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Lucent Technologies

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Title: Lucent Technologies


1
Lucent Technologies
  • Wireless Networks Group
  • 1999 Co-op Program
  • PRESENTATION
  • August 10, 1999

2
Introduction
  • Name Michael Phillip
  • School The University
  • of the
  • West Indies
  • (Trinidad and Tobago)
  • Department Customer Technical Support /
  • Program Management (CTS/PM)

3
Objectives
  • 1. Cellular Systems
  • Develop an understanding of a generic cellular
    system, and relate this to Lucents CDMA system -
    Autoplex 1000.
  • 2. System Performance
  • Research a cost effective direct data link
    between Lucent and BAM for the retrieval of CDMA
    service measurement data files, for performance
    analysis and report generation.
  • 3. System Resources Model
  • Develop a model that relates cellular traffic to
    system resources, for the analysis and
    specification of a CDMA hardware configuration,
    that will support the required traffic throughput.

4
Benefits and Details
  • The following sections attempt to address the
    following
  • Give some of the benefits which may be derived by
    achieving the aforementioned objectives.
  • Give details on meeting the objectives, including
    areas in which improvements may be made.

5
Objectives
  • 1. Cellular Systems
  • Develop an understanding of a generic cellular
    system, and relate this to Lucents CDMA system -
    Autoplex 1000.
  • 2. System Performance
  • Research a cost effective direct data link
    between Lucent and BAM for the retrieval of CDMA
    service measurement data files, for performance
    analysis and report generation.
  • 3. System Resources Model
  • Develop a model that relates cellular traffic to
    system resources, for the analysis and
    specification of a CDMA hardware configuration,
    that will support the required traffic throughput.

6
1. Cellular Systems
  • Description
  • To develop an understanding of the process
    involved, and the functional units that comprise
    a generic cellular system.
  • Relate this to Lucents CDMA cellular system
    the Autoplex 1000 System.

7
Cellular Systems
  • Benefits
  • Provides the essential foundation and
    understanding, of the core product of the Network
    Wireless Systems group.
  • This then lends itself to better achievement of
    the said objectives.

8
Cellular Systems
  • Details
  • This objective was achieved mainly through
    self-paced
  • study, and lecture-based courses, which included
  • CL1000A Autoplex System 1000 Overview.
  • LTW300L Principles of Digital Wireless Access
    Radio Communications.
  • LTW100L Introduction to Cellular and PCS
    Communications Systems and Technologies.

9
Objectives
  • 1. Cellular Systems
  • Develop an understanding of a generic cellular
    system, and relate this to Lucents CDMA system -
    Autoplex 1000.
  • 2. System Performance
  • Research a cost effective direct data link
    between Lucent and BAM for the retrieval of CDMA
    service measurement data files, for performance
    analysis and report generation.
  • 3. System Resources Model
  • Develop a model that relates cellular traffic to
    system resources, for the analysis and
    specification of a CDMA hardware configuration,
    that will support the required traffic throughput.

10
2-1. System Performance Data Collection
  • Details
  • Investigation of existing data collection methods
    for the transfer of large data files such as
    AutoPACE .smd files, ECP Service Measurements
    Data, and .rop files from customer sites to our
    in-house platforms.
  • Investigation of new possible methods and
    alternatives to existing data collection
    methods between customer sites and Lucent,
    Whippany.
  • Establish an internal contact to discuss the
    resources available for the direct collection
    of large volumes of data (10 100Mb) files.

11
Existing Data Collection MethodThis
investigation lead to the FOA group, which in the
past has collected data for Bell Atlantic Mobile,
in regions which included
  • North Jersey
  • Boston
  • Philadelphia

12
The FOA Data-Collection System
  • For any such system, there must be some medium
    for
  • the data transmission, and an appropriate
    protocol must
  • be used.
  • In the FOA system, the following are utilized.
  • Transmission medium - Internet
  • Data transfer protocol - File transfer protocol

13
System Implementation
  • It must be possible to perform a direct FTP from
    the clients site, to Lucents Columbus server.
  • Software is loaded onto the clients machine,
    which would automate the FTP procedures for
    transferring the relevant data files from their
    system (OMP) to the Columbus server, on a timely
    basis.
  • At Whippany, there is software loaded onto a
    machine which automates the retrieval of the data
    files from the Columbus server, and places it
    into the appropriate database for further
    processing.

