural diversity)
  • Time frame of interest
  • Level of specificity needed for describing foods
  • Available resources including food composition
    data for calculating nutrients

10
Conversion of food intakes to nutrients
  • Conversion of food intakes at household/individual
    levels requires food composition
    database/software for nutrient calculations
  • Results of diet surveys are dependent on quality
    of these data
  • Nutrient values presently available largely for
    raw foods( does not take into account raw
    to-cooked differences in yield)

11
Need for food composition tables
  • Currently available food composition tables in
    different countries have numerous inconsistencies
  • Differences in chemical analysis, sampling
    procedures, conversion factors for nutrients
  • Potential bias in diet survey results
  • Need to conduct multi centric studies to
    standardize methods and factors

12
Need for food composition tables Household
levels
  • Information on intra household distribution of
    food important for accurate assessment of
    individual intakes
  • Need for food composition data at
    individual/household levels to validate dietary
    information
  • Quantify obtained knowledge on household food
    allocation patterns
  • Point to underlying causes of food
    undernutrition/food behaviours)
  • Improve effectiveness/plan food based
    interventions

13
Need for food composition tables Household
levels
  • Accurate food composition data required for
    calculating recipes/foods developed and widely
    disseminated in nutrition education programmes
  • Need for nutrient values of recipes in terms of
    energy, protein, iron and calcium/serving/100 g
  • Valuable in identifying rich sources of various
    nutrients at farm and community levels.

14
Food composition data in assessing dietary intake
  • National food supply data - broad based
  • Household data useful for food based strategies
  • Individual data (Food records, 24 hr dietary
    recall, FFQs, diet histories,food habit
    questionnaires, combined methods
  • Apply appropriate food composition data to
    quantify foods/diet into nutrients
  • Rapid assessment procedures/focus groups require
    use of food exchange lists accurate food
    composition data

15
Food Composition and Commodity Standards (Typical
Information) (A)
  • Essential food composition includes information
    on the composition and identity characteristics
    of the commodity, as well as any compulsory and
    optional ingredients
  • Food additives contains the names of the
    additives and the maximum amount permitted to be
    added to the food.
  • Food additives must be cleared by FAO and WHO
    for their safety, and the use of food additives
    must be consistent with the Codex General
    Standard for Food Additives

Cont.
16
Food Composition and Commodity Standards (Typical
Information) (B)
  • Contaminants contains limits for contaminants
    that may occur in the product(s) covered by the
    standard.
  • These limits are based on the scientific advice
    of FAO and WHO and must be consistent with the
    Codex General Standard for Contaminants and
    Toxins in Foods.
  • Where appropriate, reference is also made to the
    Codex Limits for pesticide residues and for
    residues of veterinary drugs in foods.

Cont.
17
Food Composition and Commodity Standards (Typical
Information) (C)
  • Labelling includes provisions on the name of the
    food and any special requirements to ensure that
    the consumer is not deceived or misled about the
    nature of the food.
  • Provisions must be consistent with the Codex
    General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged
    Foods. Requirements for the listing of
    ingredients and date-marking are specified.

18
Food Composition Data in Codex (1)
  • Food compositional analyses
  • Building up a knowledge base that can be helpful
    to adopt a science based approach towards food
    import and export regulations
  • Help consumers in rationalizing approach
    regarding choice of food products
  • Scientific evaluation of food safety and
    nutrition to be used as scientific evidence in
    standards setting

19
Food Composition Data in Codex (2)
  • Essential composition and quality factors ensures
    that the consumer will not receive a product
    below a minimum acceptable standard.
  • Food composition data are important for
  • Food labeling
  • Avoiding food adulteration

20
Food composition of local/indigenous foods
  • Need for nutrient based information/documenting
    knowledge of natural resources that make up the
    food environment
  • Capacity building to use this knowledge for food
    security, nutrition and health promotion
  • Need for food composition data on local foods,
    conservation and sustainable utilization of food
    resources

21
Promoting traditional food systems FAO Case
studies ( 2000 -2002 Phase I Phase II on going)
  • Understanding food and dietary patterns of
    indigenous peoples as sound context for improving
    micronutrient status
  • Nutrient contents contributions of uncultivated
    foods/ wild foods can prove valuable to food and
    nutrition/micronutrient security
  • Building links between food procurement,
    preparation and the diversity of foods used by
    households to address problems of micronutrient
    malnutrition.

22
Constraints and knowledge gaps Indigenous foods
  • Essential to have information on the food
    composition, consumption pattern as well as socio
    cultural and economic factors that influence food
    intake
  • Understanding community and cultural conditions
    is of prime importance in successful
    implementation of programmes to help overcome
    nutritional problems

23
Capacity Building in Food Composition
  • FAO Collaboration (particularly with UNU)
  • - Regional data centres
  • - Network information sources
  • - Training courses
  • - Conferences and meetings
  • - International Food Data conference
  • Healthy life style
  • Food Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG)
  • National basic Food Composition Tables

24
Recommendations
  • Need to use food composition data to validate
    dietary assessment nutrition improvement
    outcomes
  • Identify food and nutrition vulnerability through
    information on food consumption patterns
  • Need to obtain food composition information on
    intra household distribution of food for accurate
    assessment of individual intakes
  • Validate HH food allocation patterns and
    underlying reasons for food / diet related
    behaviour, so that effectiveness of nutrition
    interventions can be improved.

25
Recommendations
  • Food composition information on culture specific
    food/diets/meals would be useful in developing,
    building upon and implementing information,
    education and communication strategies ( FBDGs)
  • Food composition of local foods impact on food
    consumption and household/community level food
    security
  • Point to strategic issues that need examination
    as part of food policy implications.

26
  • Thank You
  • For Your
  • Kind Attention
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