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Title: SG1_200603_015_ISOStdsUpdate'ppt


1
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2
Radio FrequencyIdentification (RFID) - ISO
ISO/IEC Standards
  • Craig K. Harmon, President CEO, Q.E.D. Systems

http//www.autoid.org/presentations/presentations.
htm
3
Q.E.D. Systems Craig K. Harmon President
CEO http//www.autoid.org
  • Chair, ISO TC 122/104 JWG - Supply Chain
    Applications of RFID
  • Chair, RFID Experts Group (REG)
  • Chair, U.S. TAG to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4
    RFID
  • Senior Project Editor ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG
    (RFID)
  • Chair, ASC MH 10/SC 8/WG 4, RFID for Returnable
    Containers
  • Chair, ISO TC 122/WG 4 (Shipping Labels) ISO TC
    122/WG 7 (Product Packaging)
  • Vice-chair, ASC MH 10 and U.S. TAG to ISO TC 122
    (Packaging)
  • Project Editor, ISO 18185-7 (Electronic Container
    Seal - Physical Layer)
  • AIAG Bar Code, Applications, 2D, Tire,
    Returnables, RFID Committees
  • Member, EPCglobal HAG (UHFGen2), FMCG BAG, HLS
    BAG, SAG, TLS, TDS
  • JTC 1 Liaison Officer to the International
    Telecommunications Union (ITU-R ITU-T)
  • Past Chair, ASC INCITS T6 (RFID) - ANS INCITS
    2561999, 2001
  • ASC MH 10/SC 8 Liaison Universal Postal Union
    (UPU) Physical Encoding Group (PEG)
  • Advisor and Member of USPS Strategic Technology
    Council
  • ISO TC 104 122 (Freight Containers / Packaging)
    Liaison Officer to JTC 1/SC 31
  • Chairman Project Editor, ANS MH10.8.2 (Data
    Application Identifiers)
  • Vocabulary Rapporteur to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31
  • Co-chair, HIBCC Automatic Identification
    Technical Committee (AITC)
  • Project Editor, EIA Shipping Label, Product,
    Product Package, Component Marking

4
International Standards
5
Standards Organizations
International
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
(United Nations)
Universal Postal Union (UPU) (United Nations)
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO)
ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1)
TC 122 Packaging
SC 31 Automatic Data Capture
ITU-T (fka CCITT) Telecommunications
SC 17 IC Cards
TC 104 Freight Containers
WG 1 - Symbology
WG 2 - Data Content
ITU-R (fka CCIR IFBR) Radio-frequency Issues
TC 122/104 JWG SC Apps RFID
SC 6 Telcom info exchbtwn systems
WG 3 - Conformance
WG 4 - RFID
ITU-D (fka BDT) Telecommunications Development
TC 8 Ships Marine Tech
WG 5 - RTLS
Regional
Comité Européen Normalisation Electrotechnique
(CENELEC)
Comité Européen Postal Telegraph (CEPT)
Comité Européen Normalisation (CEN)
ECMA
ODETTE
National
Standards Assoc of China (SAC)
Deutches Institut fur Normung (DIN)
British Standards Institution (BSI)
ANSI
AFNOR
JISC
IEEE
INCITS
MHI
GS 1
CEA
AIM
Other
T6
B10
Industry
ATA
DoD
CEA
HIBCC
GS 1
AIA
Other
VDA
AIAG
6
Types of Standards
  • Technology
  • Symbology, RFID, I.C. Card
  • Data Content
  • Semantics (DIs or AIs), Syntax
  • Conformance
  • Print Quality, Test Specifications,
    Conformance to Air Interface
  • Network
  • Object-to-object communications
  • Application Standards
  • Freight container, RTI, Ship Label, Product
    Package, Product Mark/Tag, eSeal

7
Working Group (WG) 4RFID for Item Management
  • ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31Automatic Identification and
    Data Capture Techniques

8
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31
  • Charted to work on technical specificationsJTC
    1 was established in 1987 for 'standardization in
    the field of information technology systems ...
    and equipment ...(with the exclusion of)
    information technology for specific
    applications. jtc1n6778
  • JTC 1 is comprised of both ISO and IEC
  • SC 31 is chartered to work on automatic data
    capture technical specifications

9
Technical StandardsRadio Frequency
Identification (RFID)
  • ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4/SG 3
  • RFID for Item Management Air Interface (ISO
    18000)
  • ISO/IEC 18000-1 - Generic parameters - Air
    interface
  • ISO/IEC 18000-2 - Parameters for air interface
    below 135 kHz
  • ISO/IEC 18000-3 - Parameters for air interface at
    13.56 MHz
  • ISO/IEC 18000-4 - Parameters for air interface at
    2.45 GHz
  • ISO/IEC 18000-6 - Parameters for air interface at
    860-960 MHz
  • ISO/IEC 18000-7 - Parameters for active air
    interface at 433.92 MHz