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15
Benefits of the FOA System
  • Since the Internet is a shared resource and is
    readily available it represents the best
    compromise between cost and efficiency.
  • Furthermore, the international nature of the
    Internet would allow for rapid growth of the
    system, at minimal cost, especially in light of
    Lucents current expansion into international
    markets.
  • The ability to ready access the clients system
    performance data, allows CTS personnel to respond
    quickly to system performance problems that they
    may have, and also, to be pro-active in following
    trends, and identifying potential problems that
    the client may experience.

16
Security Concerns
  • Security of data and system information may be of
    major
  • concern to the client, and may be addressed as
    follows
  • The Columbus server uses blind directories for
    its anonymous ftp, so in order to retrieve the
    files, one must know the exact directory, and
    names of the files.
  • The use of scripts to automate the data transfer
    means that no Lucent employee would need to
    physically enter the clients system to retrieve
    data.
  • Third-party encryption software may be used to
    provide added security.

17
2-2. System Performance Report Generation
  • Details
  • Work with FOA Engineering to establish a
    connection to
  • the an AutoPACE platform, for the following
  • Generation of meaningful System Performance
    Reports that take a very general look at CDMA
    system health and CDMA system performance.
  • Creation of a report that utilizes Lucent
    Technologies recommended CDMA Performance
    Metrics for each Bell Atlantic Mobile Region.

18
Implementation
  • The list below gives the procedures for
    generating the
  • appropriate reports.
  • Select the required database in the autopace.ini
    file.
  • Setup the a scenario, which includes the network
    elements of interest - ECPs, Cells, etc.
  • Setup a report template which contains the
    performance metrics (counts) required.
  • Define the time period -Time, day, month, year.
  • Define the report type - Day vs. network element.
  • Setup the output processing - To printer or file,
    etc.

19
Benefits
  • The ability to generate system performance data
    of the clients system, allows CTS personnel to
    respond quickly to system problems, resulting in
    improved customer service.
  • Reports may be generated periodically, to observe
    trends which may indicate potential problems for
    the clients system. This would allow CTS
    personnel to be pro-active in dealing with
    systems problems.

20
Examples of Useful Reports
  • CDN Processor Occupancy
  • CDN Real Time Processor Occupancy (CDN_PO_).
  • of Real Time used by Call Processing (CPRTUsg).
  • of Real Time used by Autonomous Reg. (ARRTUsg).
  • Autonomous Registration Counts
  • Autonomous Registrations for Home subscribers.
  • Autonomous Registrations for Roamers.
  • Assignment Counts
  • CDMA Originations Assigned.
  • CDMA Terminations Assigned.
  • AMPS Total Assigned (Orig Term).

21
Case Study
  • Customer had expectations that variations in CDN
    PO should have been driven by Call Processing,
    but their observations did not support this.
  • Reports generated by AutoPACE were used in the
    subsequent investigation and showed that
    Autonomous Registration was the pre-dominant
    contributor to the CDN PO variations.
  • This information was then used in educating the
    client, and has since been applied in some
    situations.
  • The data was also used in an Internal Study on
    Access Failures for CDMA systems.

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27
Objectives
  • 1. Cellular Systems
  • Develop an understanding of a generic cellular
    system, and relate this to Lucents CDMA system -
    Autoplex 1000.
  • 2. System Performance
  • Research a cost effective direct data link
    between Lucent and BAM for the retrieval of CDMA
    service measurement data files, for performance
    analysis and report generation.
  • 3. System Resources Model
  • Develop a model that relates cellular traffic to
    system resources, for the analysis and
    specification of a CDMA hardware configuration,
    that will support the required traffic throughput.

28
3. CDMA System Resources Model
  • Description
  • Development of a Model that would be used to
    analyze and
  • specify the CDMA hardware configurations that
    support the
  • traffic (data packets) throughput between the
    cell site and
  • switch components, in terms of the following
  • Identification of the most constraining resource
    or component of the system.
  • Calculation of the maximum load based on given
    resources.
  • Determination of resources required for a
    pre-determined load.

