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National Security Policy in the PostCold War Era

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in the Post-Cold War Era. Lesson 4. The Strategic Level of War. Intelligence and Policy ... The end of the Cold War. Post Cold War Era. The process of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: National Security Policy in the PostCold War Era


1
National Security Policy in the Post-Cold War Era
  • Lesson 4
  • The Strategic Level of War

2
Intelligence and Policy
  • Points to remember
  • National strategy and Strategic Intelligence
  • Limitations of Intel communitys support
  • Strategic warning
  • Strategic warning success
  • Joint approach to Intelligence needed

3
Educational Objectives
  • The interplay between the NSS, NMS and JV2010
  • The relationship between national interests and
    national strategies
  • The potential and actual pursuit of national
    interests
  • The potential or actual use of force

4
Background
  • Definitions
  • Strategy
  • NSS
  • NMS
  • Policy
  • QDR (97)
  • JV2010
  • RBA
  • 2 MTW

5
Historical Context
  • Post WWII
  • NSA of 1947
  • The end of the Cold War
  • Post Cold War Era

6
The process of strategizing
  • The planner
  • Identifies national interests
  • Assesses interference
  • Forges
  • a strategy to employ DIME
  • A budget

7
Influences on strategy
  • Geography
  • History
  • Nature of political regime
  • Religion
  • Ideology
  • Culture
  • Political institution
  • Military institutions
  • Economic factors
  • Technology

8
The Theoretical Process
Risk
Interests
Resources
(Ends)
Strategy
(Ways)
Resources
Capabilities Forces
(Means)
9
National Interests
  • Vital
  • Peripheral
  • Survival
  • Important

10
The Theoretical Process
National Interests
National Objectives
National Policy
National Strategy
Objectives
11
The Real Process
Resources
Strategy
Domestic policies
12
NSS 97
  • Objectives
  • Enhance security with D M
  • Bolster economic security
  • Promote democracy abroad

13
National Military Strategy
  • Difficulties formulating
  • Threat
  • Resources
  • Time
  • Vested issues
  • NSS

14
The National Military Strategy
  • First in 1992
  • Changed
  • From containment to engagement
  • From threat-based to interests-and-capabilities
    based strategy
  • Process focused on
  • Deterring war
  • Waging war if deterrence failed

15
NMS 1992
  • A regional war-fighting strategy
  • Foundations
  • Base Force structure
  • Criticism

16
NSS 1994
  • Engagement and enlargement
  • NMS 1994
  • BUR
  • Criticism

17
NMS 1995
  • Based on BUR
  • NSS of selective engagement
  • 2 MRCs
  • Emphasized OOTW
  • Basic elements

18
NMS 1995
  • Basic elements
  • Peacetime engagement
  • Conflict prevention
  • Fighting to win
  • Basis

19
NMS 1995
  • Criticism
  • A series of mismatches
  • Policy and strategy
  • Strategy and force
  • Budget and force
  • Combination of the above

20
NMS 1996
  • Engagement and enlargement
  • No major revision

21
NSS 1997
  • Core objectives
  • Enhance security with D M
  • Bolster economic security
  • Promote democracy abroad

22
NSS 1997
  • Threats
  • Regional
  • Transnational
  • WMD

23
NSS 1997
  • Strategic Priorities
  • Foster….
  • Forge….
  • Build……
  • Keep…..
  • Increase cooperation….
  • Strengthen D M.

24
NMS 1997
  • National Interests
  • Objectives
  • Three principles
  • Elements
  • Based on the QDR 97
  • Strategic Concepts

25
NMS 1997
  • National Interests
  • Objectives
  • Three principles
  • Elements
  • Based on the QDR 97
  • Strategic Concepts
  • Vital
  • Important
  • Humanitarian

26
NMS 1997
  • National Interests
  • Objectives
  • Three principles
  • Elements
  • Based on the QDR 97
  • Strategic Concepts
  • Promote peace, stability
  • Defeat adversaries

27
NMS 1997
  • National Interests
  • Objectives
  • Three principles
  • Elements
  • Based on the QDR 97
  • Strategic Concepts
  • Global shaping
  • Global response
  • Global preparedness

28
NMS 1997
  • National Interests
  • Objectives
  • Three principles
  • Elements
  • Based on the QDR 97
  • Strategic Concepts
  • Shape
  • Respond
  • Prepare now

29
NMS 1997
  • National Interests
  • Objectives
  • Three principles
  • Elements
  • Based on the QDR 97
  • Strategic Concepts

30
NMS 1997
  • National Interests
  • Objectives
  • Three principles
  • Elements
  • Based on the QDR 97
  • Strategic Concepts
  • Strategic agility
  • Overseas presence
  • Power projection
  • Decisive force

31
QDR 1997
  • Debate between
  • Traditionalists
  • Strategic monists
  • Technophiles
  • Goals

32
QDR 2001
  • Goals
  • Forward deterrence
  • Asymmetric threats
  • Homeland security

33
Joint Vision 2001
  • A template
  • Operational concepts
  • Information superiority
  • Dominant maneuver
  • Precision engagement
  • Focused logistics
  • Major requirement
  • Criticism

34
Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986
  • Reasons for
  • Changes

35
Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986
  • Reasons for
  • Changes
  • Influence
  • Increased combatant cmdrs
  • Decreased service chiefs
  • CJCS as principal advisor
  • Revised education and promotion
  • Combatant cmdrs role in PBBS
  • Created VCJS
  • JROC

36
Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986
  • Reorganize DOD
  • Improve military advice to CINC
  • Combatant commanders
  • Formulation of strategy
  • Joint assignments
  • Enhance effectiveness of mil ops
  • Reasons for
  • Changes

37
Major question
  • When and how to use force?
  • Weinberger Nov 84
  • Powell 91
  • Aspin
  • GWB 01

38
Issues for Consideration
  • Evaluation of the material
  • U.S. national interests
  • Interests and Objectives
  • Vital Interests
  • Weinberger and Powell Doctrines
  • Key elements of NMS
  • Regionalism and Globalism
  • Difficulties in Formulating Strategy
  • Goldwater-Nichols

39
Evaluation of the material
  • Comprehend the basic elements of
  • NSS
  • NMS
  • Correlation of ends, ways and means
  • Analyze and assess new directions

40
U.S. national interests
  • What are they?
  • National Interests
  • How differ from national objectives?

41
Interests and Objectives
  • Vital v important?
  • Examples
  • Vital v peripheral

42
Vital Interests
43
Weinberger and Powell Doctrines
  • Weinberger
  • Vital interests
  • Clear
  • Intention to win
  • Military and political objectives
  • Force
  • Support
  • Last resort
  • Powell
  • Force as last resort
  • Clear military objective
  • Achievable military objectives
  • Overwhelming force

44
Key elements of NMS
  • 1995
  • Peacetime engagement
  • Conflict prevention
  • Fighting to win
  • 1997
  • New focus
  • Global shaping
  • Global response
  • Global Preparedness

45
Regionalism and Globalism
  • How has regionalism replaced globalism?
  • Overseas presence, power projection
  • Strategic agility
  • 2 MRCs

46
Difficulties in Formulating Strategy
  • Threat
  • Resources
  • Time
  • Vested interests
  • NSS

47
Goldwater-Nichols
  • Reasons for?
  • Changes?

48
Points to remember
  • Regional vice global focus
  • G-N requirement
  • National interests v objectives
  • National Interests in NSS 97
  • Intensity of national interests
  • Powells additions to Weinberger Doctrine
  • CJCS and chain of command
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