10
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Structure
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO)
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) - IT
ISO/IEC JTC 1 Subcommittee 31
Secretariat GS 1
WG 1 Data Carrier
WG 2 Data Structure
WG 3 Conformance
WG 4 RF Tags
WG 5 RTLS
Convener S. Ackley (US)
Convener T. Yoshioka (JP)
Convener C. Biss (US)
Convener H. Barthel
Convener M. Harmon
DAI
Code 39
Linear Print Quality
API
Air Interface
2450 MHz
Data Syntax
ITF
2D Print Quality
Unique RF Tag ID
433 MHz
Unique ID
MaxiCode
Printing Specs
Defs. Logical Mem Map
GLS
Data Matrix
Test Specs BC Printers
Application Interface
Near Field
Test Specs BC Readers
Encoding Rules
EAN/U.P.C.
Test Specs BC Verifiers
Code 128
PDF417
RFID Performance
QR Code
RFID Conformance
Symbology Identifiers
11
SC 31/WG 4 (RFID) Technology Projects
12
Data Content StandardsISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 2
WG 4/SG 1
  • ISO/IEC 15424 - Data Carrier/Symbology
    Identifiers
  • ISO/IEC 15418 - EAN.UCC Application Identifiers
    and ASC MH 10 Data Identifiers
  • ISO/IEC 15434 - Syntax for High Capacity ADC
    Media
  • ISO/IEC 15459 - Unique identification - Part 1
    Transport units Part 2 Registration
    procedures Part 3 Common rules Part 4
    Unique Item identification for supply chain
    management Part 5 Unique identification -
    Returnable transport items Part 6 Unique
    identification - Lot/batch
  • ISO/IEC 15961 - Data protocol Application
    interface
  • ISO/IEC 15962 - Protocol Data encoding rules and
    logical memory functions
  • ISO/IEC 15963 - Unique ID of RF Tag

13
The 15459 Suite
  • FDIS ISO/IEC 15459-1, Information technology
    Unique identifiers for item management Part 1
    Unique identification of transport units
  • FDIS ISO/IEC 15459-2, Information technology
    Unique identifiers for item management Part 2
    Registration procedures
  • FDIS ISO/IEC 15459-3, Information technology
    Unique identifiers for item management Part 3
    Common rules for unique identification
  • FDIS ISO/IEC 15459-4, Information technology
    Unique identifiers for item management Part 4
    Unique item identification for supply chain
    management
  • FCD ISO/IEC 15459-5, Information Technology
    Unique Identification Part 5 Unique
    Identification of Returnable Transport Items
    (RTIs)
  • CD ISO/IEC 15459-6, Information technology
    Unique identification Part 6 Unique
    identification for product groupings in material
    lifecycle management

14
Conformance StandardsRadio Frequency
Identification (RFID)ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 3/SG
1
  • ISO/IEC 18046 - RFID Device Performance Test
    Methods
  • ISO/IEC 18047 - RFID Device Conformance Test
    Methods
  • Part 2 - lt135 kHz
  • Part 3 - 13.56 MHz
  • Part 4 - 2.45 GHz
  • Part 6 - 860-960 MHz
  • Part 7 - 433 MHz

15
ISO TC 122/104Joint Working Group (JWG)(Supply
chain applications of RFID)
16
The Layers of Logistic Units (Radio Frequency
Identification - RFID)
Layer 5
Movement Vehicle (truck, airplane, ship, train)
Layer 4 (433 MHz)ISO 17363(Freight containers)
Container (e.g., 40 foot Sea Container)
Layer 3 (860-960 MHz)(Other 18000 with TPA) ISO
17364(Returnable transport items)
Unit Load Pallet
Unit Load Pallet
Layer 2 (860-960 MHz)ISO 17365(Transport units)
Transport Unit
Transport Unit
Transport Unit
Transport Unit
Layer 1 (860-960 MHz) ISO 17366(Product
packaging)
Pkg
Pkg
Pkg
Pkg
Pkg
Pkg
Pkg
Pkg
Layer 0 (860-960 MHz)(13.56 MHz with TPA)ISO
17367(Product tagging)
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
Item
TPA - Trading Partner Agreement
Concept Source Akira Shibata, DENSO-Wave
Corporation
17
ISO TC 122/104 JWG project status
  • ISO 10374.2, Freight containers RF automatic
    identification
  • IS Issued 1991, Amd 1 1995
  • CD balloting closes 2006-03-09
  • ISO 17363, Supply chain applications of RFID -
    Freight containers
  • DIS balloting closes 2006-07-01
  • ISO 17364, Supply chain applications of RFID -
    Returnable transport items
  • DIS balloting closes 2006-07-01
  • ISO 17365, Supply chain applications of RFID -
    Transport units
  • DIS balloting closes 2006-07-01
  • ISO 17366, Supply chain applications of RFID -
    Product packaging
  • DIS balloting closes 2006-07-01
  • ISO 17367, Supply chain applications of RFID -
    Product tagging
  • DIS balloting closes 2006-07-01