29
CDMA System Hardware Model
Key CE Channel Element CCC CDMA Cluster
Ctrl CCU CDMA Channel Unit DFI Digital
Facilities Interface DLTU Digital Line Trunk
Unit FRPH Frame Relay Protocol Hnd PHA Protocol
Hnd for ATM PHV Protocol Hnd for
Voice PSU Packet Switching Unit SM Switching
Module TSI Time Slot Interchanger PSTN Public
Switched Telephone Network
30
Model Design
  • The model consists of the following
  • The cell hardware component necessary for call
    processing in a Series II cell-site.
  • The packet pipe specifications, which are chosen
    to adequately handle the traffic between cell and
    switch.
  • The switch hardware components,of a 5ESS switch,
    which are required to support only a single
    cell-site.

31
Model Used In Analysis
32
Cell Components
  • The cell components considered in the model are
  • Channel Elements(CE) - this handles an

  • individual call.
  • CDMA Channel Unit(CCU) - this contains
    groups of

  • channel elements.
  • CDMA Cluster Controller(CCC) - this unit controls

  • cluster of CCUs and

  • provides the interface to

  • the TDM bus.

33
Packet Pipe Components
  • The packet pipe essentially consists of groups of
  • contiguous channels within a T1/E1 line, and
    specifications
  • which comprise
  • DS0 Rate - the data transfer rate of an
    individual
  • channel (eg. 64 kbps,
    56 kbps).
  • Vocoder Rate - the digitized speech rate handled
    by the
  • speech coder (eg. 8
    kbps, 13 kbps).
  • Packet Pipe - the number of contiguous DS0
    channels
  • Size used, within a T1/E1
    line.

34
Switch Components
  • The switch components considered are
  • Protocol Handler - this handles speech
    encoding/decoding
  • for voice (PHV) and the selection of
    speech frames.
  • Frame Relay - this terminates the packet
    pipe from the
  • Protocol Handler cell onto the packet bus
    of the switch.
  • (FRPH)
  • Packet Switching - this contains the bus which
    performs the
  • Unit(PSU) the packet switching
    function in the switch
  • Switching - this contains the SM
    processors and the
  • Module(SM) switching related modules
    of the switch.

35
Assumptions
  • Traffic load to the cell follows an Erlang B
    Model, which
  • means that call may originate from an
    infinite number of source, and blocked calls are
    cleared from the system.
  • The error incurred by not including channel
    element
  • pooling in the analysis, may be considered to
    be small
  • for the range of traffic loads in question.
  • The offered load to the cell is uniformly
    distributed among sectors.
  • The air-interface limit, on a per sector/carrier
    level may not be exceeded (constraint).

36
Implementation
  • The Model was implemented in the form of a
    computer
  • application, as this would allow a fairly high
    degree of
  • automation.
  • Borland C Builder 4.0 was used, as it provides
    both the power of C, as found in Visual C,
    but with the ease of GUI building as found in
    Visual Basic, all in one package.
  • Furthermore, as a result of past experience in C
    programming, there would be a shorter learning
    curve.
  • A highly modular approach to algorithm design was
    adopted, to both reduce complexity, and to
    facilitate improvements on individual modules,
    without significantly affecting the rest of the
    application.

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38
Future Improvements
  • Addition of a graphical user interface,
    preferably keeping platform independence in mind.
  • Modification of the Erlang B routines, to take
    channel element pooling and unbalanced loading of
    sectors into account.
  • Support for Packet Pipe-16 and other
    enhancements.
  • Support for modeling a system of one switch and
    multiple cell sites.
  • Placement of a cost factor onto system
    components, so that cost effectiveness may be
    taken into account in the analysis.

39
Benefits
  • Provides some measure of forecasting, in
    determining when the client should reach
    capacity, given an estimate of the rate of growth
    of traffic to the cell.
  • Provides a means of running what-if scenarios,
    from the point of view of quantities of specific
    system components, in determining the most cost
    effective path towards capacity growth.
  • Increases the productivity of the user, by
    eliminating the need to perform manual
    calculations a table look-ups, and in addition,
    reducing human error.

