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Information Security Management

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Not all data has the same value to an organization. ... Data recovery plan maintenance. Keeping the plans up-to-date and relevant. COMP4690, HKBU ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Information Security Management


1
  • Chapter 1
  • Information Security Management

2
Objective
  • Concept of Information Security Management
  • Information Classification Process
  • Security Policy Implementation
  • The roles and responsibilities of Security
    Administration
  • Risk Management Assessment
  • Security Awareness Training

3
Introduction
  • Information Security is to protect an
    organizations valuable resources.
  • It ensures that all resources are protected, and
    available to an organization, at all times, when
    needed. This leads to information classification,
    and security policy.
  • However, security issues cannot be eliminated
    completely. This leads to the Risk management.

4
Purposes of Information Security Management
  • Three basic requirements
  • Availability
  • Assure that a computer system is accessible by
    authorized users whenever needed.
  • Integrity
  • To protect the system information from
    intentional or accidental unauthorized changes.
  • Confidentiality
  • Assure that unauthorized people cannot access the
    protected information.

5
Other Concepts in Security Management
  • Identification
  • The means in which users claim their identities
    to a system. Used for access control.
  • Authentication
  • The testing or reconciliation of evidence of a
    users identity.
  • Accountability
  • Audit trails and logs.
  • Authorization
  • The rights and permissions granted to an
    individual.
  • Privacy
  • The level of confidentiality and privacy
    protection.

6
Information Classification
  • Why do we need information classification?
  • Not all data has the same value to an
    organization.
  • Should focus the protection and control on the
    information that need it the most.
  • Can be used to comply with privacy laws, or to
    enable regulatory compliance.

7
Classification Terms
  • In governmental data classification
  • Unclassified can be released to public
  • Sensitive but unclassified minor secret, no
    serious damage if disclosed
  • Confidential unauthorized disclosure could cause
    some damage
  • Secret unauthorized disclosure could cause
    serious damage
  • Top secret unauthorized disclosure could cause
    exceptionally grave damage to national security

8
Classification Terms
  • In private sector
  • Public similar to unclassified
  • Sensitive requires a high level of
    classification than normal data
  • Private intended for company use only, such as
    salary levels
  • Confidential very sensitive data, unauthorized
    disclosure could seriously and negatively impact
    a company

9
Classification Procedures
  • The following steps are listed in priority order
  • Identify the administrator/custodian
  • Specify the criteria of how the information will
    be classified and labeled
  • Classify the data by its owner, who is subject to
    review by a supervisor
  • Specify and document any exceptions to the
    classification policy
  • Specify the controls that will be applied to each
    classification level
  • Specify the termination procedures for
    declassifying the information or for transferring
    custody of the information to another entity
  • Create an enterprise awareness program about the
    classification controls

10
Information Classification Roles
  • Owner
  • Information owner may be an executive or manager
    of an organization. He is responsible for the
    asset of information that must be protected. He
    makes the original determination to decide what
    level of classification the information requires.
    He delegates the responsibility of data
    protection duties to the custodian.
  • Custodian
  • Information custodian is delegated the
    responsibility of protecting the information by
    its owner. This role is commonly executed by IT
    systems personnel.
  • User
  • End user can be anyone (operator, employee, or
    external party) that routinely uses the
    information as part of their job.

11
Policies, Standards, Guidelines, Procedures
  • Security policies are the basis for a sound
    security implementation.
  • Questions
  • What are policies, standards, guidelines, and
    procedures?
  • Why do we use policies, standards, guidelines,
    and procedures?
  • What are the common policy types?

12
Polices
  • Polices are considered the first and highest
    level of documentation, from which the lower
    level elements of standards, procedures, and
    guidelines flow.
  • Usually are general statements.

13
Polices hierarchy
14
Policies
  • Senior Management Statement of Policy
  • The first policy of any policy creation process
  • A general, high-level statement which contains
  • An acknowledgement of the importance of the
    computing resources to the business model
  • A statement of support for information security
    throughout the enterprise
  • A commitment to authorize and manage the
    definition of the lower level standards,
    procedures, and guidelines

15
Standards, Guidelines, Procedures
  • These are the three elements of policy
    implementation, which contain the actual details
    of the policy.
  • They should be separate documents from the
    general policies.
  • Standards specify the use of specific
    technologies in a uniform way. It is compulsory.
  • Guidelines similar to standards, but more
    flexible, not compulsory, just recommendations.
  • Procedures embody the detailed steps that are
    followed to perform a specific task. The lowest
    level in the policy chain.