18
Three tags - different purposes
Supply Chain Tag - ISO 17363
Container ID Tag - ISO 10374.2
Electronic Seal -ISO 18185
19
ISO TC 104/SC 4/WG 2Electronic Container Seals
20
Sealing and anti-tamper capability
  • Bolt Seal Security Tag
  • Electronically secures ocean containers, air
    cargo ULD containers, trailers,
  • Monitors presence and integrity of bolt seal,
    generates alarm upon bolt removal or breakage
  • Re-usable tag
  • Reduces manual inspections
  • Minimizes theft, loss and tampering

21
Three tags - different purposes
Supply Chain Tag - ISO 17363
Container ID Tag - ISO 10374.2
Electronic Seal -ISO 18185
22
ISO TC 104 project status
  • ISO 830, Freight containers Vocabulary
  • CD Ballot closes 2006-03-06
  • Revision of ISO 8301999, ISO 8301999/Cor 12001
  • ISO 17712, Freight containers Mechanical seals
  • Publicly Available Specification (PAS) published
    2005-11-13
  • Draft International Standards (DIS) expected
    2006-02-28
  • Final Draft International Standards (FDIS)
    expected 2007-01-31
  • Published International Standards (IS) expected
    2007-07-31
  • ISO 18185, Freight containers Electronic
    container seals
  • Part 1, Communication protocol, 2nd DIS balloting
    closes 2006-03-27
  • Part 2, Environmental characteristics, Awaiting
    decision by TC 104 SC 4/WG 2
  • Part 3, Application requirements, 2005-10-19 -
    with no sustained negatives at DIS . . . IS
    publication requested
  • Part 4, Data protection, CD ballot resolution in
    May 2006
  • Part 6, Messages sets for transfer between seal
    reader and host computer, 2005-10-19 - to be
    changed to EDI messages and may require scope
    modification
  • Part 7, Physical layer, 2nd DIS balloting closes
    2006-03-27

23
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 17Integrated Circuit Cards
24
Relevant JTC 1/SC 17 Standards
Integrated Circuit(s) Card
Standardization in the area of identification
cards and related devices for use
ininter-industry applications and international
interchange.This is interpreted to cover
allstandardization concerning personal
identificationand/or cards.
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 17
Contactless IC Card
IC Cards with Contacts
Remote Coupling
Close Coupling (CICC)
Vicinity (VICC)
Proximity (PICC)
13.56 MHz
13.56 MHz
4.91 MHz
3.57 MHz
70 cm
10 cm
2 mm
Contact
10 kb/s
106 kb/s
106 kb/s
106 kb/s
ISO15693
ISO 14443
ISO 10536
ISO 7816
WG 8/TF 3
WG 8/TF 2
WG 8/TF 1
WG 4
25
ISO TC 204/WG 7Intelligent Transport
SystemsGeneral fleet management and
commercial/freight
26
Automatic Vehicle Identification(ISO TC204 WG4/
CEN TC278 WG12 Joint Working Group)
  • ISO 14814 (ENV 12314-1) AVI/AEI - Reference
    Architectures and Terminology
  • ISO 14815 AVI/AEI - System Specification
  • EN ISO 14816 AVI/AEI - Numbering and Data
    Structures
  • ISO 17261 AVI/AEI - Inter-modal goods transport -
    Architectures and Terminology
  • ISO 17262 AVI/AEI - Inter-modal goods transport -
    Numbering and Data Structures
  • ISO 17263 AVI/AEI - Inter-modal goods transport -
    System Parameters
  • ISO 1726 AVI/AEI - Interfaces

