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Kenya

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... martyrs when sent to a desert prison-camp. ... 80,000 Kikuyu were imprisoned in concentration camps. ... Land concentration increased dramatically. Kenya ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kenya


1
Kenya
  • Originally there was little imperial interest in
    East Africa per se.
  • Britain was keen to control the control the
    source of the Nile, because it was thought to be
    the key to the survival of Cairo and hence the
    Suez Canal, which was the link to India.  India
    was thought to be important to UKs interests.

2
Kenya
  • The Mombasa-Uganda railroad was built to
    facilitate movement of troops and material to the
    headwaters of the Nile (thought to be in Lake
    Victoria on the Ugandan side of the Lake).
  • Indian laborers ("Coolies) were brought in to
    build the railroad, followed by shopkeepers etc. 
  • They were forbidden from owning land, and were
    restricted to special areas of the cities in
    which they could live.

3
Kenya
  • White farmers were given land in the highlands so
    they would use the railroad to ship out their
    products and the railroad could pay for itself. 
  • White farmers were seen to be the productive
    backbone of the economy of the Kenya Colony.
  • After the world wars, more British soldiers were
    given land in Kenya to reward their service.

4
Kenya
  • Myth arose and persisted of the productive white
    farm, suggesting that the wealth of the colony
    rested on the high productivity of white-owned
    farms
  • But in fact the productivity of the white farm
    rested largely on subsidies to white farmers from
    funds extracted from black farmers, and on
    underpayment of black labor. 
  • The products of white farms rode on the railways
    at subsidized prices while transportation for
    things raised mostly by Africans was left more
    expensive.

5
Kenya
  • City of Nairobi and nearby areas were developed
    for white farmers around the turn of the 20th
    century.
  • Was established where the railroad builders
    paused while they worked on an elevator to take
    trains down into Great Rift Valley. 
  • No cityexisted there before colonial times.

6
Kenya
  • Areas near Lake Victoria were treated as "labor
    reserves" were left underdeveloped, with hut
    tax payable in cash to put squeeze on men to go
    work for whites, imposing a double burden on the
    women left behind. 
  • Governing principle of the colony rested on
    racial hierarchy, from "Europeans" at top through
    gradations of skin color (Arabs, Indians) down to
    Africans at bottom with laws and privileges
    depending on race.

7
Kenya
  • Infrastructure was (mis)developed aimed to
    promote export, not to link with other African
    countries, and not even to produce an integrated
    internal economy. 
  • In common with almost all African colonies,
    railroads went only from interior of country to
    the port, to carry (largely raw-material) exports
    out of the country and (largely manufactured
    goods) imports back in. 
  • There was little linking of one part of the
    country with another for a better internal
    economy.

8
Kenya
  • African discontent over lack of influence on
    politics and loss of land to the whites
    eventually led to a guerrilla war, which came to
    be known as Mau Mau. 
  • Was a nationalist guerrilla struggle rebels
    called themselves the Land and Freedom Army.
  • Definitely not the return to savagery the whites
    portrayed it.
  • Fought largely in Kikuyu areas because of
    mountain hiding places there.
  • Rebels had little connection with forces outside
    the country, so odds of success were low.

9
Kenya
  • They were opposed with much hysteria and
    brutality by British troops, flying planes and
    dropping bombs, using "protective villages" and
    putting Mau Mau believers through re-education to
    return them to civilization. 
  • Re-education often involved torture of one kind
    or another, some so bad it eventually caused
    concern in the British Parliament.

10
Kenya
  • Tremendous violence of African against African
  • Use of homeguards" loyalists who collaborated
    with British. 
  • Jomo Kenyatta and other presumed leaders became
    revered martyrs when sent to a desert
    prison-camp. 
  • They were actually more moderate than radical
    true leaders, such as Dedan Kimathi. 

Dedan Kimathi
11
Kenya
  • In 1960 the state of emergency was lifted.
  • LFA death toll during the emergency was 11,500,
    of whom around 1,000 were hanged.
  • 80,000 Kikuyu were imprisoned in concentration
    camps.
  • 150,000 Africans, mostly Kikuyu, lost their
    lives, with many dying of disease and starvation
    in the "protected villages".
  • On the other side, the LFA killed around 2,000
    people, including 32 European civilians and 63
    members of the security forces.

12
Kenya
  • In 1960 the state of emergency was lifted.
  • LFA death toll during the emergency was 11,500,
    of whom around 1,000 were hanged.
  • 80,000 Kikuyu were imprisoned in concentration
    camps.
  • 150,000 Africans, mostly Kikuyu, lost their
    lives, with many dying of disease and starvation
    in the "protected villages".
  • On the other side, the LFA killed around 2,000
    people, including 32 European civilians and 63
    members of the security forces.

13
Kenya
  • Led to independence by damaging Britain in world
    public opinion and raising cost of continuing
    colonial domination.
  • 1963/64 Kenyatta becomes first Prime Minister and
    then President.
  • Moderates and homeguards got the spoils of
    victory when independence came
  • The Land and Freedom Army got nothing.

14
Kenya
  • Myth of productive white farms meant that white
    farms were largely kept intact, going usually to
    the new African elite.
  • Sometimes run as cooperatives by small farmers
    until they were unable to pay their debt the
    elite then purchased them. 
  • Land concentration increased dramatically.

15
Kenya
  • Under his slogan harambee lets all pull
    together the first years of Kenyattas
    leadership reflected the euphoria that pervaded
    post-independence Africa.
  • While Tanzania to the south took a more
    socialistic approach to development called ujamaa
    or familyhood, based upon the vision of
    President Julius Nyerere, Kenya under Kenyatta
    took an unbridled capitalistic tack

16
Kenya
  • National income doubled as coffee and tea exports
    did well on world markets.
  • Schools based upon the harambee principle
    flourished, establishing a basis for universal
    primary education.

17
Kenya
  • Conversely, wealth disparities between rich and
    poor grew alongside nepotism and political
    patronage.
  • Ultimately a new label wabenzi (literally
    people of the Mercedes Benz) came to describe
    members of the new black elite.
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