16
Roles and Responsibilities
17
Risk Analysis and Assessment
  • Risk Management
  • Identifying, analyzing and assessing, mitigating,
    or transferring risk
  • Core problems
  • What could happen (threat event) ?
  • If it happened, how bad could it be (threat
    impact) ?
  • How often could it happen (threat frequency,
    annualized) ?
  • How certain are the answers to the first three
    questions (recognition of uncertainty) ?

18
Cont.
  • Risk Analysis
  • The process of analyzing a target environment and
    the relationships of its risk-related attributes.
    It should identify threat vulnerabilities,
    associate these vulnerabilities with affected
    assets, identify the potential for and nature of
    an undesirable result, and identify and evaluate
    risk-reducing countermeasures.
  • Risk Assessment
  • The assignment of value to assets, threat
    frequency, consequence, and other elements of
    chance. It is used to characterize both the
    process and the result of analyzing and assessing
    risk.

19
Cont.
  • After risk analysis and assessment, three more
    questions
  • What can be done (risk mitigation) ?
  • How much will it cost (annualized) ?
  • Is it cost-effective (cost/benefit analysis) ?
  • Its essential that the process of analyzing and
    assessing risk is well understood by all parties
    and executed on a timely basis.

20
Terms and definitions
  • Single Loss Expectancy or Exposure (SLE)
  • The monetary loss for each occurrence of a
    threatened event
  • SLE Asset Value x Exposure Factor
  • Exposure Factor (EF)
  • Represent a measure of the magnitude of loss or
    impact on the value of an asset. Expressed as a
    percent, ranging from 0 to100, of asset value
    loss arising from a threat event.
  • A threat event could be a tornado, theft, or
    computer virus infection.

21
Cont.
  • Annualized Rate of Occurrence (ARO)
  • The frequency with which a threat is expected to
    occur. E.g., a threat occurring 50 times in a
    given year has an ARO of 50, and a threat
    occurring 1 time in 10 years has an ARO of 0.1.
  • Annualized Loss Expectancy (ALE)
  • ALE SLE x ARO

22
Example
23
Central Tasks
  • Establish Information Risk Management (IRM)
    Policy
  • Establish and Fund an IRM Team
  • Establish IRM Methodology and Tools
  • Identify and Measure Risk
  • Project Sizing

24
Risk analysis process
  • Asset valuation process
  • Determine the value of an asset
  • Quantitative risk analysis
  • Assign independently objective numeric values to
    the components of the risk assessment and to the
    assessment of potential losses
  • Qualitative risk analysis
  • Address intangible values of data loss
  • Safeguard selection
  • Cost/benefit analysis
  • Value of safeguard (ALE before) (ALE after)
    annual safeguard cost

25
Security Awareness and Training
  • People are often the weakest link in a security
    chain.
  • Employees must be aware of the need to secure
    information and to protect the information assets
    of an enterprise.
  • Operators need training in the skills to fulfill
    their job functions securely.

26
  • Chapter 2
  • Business Continuity Planning
  • and
  • Disaster Recovery Planning

27
Overview
  • Business Continuity Planning (BCP)
  • Make the plans and create the framework to ensure
    that the business can continue in an emergency.
    It includes
  • Scope and plan initiation
  • Business impact analysis (BIA)
  • Business continuity plan development
  • Disaster Recovery Planning (DRP)
  • Recover from an emergency with the minimum of
    impact to the organization. It includes
  • Disaster recovery planning processes
  • Testing the disaster recovery plan
  • Disaster recovery procedures

28
Business Continuity Planning
  • Objectives
  • To prevent interruptions to normal business
    activity
  • To protect critical business processes from
    natural or man-made failures or disasters
  • To minimize the effect of disturbances and to
    allow for resumption of business processes
  • To reduce the risk of financial loss and enhance
    a companys ability to recover from a disruptive
    event promptly
  • To minimize the cost associated with the
    disruptive event and mitigate the risk associated
    with it

29
Disruptive Events
  • Natural events
  • Fires, explosions, hazardous material spills of
    environmental toxins
  • Earthquakes, storms, floods, and fires due to
    acts of nature
  • Power outages or other utility failures
  • Man-made events
  • Bombings, sabotages, or other intentional attacks
  • Strikes and job actions
  • Employee or operator unavailability due to
    emergency evacuation or other issues
  • Communications infrastructure failures