27
ISO 24533Freight conveyance content
identification and communication architecture
Functional elements of the communication link
of ITS-RF/KANBAN
28
Other ISO TC 204CALM (Communication
Air-interface Long and Medium range) Networking
Protocols
29
ASC MH10 PINS
Today
Container Reader/ Communicator
Proposed
?
On Board Unit (OBU)
?
10374.2 Tag
?
17364 Tags
?
18185 Tag/Seal
?
?
?
?
?
Fingerprint Reader
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
17365 Tags
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Transportation Worker ID Card (TWIC) with
Fingerprint BiometricISO/IEC 14443
17363 Tag
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Chassis Tag TC 204 Standard
Tractor Tag TC 204 Standard
On Board Unit (OBU)
?
Tomorrow
Road Side Unit (RSU)
Part of CALM Network
30
Standards
  • ISO 17365 (transport unit) tags used to build
    17364 pallet tags
  • ISO 17364 tags used to build 17363
    container/manifest tags and to communicate with
    container reader/ communicator
  • ISO 10374.2 tag identifies container
  • ISO 18185 is eSeal tag
  • Chassis is identified by ISO TC 204 tag (ISO
    14816)
  • Tractor is identified by ISO TC 204 tag (ISO
    14816)
  • Driver is identified by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 17
    Transportation and DHS Worker Identification Card
    (TWIC)
  • On-board Unit (OBU) communicates to Road-side
    Unit (RSU) via CALM (Communication Air-interface
    Long and Medium range) Network (OBU-RSU
    communications protocol provisional)

31
Concept of Operations
  • As supply chain pallets are being built,
    transport unit tags are loaded to pallet tags
    identifying contents, who built the shipment,
    purchase order number, and when the shipment was
    built.
  • As pallets are loaded into the container, pallet
    tags are loaded to container supply chain tags
    identifying contents, who built the shipment,
    purchase order number, container ID, eSeal ID,
    and when the container was stuffed.
  • Container loaded onto chassis.
  • When the tractor connects to the chassis,
    container information, chassis ID, and tractor ID
    is loaded to the On-board Unit (OBU)
  • Driver inserts TWIC to ID card/fingerprint print
    reader
  • Immediately prior to border crossing event,
    driver records in vitro fingerprint to the OBU
    and a time stamp of fingerprint read.
  • At the border crossing point the contents of the
    OBU are transferred to the Road-side Unit (RSU).
    The Road-side Unit (RSU) might also capture
    information from the Container ID, eSeal, and
    Supply Chain/Manifest tag.
  • Process records the matching of the driver to the
    tractor, chassis, container, contents, eSeal, and
    time of the event.

32
ITU-TInternational Telecommunications Union -
Technology
33
ITU-TThe standardization work of ITU-T is
carried out by the technical Study Groups (SGs)
in which representatives of the ITU-T membership
develop Recommendations (standards) for the
various fields of international
telecommunications. The SGs drive their work
primarily in the form of study Questions. Each of
these addresses technical studies in a particular
area of telecommunication standardization. Each
SG has a SG Chairman and a number of
vice-chairmen appointed by the World
Telecommunication Standardization Assembly (WTSA).
  • Study Group 2 - Operational aspects of service
    provision, networks and performance
  • Lead Study Group on Service definition, Numbering
    and Routing.
  • Lead Study Group for Telecommunication for
    Disaster Relief/Early Warning.
  • Study Group 3 - Tariff and accounting principles
    including related telecommunication economic and
    policy issues
  • Study Group 4 - Telecommunication management
  • Lead Study Group on Telecommunication Management.
  • Study Group 5 - Protection against
    electromagnetic environment effects
  • Study Group 6 - Outside plant and related indoor
    installations
  • Study Group 9 - Integrated broadband cable
    networks and television and sound transmission
  • Lead Study Group on integrated broadband cable
    and television networks.
  • Study Group 11 - Signalling requirements and
    protocols
  • Lead Study Group on signalling and protocols
  • Lead Study Group on intelligent networks
  • Study Group 12 - Performance and quality of
    service
  • Lead Study Group on Quality of Service and
    performance.
  • Study Group 13 - Next Generation Networks
  • Lead study group for NGN and satellite matters.
  • Study Group 15 - Optical and other transport
    network infrastructures
  • Lead Study Group on Access Network Transport and
    on Optical Technology.
  • Study Group 16 - Multimedia terminals, systems
    and applications
  • Lead Study Group on multimedia terminals, systems
    and applications.
  • Lead Study Group on ubiquitous applications
    (e-everything, such as e-health and
    e-business).
  • Study Group 17 - Security, languages and
    telecommunication software
  • Lead Study Group on Telecommunication Security.
  • Lead Study Group on Languages and Description
    Techniques.
  • Study Group 19 - Mobile telecommunication
    networks
  • Lead Study Group on mobile telecommunication
    networks and for mobility.
  • Telecommunication Standardization Advisory Group
    (TSAG)
  • TSAG reviews priorities, programmes, operations,
    financial matters and strategies for the Sector,
    follows up on the accomplishment of the work
    programme, restructures and establishes ITU-T
    Study Groups, provides guidelines to the Study
    Groups, advises the Director of TSB, elaborates
    A-series Recommendations on organization and
    working procedures.

