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Fertiliser Association of Ireland, Spring Scientific meeting 2008

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Title: Fertiliser Association of Ireland, Spring Scientific meeting 2008


1
Fertiliser Association of Ireland, Spring
Scientific meeting 2008
  • Maximising the value of potash and magnesium
    fertilisers
  • Jerry McHoul,
  • Technical Manager, Potash Ltd

2
Contents
  • The Global Potash Market
  • Global Production Vs Global Sales
  • Forward Projection Capacity, Production
    Demand
  • Key Drivers
  • K and Mg in Irish agriculture
  • Refresher on role importance of K and Mg
  • K for Nitrogen Usage Efficiency
  • Penalties of deficiency
  • K and Mg application in Ireland
  • Managing K and Mg
  • RD program

3
Supplier Structure Share by Trade Company
KS
  • ICL-Group
  • DSW
  • Iberpotash
  • CPL
  • participation
  • of PCS in ICL

APC participation of PCS
  • SQM
  • participation
  • of PCS
  • Silvinit
  • IPC

Others China, Intrepid, CVRD, Compass
  • Belarus- kali
  • Uralkali
  • BPC
  • (since 2006)
  • Mosaic
  • PCS
  • Agrium
  • Canpotex

Year 2006 sources IFA, KS
4
Global Production Vs Demand
Million tonnes
World potash production 2006 51.0 million
t 2005 56.6 million t
World potash sales 2006 50.7 million t
2005 54.4 million t
incl. sulphate of potash and low grade
potash sources IFA, KS
5
Population Growth and Available Farm Land
Population, billion
Farm land, ha per capita
World
Asia
Year
e Estimation
Source FAO - Summary of world food and
agricultural statistics 2005
6
World Production technical problems
When things go wrong
GOING.
GOING.
GONE !
7
Key drivers in the potash market
  • Key factors - summary
  • Record high oil prices increase demand and value
    of feedstocks for biofuels (more effect in next
    5-10 years)
  • Low global grain stocks resulting from structural
    supply deficit
  • Increasing demand for food
  • (population growth, standard of diet)
  • Intensification of many farmlands
  • The market has changed !
  • No longer a market of over-capacity and supply
    management. Prices driven up by buyers bidding
    for product
  • Potash producers now at full capacity and have
    undergone debottlenecking exercises to improve
    efficiency
  • Massive new investments likely to come on stream
    in next decade

8
Importance of K and Mg
  • Potash is vital for
  • Activation of enzymes
  • Production of Starch, Proteins Sugars
  • Water management
  • Osmotic maintenance
  • Drought tolerance
  • Anti-stress properties
  • Assimilate transport
  • Movement of plant nutrients required for growth
  • Transportation of sugars to grains, roots, tubers
    fruit
  • Potassium is a key driver of dry matter yield

9
The Building Blocks for Performance
P2O5
N
K2O
SO3
MgO
10
K for Nitrogen efficiency
Source AE Johnston
11
Balanced fertilisation for maximum N response
12
Rothamsted / Kemira research in 2004
Loss of 97 Kg N
13
Adequate K to prevent lodging
Source Rothamsted Research and Kemira Growhow
14
K to alleviate drought stress
  • Adequate K essential for water stress
  • Drastic reduction in winter wheat yield/ha in dry
    years

Grzebisz, Poland
PDA Trials, Stoneleigh
15
Penalties of K deficiency
  • Deficient K
  • depressed yield
  • Inefficient N response
  • Increased risk N loss
  • Reduced TGW
  • Reduced grain ripening period
  • Fewer grains per ear
  • Weaker straw and increased lodging risk
  • Increased susceptibility to drought
  • Heightened disease susceptibility

16
Importance of K and Mg
  • Magnesium
  • Present at the core of chlorophyll
  • Activates more enzymes than any other nutrient
  • Involved with movement of assimilates
  • Important for protein synthesis

Magnesium is a macronutrient Crop requirement
similar to that for P !!
17
Penalties of Mg deficiency
  • Deficient Mg
  • depressed yield
  • Inefficient N and P response
  • Reduced photosynthesis
  • Reduced thousand grain

18
Potash fertilisation in Ireland
  • K in Ireland Key points
  • Based on compound fertilisers (therefore spring
    applied)
  • Heavy reliance on recycled K from slurries
  • SOP popular for potato and vegetable production
  • Less use of straight NK products
  • Poorly understood relative of N, P, K
  • IMPORTANT THERE IS NO PROHIBITED PERIOD FOR
    APPLICATION OF K OR Mg FERTILISER