30
BCP (I)
  • Scope and Plan Initiation
  • The first step to create a BCP
  • Create the scope for the plan, and the other
    elements needed to define the parameters of the
    plan
  • Examine the companys operations and support
    services
  • Scope activities
  • Create a detailed account of the work required
  • List the resources to be used
  • Define the management practices to be employed

31
BCP (I) roles and responsibilities
32
BCP (II)
  • Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
  • To create a document to be used to help
    understand what impact a disruptive event would
    have on the business
  • Three primary goals
  • Criticality prioritization time-critical
    business process vs. Non-time-critical business
    process
  • Downtime estimation what is the longest period
    of time a critical process can remain interrupted
    before the company can never recover maximum
    tolerable downtime (MTD)
  • Resource requirements the most time-sensitive
    processes may need the most resource allocation

33
BCP (II) BIA Steps
  • Gathering assessment materials
  • Which business units are critical to continuing
    an acceptable level of operations
  • Organizational chart, functional
    interrelationships of the organization
  • Performing vulnerability assessment
  • Quantitative financial assessment
  • Incurring financial losses from loss of revenue,
    capital expenditure, or personal liability
    resolution
  • Additional operational expenses incurred due to
    the disruptive event
  • Incurring financial losses from violation of
    contract agreements, violation of regulatory or
    compliance requirements
  • Qualitative operational assessment
  • Loss of competitive advantage or market share
  • Loss of public confidence or credibility, or
    public embarrassment
  • Define the Critical support areas that must be
    present to sustain continuity of the business
    processes
  • Telecommunications, data communications,
    information technology areas
  • Physical infrastructure or plant facilities,
    transportation services
  • Accounting, payroll, transaction processing,
    customer service, purchasing

34
BCP (II) BIA Steps
  • Analyzing the information
  • Documenting required processes, identifying
    interdependencies, and determining what an
    acceptable interruption period would be
  • To describe what support the defined critical
    areas will require to preserve the revenue stream
    and maintain pre-defined processes
  • Documentation and recommendation
  • Full documentation of all the processes,
    procedures, analysis, and results, and the
    presentation of recommendations to the
    appropriate senior management.
  • Contain the gathered material, list the
    identified critical support areas, summarize the
    quantitative and qualitative impact statements,
    and provide the recommended recovery priorities
    generated from the analysis

35
BCP (III)
  • Business Continuity Plan Development
  • Use the information collected in BIA to create
    the recovery strategy plan to support the
    critical business functions.
  • Defining the continuity strategy, should include
    the following elements
  • Computing to preserve the elements of hardware,
    software, communication lines, applications, and
    data
  • Facilities to address to use of the main
    buildings or campus and any remote facilities
  • People operators, management, and technical
    support personnel will have defined roles in
    implementing the continuity strategy
  • Supplies and equipment paper, forms, or
    specialized security equipment must be defined
  • Documenting the continuity strategy

36
BCP (IV)
  • Plan Approval and Implementation
  • Senior management approval
  • Create an awareness of the pan enterprise-wide
  • Specific training may be required for certain
    personnel to carry out their tasks
  • Maintenance of the plan
  • Use job descriptions that centralize
    responsibility for updates
  • Create audit procedures that can report regularly
    on the state of the plan
  • Ensure multiple versions of the plan do not exist

37
Disaster Recovery Planning
  • Objective
  • To provide an organized way to make decisions if
    a disruptive event occurs
  • To reduce confusion and enhance the ability of
    the organization to deal with the crisis
  • To protect an organization from major computer
    services failure
  • To minimize the risk to the organization from
    delays in providing services
  • To guarantee the reliability of standby systems
    through testing and simulation
  • To minimize the decision-making required by
    personnel during a disaster

38
I. DRP Process
  • This phase involves the development and creation
    of the recovery plans.
  • Define the steps we will need to perform to
    protect the business in the event of an actual
    disaster.
  • Two steps
  • Data processing continuity planning
  • Planning for the disaster and creating the plans
    to cope with it
  • Data recovery plan maintenance
  • Keeping the plans up-to-date and relevant

39
Processing Backup Services
  • Processing backup services are very important to
    the disaster recovery plan
  • Most common alternate processing types
  • Mutual aid agreements
  • Subscription services
  • Multiple centers
  • Service bureaus
  • Other data center backup alternatives

40
Mutual aid agreements
  • An arrangement with another company that may have
    similar computing needs.
  • Both parties agree to support each other in the
    case of a disruptive event. Assume each
    organizations operations area will have the
    capacity to support the others in time of need.
  • Advantages
  • Allow an organization to obtain a disaster
    processing site at very little or no cost.
  • Disadvantages
  • Difficult to have extra unused capacity to enable
    full operational processing during the event.
  • What happens if both organizations are affected
    by a large disaster?
  • Should be considered only if there is a perfect
    partner, and there is no other alternative to
    disaster recovery.