34
ITU-T Workshop Network RFID 14-15 February 2006
  • Objectives
  • The event focused on the use of RFID technology
    in networked environments, and review
    international standardization. Particular
    emphasis will be given to the impact that
    networked RFID applications will have on
    telecommunication networks, especially on network
    and service capability requirements and
    inter-working aspects.
  • Present the status of RFID technology and
    identify future trends
  • Review current and future applications, services
    and business models leveraging networked RFIDs
    (NRFIDs)
  • Identify NRFID aspects relevant to
    telecommunications (services and network
    capabilities, architecture, QoS, performance,
    security, etc.)
  • Analyse how far existing standards can support
    NRFID applications and services, and identify
    where enhanced or new standards might be needed
  • Identify elements for a roadmap for a
    standardization framework, including the
    clarification of the role of applicable SDOs,
    forums and consortia

35
Topics Speakers - 2006-02-14
  • Opening Remarks Yoshio Utsumi (ITU Secretary
    General)
  • Welcome Address Houlin Zhao (Director of TSB)
  • RFID-Tutorial Jari-Pascal Curty (Sokymat,
    Switzerland)
  • ITU-T Tony Rutkowski (Verisign, USA)
  • ISO/IEC Craig K. Harmon (QED Systems, USA)
  • EPCglobal Henri Barthel (EPCglobal)
  • Ubiquitous ID Center Noboru Koshizuka
    (Ubiquitous ID Center, JP)
  • Near Field Communication Reinhard Meindl
    (Philips, Austria)
  • Visions of Ubiquity Things in Cyberspace Lara
    Srivastava (ITU/SPU)
  • RFID A European Perspective Florent Frederix
    (European Commission)
  • Visions and strategy in Japan Takeshi Tandai
    (MIC, Japan)
  • Visions and Trends in US Markets - A Start-up
    Perspective Yael Maguire (ThingMagic, USA)
  • Networked RFID for Use in the Food Chain Peter
    Jones (Hitachi Europe)
  • RFID for Telecommunication Network Maintenance
    Edoardo Cottino (SIRTI, Italy)
  • Transport Container (ISO/TC104) Susan Evans
    (Savi Networks,
  • Automotive industry and RFID Christian Mory
    (Michelin, France)
  • RFID solutions for e-health Robert Gaisch (MBBS,
    Switzerland)
  • Mobile RFID Services and its Business Impacts
    Hyoung Jun Kim (ETRI, Korea)
  • RFID, applications and business models - the
    Telco perspective Bjørn Thorstensen (Telenor
    RD, Norway)

36
Topics Speakers - 2006-02-15
  • Security issues in RFID and sensor networks Kyo
    Il Chung (ETRI, Korea)
  • Authentication and privacy capabilities suitable
    for RFID Matt Robshaw (France Télécom RD,
    France)
  • Malicious Traceability within RFID Systems
    Gildas Avoine (EPFL, Switzerland)
  • The EPCglobal Network Architecture Henri Barthel
    (EPCglobal)
  • RFID An IP Networked Application Monique
    Morrow Peter Tomsu (Cisco Systems, USA)
  • Networked ID Applications and Standardization
    Topics Yong Woon Kim (ETRI, Korea)
  • The interferences among passive type UHF-RFID
    systems in dense environment, Analysis and
    Proposal Toshihisa Kamemaru (Mitsubishi Electric
    Corporation, Japan)
  • Self-organizing Sensor and Actuator Networks
    Martin Glänzer (Siemens, Germany)
  • Integration of RFID with Smart and Wireless
    Sensor Networks Kang Lee (NIST, USA)
  • Advanced RFID and Smart Tags - Vision Trends
    Daniel Evers (Siemens, Germany)
  • Future trends for the applications, viewpoint
    based on future technologies Laurent Sciboz
    (HEVs - University of Applied Sciences,
    Switzerland)
  • Future trends in Japanese RFID Technologies and
    Market Noboru Koshizuka (The University of
    Tokyo, Japan)
  • Summarizations Session chairs