19
Potash fertilisation in Ireland
  • Potash - the forgotten nutrient
  • Recent focus on Environment
  • Implementation of the Nitrates Directive
  • Confusion of the fertiliser rules
  • Lack of knowledge
  • Unfounded wives tales
  • Research concentrated on N and P

Reduced applications
Reduced N efficiency
Yield ceiling ?
20
Declining K use in Great Britain and Ireland
GB data BSFP 2006 Eire data Coulter et al 2004
21
K status in the UK
PDA, 2007
22
Management of K in different soil types
  • Consider rotational application for heavier soil
    types- poorly rooted crops- highly responsive
    species (large uptake small offtake)
  • Sandy soils should receive frequent small
    dressings- additional foliar K for very light
    soil types
  • Irish K fixing soils (eg. Athy series) need
    special attention (monitor K status and apply
    organic matter)
  • Agronomic optimum timing is Autumn for most
    situations
  • Aim to achieve target index and then apply
    maintenance

Increase CEC (organic matter, lime) Apply to
Good agricultural practice Ensure balanced
fertilisation Aim for KMg of 0.51 to 61 to
avoid antagonism
23
Potash for Grassland - Silage
  • NK ratio for silage production 11
  • K is vital to turn N into dry matter
  • Multi-cut silage crop can remove gt300 kg K/ha
  • Recycling slurry is not a closed system
  • Aim to achieve target index and then apply
    maintenance

Source redrawn from Joe Murphy
24
Potash for Grassland - grazing
  • Requirements lower (lower yield, direct
    recycling)
  • Apply in Autumn with frequent small dressings
    through growing season
  • Balance K with Magnesium and Sodium

25
Potash for Grassland - grazing
  • Ensure grazing land gets soil test
  • Legumes very responsive to P and particularly K
  • Animal returns can be patchy

26
Potash for Potatoes
  • Poor root exploration highly responsive
  • Large offtake (200-250 kg K/ha)
  • Key for quality - reduction in bruising-
    quality skin finish- reduced blackspot
  • SOP/MOP ??

27
Potash trials different K sources in potatoes
All products applied at 250 kg K/ha before
planting
28
Replacing P and K cost in perspective
As a general rule of thumb there is up to 10
euros return for each euro spent on K on very
depleted soils, up to 5 euros for soils low in K
and if K fertiliser is omitted on adequate soils
for a number of years, it will fall into a lower
index where financial penalties will hit.
29
Potash and magnesium research UK and Ireland
30
Research aims
  • Investigating rates and timings of K and Mg on
    modern cultivars and yields
  • Evaluation of different chemical forms of
    nutrient
  • Researching qualitative aspects of K, Mg and S
    nutrition
  • To make data available for RB209 / Green book
  • To increase N use efficiency

31
Magnesium trials soil applied Mg in potatoes
Armstrong-Fisher 2007
All Mg fertilisers applied at 100 kg MgO/ha
before planting
32
Magnesium trials soil applied Mg in potatoes
over 50
CRITICAL THRESHOLD
Armstrong-Fisher 2007
Leaves sampled for Mg status in July-August
33
K and Mg trials Korn-Kali Foliar Mg in WW
0.48 t/ha
Armstrong-Fisher 2007
All K products applied _at_ 100 kg/K20/ha All EPSO
products applied at 2 x 10 kg/ha
34
K and Mg trials Korn-Kali Foliar Mg in OSR
0.34 t/ha
Armstrong-Fisher 2007
All K products applied _at_ 83 kg/K/ha
35
Magnesium trials Foliar Mg in WW
0.46 t/ha
Armstrong-Fisher 2007
EPSO applied _at_ 2 x 10 kg/ha
36
Magnesium trials Foliar Mg in OSR
0.24 t/ha
Armstrong-Fisher 2007
EPSO Top applied _at_ 2 x 12.5 kg/ha
37
Maximising value of K and Mg fertilisers - summary
  • Calculate real K requirement
  • Soil analysis is a must (grassland sector !)
  • Ensure balanced fertilisation (law of limiting
    factors)
  • Take account of organic manures available
  • Know the real cost of straw production
  • Calibrate spreaders
  • Consider applications relative to crop prices
  • Avoid running down reserves
  • Consider form of nutrient (Kieserite, Cal-mag,
    SOP/MOP)
  • Consider system using straights and precision
    farming

38
Maximising the value of K and Mg fertilisers
  • The end
  • Thank you for your attention
  • please visit our stand at cereals in June
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