41
Subscription services
  • Rely on third-party, commercial services
  • Three basic forms of subscription services
  • Hot site
  • Fully configured computer facility with
    electrical power and HVAC (heating, ventilation,
    air conditioning), and functioning servers and
    workstations.
  • 24/7 availability, exclusivity of use,
    immediately available after the disruptive event
    occurs
  • The most expensive one, intensive administrative
    overhead
  • Cold site
  • A room with electrical power and HVAC,
    communications links may be ready or not.
  • It is ready for equipment to be brought in during
    an emergency, but no computer hardware resides at
    the site.
  • Warm site
  • A cross between hot site and cold site. Computer
    facilities are ready with electrical power and
    HVAC. But the applications may not be installed
    or configured. Without full complement of
    workstations.
  • Takes some time and effort to start production
    processing at the new site.

42
Multiple centers
  • The processing is spread over several operations
    centers
  • Could be owned and managed by the same
    organization or used in conjunction with some
    sort of reciprocal agreement.
  • Has the same disadvantage as for mutual aid.

43
Service Bureaus
  • Contract with a service bureau to fully provide
    all alternate backup processing services
  • Quick response and availability, possible testing
  • Disadvantages
  • Expense
  • Resource contention during a large emergency

44
Transaction Redundancy Implementations
  • Electronic vaulting
  • The transfer of backup data to an off-site
    location
  • Remote journaling
  • The parallel processing of transactions to an
    alternate site. A communications line is used to
    transmit live data as it occurs.
  • Database shadowing
  • To create event more redundancy by duplicating
    the database sets to multiple servers.

45
Disaster Recovery Plan Maintenance
  • Disaster recovery plans often get out of date.
  • Like BCP maintenance
  • To build maintenance procedures into the
    organization
  • To create audit procedures that can report
    regularly on the state of the plan

46
II. Testing the DRP
  • Regular disaster recovery drills and tests are a
    cornerstone of any disaster recovery plan.
  • Reasons for testing
  • Verify the accuracy of the recovery procedures
    and identify deficiencies
  • Prepare and train the personnel to execute their
    emergency duties
  • Verify the processing capability of the alternate
    backup site

47
Five Test Types
  • Checklist
  • Distribute copies of the plan to each business
    unit for review, to ensure the plan addresses all
    procedures and critical areas of the
    organization. This is a preliminary step to a
    real test.
  • Structured walk-through
  • Business unit management representatives meet to
    walk through the plan. To ensure that the plan
    accurately reflects the organization ability to
    recover successfully.
  • Simulation
  • All the operational and support personnel
    expected to perform during an actual emergency
    meet in a practice session. To test the ability
    of the personnel to respond to a simulated
    disaster.
  • Parallel
  • A full test of the recovery plan, utilizing all
    personnel. Critical systems are run at an
    alternate site.
  • Full-interruption
  • A disaster is replicated even to the point of
    ceasing normal production operations. The plan is
    totally implemented as if it were a real
    disaster.

48
III. Disaster recovery procedures
  • This part details
  • what roles various personnel will take on
  • what tasks must be implemented to recover and
    salvage the site
  • how the company interfaces with external groups
  • financial considerations.

49
Primary element
  • The recovery team
  • To implement the recovery procedures at the
    declaration of the disaster. To get the
    pre-defined critical business functions operating
    at the alternate backup processing site.
  • The salvage team
  • To return the primary site to normal processing
    environmental conditions. To identify sources of
    expertise, equipment, and supplies that can make
    the return to the site possible.
  • The normal operations resume
  • To return production processing from alternate
    site to the primary site with the minimum of
    disruption and risk
  • Other recovery issues
  • Interfacing with external groups employee
    relations fraud and crime financial
    disbursement media relations
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