37
Workshop Conclusions 1/3
  • Tentative list of topics of common interest 1/2
  • Scope RFID and Sensors Networks
  • Business models (e.g. service broker
    architecture issue)
  • Architecture (network, service stratum) for
    distributed applications (NGN compliance,..)
  • MM service/network requirements and
    capabilities to support present and future
    applications (B2B, B2C, C2C)
  • Signaling and control protocols
  • Ubiquitous information service protocols
  • Security (confidentiality, privacy,
    cryptography,)

38
Workshop Conclusions 2/3
  • Tentative list of topics of common interest 2/2
  • Interoperability, roaming
  • Data format
  • Reader management issue
  • OID Systems (coherent, scalable, trusted,
    rapid resolution of identifier, interoperability,
    )
  • Content negotiation issues
  • Performance and QoS
  • RF aspects (spectrum allocation, intra and
    extra RFID compatibility)
  • Terminology

39
Workshop Conclusions 3/3
  • Improve and strengthen cooperation among
  • key players
  • ITUITU-T, ITU-R, ITU-D
  • ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC6, SC17, SC27, SC31
  • ISOTC104, TC122, TC204
  • ETSI
  • IEEE
  • EPCglobal
  • NFC
  • Regional Key Players

40
Prioritization Conclusions 1/3
  • Tentative list of topics of common interest 1/3
  • (Scope RFID and Sensors Networks)
  • Business models (e.g. service broker
    architecture issue), Architecture (network,
    service stratum) for distributed applications
    (NGN compliance,..)- ITU-T SG13 (SG16)- JTC
    1/SC 6, SC 31- TC 204 - ISO TC 122/104 JWG-
    EPCglobal
  • MM service/network requirements and
    capabilities to support present and future
    applications (B2B, B2C, C2C)-
    ITU-TSG2,SG13,SG16- JTC 1/SC 6, SC 31- TC
    204- ISO TC 122/104 JWG
  • Signalling requirements and control protocols
    (routing??)- ITU-T SG11- JTC 1/SC 31, SC 6
  • (Ubiquitous information service protocols)-
    ITU-T SG2, SG16.
  • Security (confidentiality, privacy,
    cryptography,)- ITU-T SG2, SG16, SG17- JTC
    1/SC 6, SC 17, SC 27, SC 31

41
Prioritization Conclusions 2/3
  • Tentative list of topics of common interest 2/3
  • Interoperability, roaming Notes 1. Definition
    of roaming needs to be refined 2.
    Interoperability is relevant to all issues listed
  • Data format- ITU-T SG17- JTC 1/SC 6, SC 17,
    SC 31/WG 4/SG 1- ISO TC 122/104 JWG- EPCglobal
  • Reader management issue- ITU-T SG4 (?)- JTC
    1/SC 31- EPCglobal
  • Object Identification System (coherent, scalable,
    trusted, rapid resolution of identifier,
    interoperability, )- ITU-T SG2, SG11,SG16,
    SG17- JTC 1/SC 6, SC 31/WG 4/SG 1

42
Prioritization Conclusions 3/3
  • Tentative list of topics of common interest 3/3
  • Content negotiation issues- ITU-T SG9,
    SG16,- JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4- OMA, W3C
  • Performance and QoSITU-T SG2, SG9, SG13,
    SG16- JTC 1/SC 31/WG 3
  • RF aspects (spectrum allocation, intra and extra
    RFID compatibility)- ITU-R, ETSI- JTC 1/SC
    31/WG 4- NFC- National bodies (e.g. MII/China)
  • Terminology and Definitions- ITU-T all SGs-
    JTC 1/SC 31
  • General notes1. JTC 1/SC 31 work is primarily
    related to Tag-Reader interfaces2. IEEE
    standards applies to sensor-networks3. Priority
    topics are indicated in red

43
Future Plan of the deliverables
  • 6.1 Terms and Definitions
  • (T06-TSAG RFID CG-WD-07-060210.doc)
  • The editor will modify and improve the first
    draft of the report document and finish editing
    the document until the next TSAG Meeting (July
    2006).
  • 6.2 Business Models and Service scenarios
  • (T06-TSAG RFID CG-WD-10(1)-060212.doc and
    T06-TSAG RFID CG-WD-10(2)-060212.doc)
  • The editors will modify and improve the first
    draft of the report document and finish editing
    the document until the next TSAG Meeting (July
    2006). The following editing schedule was
    proposed and agreed

44
Future Plan of the deliverables
  • 6.3 Standardization issues
  • The editors will modify and improve the first
    draft of the report documents and finish editing
    the following two documents until the next TSAG
    Meeting (July 2006)
  • Report 1 "Review Report of Standardization
    Issues on Network Aspects of Identification
    including RFID
  • (T06-TSAG RFID CG-WD-04-060210.doc)
  • Report 2 "Proposed ITU-T strategy for
    standardization issues on network aspects of
    identification with harmonized standardization
    cooperation
  • (T06-TSAG RFID CG-WD-08-060212.doc)
  • The following editing schedule was proposed and
    agreed.