40
Case Study
  • Consider a system with the following
    specifications
  • Offered load 39.3 Erlangs
  • Probability of blocking 2
  • Number of sectors 3
  • Users in Soft Hand-off 35
  • Packet pipe DS0 rate 56 kbps
  • CE vocoder rate 13 kbps
  • Type of PHV PHV3

41
Calculations
  • Using the Erlang-B tables
  • Number of CEs 49
  • Including Soft H/O users,
  • Number of Traffic CEs 49 x 1.35 66.15 ? 67
  • Require 1 CE - Paging Ch, 1 CE -
    Pilot/Sync/Access per sector
  • Number of Overhead CEs 3 x (1 1) 6
  • Total no of CEs is the sum of Traffic CEs and
    Overhead CEs
  • Number of CEs 67 6 73

42
Calculations
  • One ECU contains 10 CEs
  • Number of ECUs 73/10 7.3 ? 8
  • Total available CEs
  • Number of Traffic CEs (8 x 10) - 6 74
  • Total traffic now supported is 62.9 Erlangs (from
    Tables)
  • Offered load per per sector 62.9/3 20.967
    Erlangs
  • Number of carriers required 3 (20.967/3 lt 7.4)
  • From Packet Pipe table, each 8 DS0 PP (at
    56kbps) can
  • support 19, 13kbps CEs
  • Number of PPs 74/19 3.89 ? 4 (8 DS0 in
    width)

43
Calculations
  • Each T1 line supports 24 DS0s (PPs cannot span
    T1s)
  • Number of T1 lines (4 x 8)/24 1.333 ? 2
  • Each Packet Pipe must terminate at a CCC
  • Number of CCCs 4
  • From tables, 74 CEs support an offered load of
    62.9 Erlangs
  • For no blocking, and operation at 90 efficiency,
  • Total number of vocoders 63/0.90 70
  • Each PHV3 contains 16 vocoders
  • Number of PHV3s 70/16 4.375 ? 5

44
Calculations
  • PPs terminate at an FRPH, which is limited to 32
    time slots
  • (1 DS0 per slot) and can support upto 64
    vocoders.
  • 4, 8 DS0 PPs require 32 slots, and supports 76
    CEs (4 x 19)
  • Number of FRPHs 2
  • (3, 8 DS0 1, 8 DS0)

45
Summary
  • Number of Carriers 3
  • Number of Traffic CEs 74
  • Number of Overhead CEs 6
  • Number of ECUs 8
  • Number of CCCs 4
  • 4 Packet Pipes of size 8 DS0s
  • Number of T1s 2
  • Number of PHV3s 5
  • Number of FRPHs 2

46
Acquired Skills/Knowledge
  • An understanding of the fundamental theory behind
    the IS-95 Standard.
  • An understanding of the processes involved in the
    operations of a CDMA cellular system.
  • An appreciation for performance metrics used in
    monitoring the health of a CDMA cellular system.
  • Experience in Object-Oriented Programming (C).
  • A broader understanding of communications
    technology.

47
Courses Completed
  • CL1000A - Autoplex System 1000 Overview
  • LTT600W - Basic Traffic Theory and Trunk
    Engineering
  • LTW300L - Principle of Digital Wireless Access
    Radio
  • Communications
  • LTW100L - An Introduction to Cellular and
    Personal
  • Communications Systems
    and Technologies
  • LTW362L - Introduction to CDMA Technology and the
  • IS-95 Standard
  • LTW364L - Introduction to Product Architecture,
  • Operations and System
    Engineering for IS-95
  • LTP400L - Digital Signal Processing in Wireless
  • Communication Systems
  • LCL200H - Object-Oriented Programming in C

48
References
  • AutoPACE Perofrmance Analysis Users Guide -
    Lucent, 401-660-126
  • AUTOPLEX Cellular Telecommunications System 1000
    CDMA RF Engineering Guidelines - Lucent,
    401-614-012
  • Basic Traffic Analysis - Roberta Martine
  • Borland C Builder Programming Explorer - J.
    Mischel and J. Duntemann
  • CDMAOne for RF Engineers, part 2 - Tanveer ul Haq
  • Introduction to the AutoPACE System (CL1517) -
    Lucent
  • System Capacity and Engineering Student Guide
    (CL1001PC) - Lucent
  • The C Programming Language, 3rd Ed. - Bjarne
    Stroustrup

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