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Chapter 4: Perception

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Lecture #4: Perception. Music: 'Speed of Sound' Coldplay 'Suddenly I see' KT Tunstall ... b) Perceptual Sets: Context & Contrast Effects. 4. ESP: Extra-Sensory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4: Perception


1
Chapter 4 Perception
  • Music
  • Speed of Sound
  • Coldplay
  • Suddenly I see
  • KT Tunstall

2
Lecture 4 Agenda
  • Midterm Information
  • 1. Distinction between Sensation and Perception
  • 2. Perceptual Organization
  • a) Visual Capture
  • b) Form Perception
  • c) Depth Perception
  • 3. Interpretation
  • a) Sensory Restrictions
  • b) Perceptual Sets Context Contrast Effects
  • 4. ESP Extra-Sensory Perception

3
Midterm October 20th
  • 2 hours in class no lecture
  • 60 multiple choice (80)
  • 4 short answers (20)
  • To prepare
  • 1) TEXT
  • Read ENTIRE CHAPTERS
  • Concentrate on sections covered in class
  • To study
  • Use the features in your book, e.g. concept
    checks, multiple choice questions, Review of Key
    Points
  • 2) LECTURES
  • Go over your notes carefully, and try to
    anticipate short answer questions from the slides
  • 3) TUTORIALS
  • Mondays 1030 a.m. Ross S103
  • Mondays 130 p.m. FC 117
  • Tuesdays 230 p.m. Ross N146

4
1. Distinction Between Sensation and Perception
  • Sensation
  • Based on activity of the sense receptors
  • How physical energy is transformed into neural
    impulses
  • E.g. Light Wavelengths ---- Hit retina----
    Transformed into sight by the brain (p. 131-132)
  • Primarily Bottom-Up processes i.e. from the
    outer world, to the senses, up to the brain

5
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6
1. Sensation (contd) p.138
7
1. Sensation Perception (contd)
  • Perception
  • How we analyze sensory information
  • Elaboration, transformation, interpretation of
    what is registered by the senses
  • Assignment of Meaning to sensory experiences
  • Top-down processes
  • Starts in the brain
  • Sometimes overrides the sensory input (see p. 144
    on subjective contours)

8
1. Sensation vs. Perception p. 132
9
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10
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11
The Role of Interpretation
  • You see the world that you have made
  • but you do not see yourself as the image maker.
  • How can you influence your perceptions?
  • What kind of images do you want to focus on?
  • What image maker will you be?

12
2. Perceptual Organization
  • a) Visual Capture
  • Sight has preeminence over other senses
  • b) Form Perception
  • Gestalt Principles
  • Figure-ground relationship (p. 153)
  • Grouping Principles
  • Similarity
  • Proximity
  • Closure
  • Continuity

13
2. c) Perceptual Organization Depth Perception
  • How do we transform 2-D retinal images into 3-D
    perceptions?
  • i) Binocular Cues
  • Retinal disparity
  • difference btw. 2 retinal images provides
    important clues to the brain
  • Angle of convergence
  • muscular movement to focus on an object provides
    info. on distance

14
2. c) Depth Perception (contd)
  • ii) Monocular Cues
  • Important for more distant objects
  • Relative Size
  • Linear Perspective
  • Texture gradient
  • Overlap
  • Relative height
  • Motion Parallax (p. 156)

15
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16
2. c) ii. Monocular cues (cont)
17
2. c) ii. Monocular cues (contd)
18
3. Interpretation
  • a) Sensory Restriction
  • For some aspects of visual perception, experience
    is critical
  • Experiments with cats
  • Cataract patients
  • b) Perceptual Sets
  • Needs, beliefs and emotions influence perceptions
  • Prior experience and expectations also provide a
    readiness to perceive in a certain way
  • Context effects Immediate context influences
    perception (e.g. film sets)
  • Contrast effects
  • Comparitors p. 185
  • E.g. student letter to parents

19
4. ESP Extra-Sensory Perception
  • Claims of ESP
  • (perception without sensation)
  • Telepathy mind to mind communication
  • Clairvoyance perceiving remote events
  • Precognition perceiving future events
  • Psychokinesis moving objects with ones mind
  • Skepticisms About ESP
  • Parapsychologists Study para normal phenomena
  • After tens of thousands of experiments, there
    has never been discovered a reproducible ESP
    phenomenon, nor any individual who can
    convincingly demonstrate psychic ability (Marks,
    1986)

20
5. Quiz Questions
  • Perceptual constancy refers to
  • a. seeing life in a seamless way, like a movie
  • b. our perception of objects remaining stable
    despite the fact that sensory information changes
  • c. the existence of schemas that guide our
    perception
  • d. visual fields in the retina that allow our
    perception of the world to remain stable
  • e. linear perspective

21
5. Quiz Questions (contd)
  • The perception associated with the amplitude of a
    sound wave is
  • a. timbre
  • b. loudness
  • c. tonal quality
  • d. pitch

22
5. Quiz Questions (contd)
  • Abnormalities at the norepinephrine and seratonin
    synapses appear to play a role in which of the
    following?
  • a. hyperactivity
  • b. depression
  • c. high anxiety
  • d. Parkinsons disease
  • e. schizophrenia

23
Happy Reading Week!
  • Keep breathing.

Good luck studying!
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