45
ISO TC 8Ships and Marine Technology
46
ISO TC 8Ships and Marine Technology
  • ISO/PAS 208582004, Ships and marine technology
    Maritime port facility security assessments and
    security plan development, published June 2004,
    is designed to assist in the implementation of
    the International Maritime Organization's
    International Ship Port Security (ISPS) Code.
  • ISO/PAS 28001, Best practices for custody in
    supply chain security, will assist industry to
    meet best practices as outlined in the World
    Customs Organization Framework. It is expected to
    be published in the second quarter of 2006.
  • ISO/PAS 28004, Security management systems for
    the supply chain General guidelines on
    principles, systems and supporting techniques,
    will assist users of ISO 28000. It will reference
    ISO 190112002, Guidelines for quality and/or
    environmental management systems auditing, and
    the future ISO/IEC 17021, Conformity assessment
    Requirements for bodies providing audit and
    certification of management systems.

47
RFID Experts Group (REG)
48
RFID Experts Group
  • Formed in February 2004 to assist DoD with RFID
    implementation
  • Under the AIM Global umbrella in July 2004
  • Reaching out for international cooperation
  • EMEA
  • Japan
  • Korea
  • China

49
REG Working Groups (WGs)
  • WG 5-I Interrogator System Implementation
    Operations
  • WG 5-B Back-up
  • WG 5-L Enabled Labels Packaging
  • WG 5-R Recyclability
  • WG 5-Q Tag Quality
  • WG 5-E Education Certification
  • WG 5-G Global Operation (Regulatory Database)
  • WG 5-P Privacy
  • WG 5-F Safety (Public Policy)
  • WG 5-C Security
  • WG 5-T Sensors and Transducers
  • WG 5-S Technology Selection
  • WG 5-M Software Middleware
  • AIM Global RFID Emblem

50
ISO/IEC Implementation TRs
  • ISO/IEC 24729-1, Information technology Radio
    frequency identification for item management
    Implementation guidelines Part 1 RFID-enabled
    labels and packaging
  • Source REG WG 5-L 5-B
  • ISO/IEC 24729-2, Information technology Radio
    frequency identification for item management
    Implementation guidelines Part 2
    Recyclability of RF tags
  • Source REG WG 5-R
  • ISO/IEC 24729-3, Information technology Radio
    frequency identification for item management
    Implementation guidelines Part 3 RFID
    interrogator/antenna installation
  • Source REG WG 5-I

51
ISO/IEC RFID Tag Quality
  • ISO/IEC xxxxx-1, Information technology Radio
    frequency identification for item management
    Conformance Part 1 Qualification of Design and
    Manufacture for RFID
  • Source REG WG 5-Q
  • ISO/IEC xxxxx-2, Information technology Radio
    frequency identification for item management
    Conformance Part 2 Verification of RFID tag
    quality
  • Source REG WG 5-Q

52
B11/EPC Harmonization Proposal
  • 27 January 2006(Slide 21 Added 1 February 2006)
  • (Slides 5 and 19 replaced by 7 and 20
  • 1 March 2006 by Q.E.D. Systems)

53
Challenge for B11 and EPCglobal
  • Multiple industries will use the same UHF air
    interface protocol
  • Different sectors will use different identifier
    encodings
  • Commercial, DoD, Retail EPCglobal Tag Data
    Standard
  • Aero Industrial 15961/962, SPEC2000, other
  • Pharmaceutical
  • How can tires be identified across multiple
    sectors?

54
Tag Memory
55
Basic RFID user information structure
1
0
PC bit17HEX
AFI
EPC
SGTIN SSCC GRAI . . .
Unique Parts Identification License
Plate Returnable Transport Item . . .
56
ISO/IEC 18000, Part 6CMemory Structure
x10
x15
x17
x20
x00
x0F
x14
x16
x18
x1F
Zero fillto thewordboundary
Reserved/AFI
UII TagEncoding
CRC
Length
PC
always zero for EPC
Toggle - always zero for EPC
NSI
RFU - always zero for 18000-6c
57
Proposal . . .
  • NEEDED
  • Neither ISO/IEC 18000-6C, nor EPC TDS, nor
    application proposal includes an indicator that
    MB11 is being used.
  • This need is also recognized within ILTJRG / HLS
    / Pharma
  • PROPOSAL
  • Use Bit 15 within MB01 to mean
  • 0 MB11 is NOT being used
  • 1 MB11 IS being used

58
. . . Proposal . . .
x10
x15
x17
x20
x00
x0F
x14
x16
x18
x1F
Zero fillto thewordboundary
Reserved/AFI
UII TagEncoding
CRC
Length
PC
always zero for EPC
Toggle - always zero for EPC
NSI
RFU
Read MB 11
59
. . . Proposed Data Structure
User Memory
UII Memory
MB01
MB11
LSB
LSB
MSB
MSB
UII (inclEPC)
PCBits (incl AFI)
Storage Format
RFU
CRC16
Object
Object
Object
ISO/IEC 15961/15962
UII
  • Data construction according to EPC proposal
  • Data construction according to ISO/IEC
    15961/15962 standards

NEEDED Within MB01, use bit 15 to indicate that
MB11 is, or is not, used.
60
User Data Construction
  • Utilizing ISO/IEC 15961 / 15962, the data in MB11
    (User Memory), starting at memory byte location 2
    (3rd byte of memory) would be constructed as
    follows

Precursor, Object ID Length, Object ID,
Object Length, Object Example follows next
slide
61
DOT Example
  • DI 21S
  • Converts as Relative-OID 691 dec
  • Using 15962 rules, encodes as 85 33 HEX
  • The length code for this to 15962 rules is 81 HEX
  • Data MKB5A8WR2405
  • Uncompacted (ASCII Hex) 4D 4B 42 35 41 38 57 52
    32 34 30 35
  • Length code 0C
  • Precursor 0F
  • Encodes the compaction scheme (application
    defined in this example) and the fact that the
    length of the Relative-OID follows
  • Full encoding 0F 81 85 33 0C 4D 4B 42 35
    41 38 57 52 32 34 30 35

62
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4/SG 314 March 2006
  • ISO/IEC 18000, Part 6C (New Revision) was
    modified to add the following language
  • Bit 15 set to 1 shows the presence of User
    Memory. The first byte(s) of Memory Bank 11
    define user memory data usage.

63
???
64
Thank You!!!
65
(No Transcript)
66
Overview of RFID
67
Active RFID
  • Active tags transmit an RF signal (instead of
    reflecting the signal)
  • Active tags have longer range than passive tags
  • Most active tags have batteries, though emerging
    technology may provide active transmission
    WITHOUT batteries.

68
Passive RFID
  • Passive tags (also referred to as field
    disturbance devices) reflect and modulate radio
    waves received by the tag from the interrogator.
  • Passive devices have ranges of 1 to 4 meters
    depending upon national regulations
  • Passive tags do not require an on-board power
    source, but some do have batteries to support
    sensors and faster response times.

69
RFID Operation (Passive Tags)
APPLICATION
INTERROGATOR
RF TAG
Tag Physical Memory
Decoder
AIR INTERFACE
Logical Memory Map
Encoder
DEVICECOMMANDS
COMMANDS
Tag Driver and Mapping Rules
APPLICATIONCOMMANDS
Command / Response Unit
Application Program Interface
APPLICATIONRESPONSES
RESPONSES
DEVICERESPONSES
Logical Memory
Note The Logical Memory Map in the Tag Physical
Memory is given by the Tag architecture and the
mapping rules in the Tag Driver. All the
information in the Logical Memory is represented
in the Logical Memory Map
PHYSICAL INTERROGATOR
DATA PROTOCOL PROCESSOR
ISO/IEC 15961
ISO/IEC 18000
ISO/IEC 15962
ISO/IEC 15962 Annexes
70
RFID Operation (Passive Tags)
  • Sequence of Communication
  • Host Manages Reader(s) and Issues Commands
  • Reader and tag communicate via RF signal
  • Carrier signal generated by the reader (upon
    request from the host application)
  • Carrier signal sent out through the antennas
  • Carrier signal hits tag(s)
  • Tag receives and modifies carrier signal
  • sends back modulated signal (Passive
    Backscatter - FCC and ITU refer to as field
    disturbance device)
  • Antennas receive the modulated signal and send
    them to the Reader
  • Reader decodes the data
  • Results returned to the host application

71
Are All Tags The Same?
  • Basic Types
  • Active
  • Tag transmits radio signal
  • Internally powered memory, radio circuitry
  • High Read Range (300 feet)
  • Passive
  • Tag reflects radio signal from reader
  • Reader powered
  • Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet)

72
My Favorite Quote of Bill Gates
  • People have a tendency to overestimate technology
    in the short term, and underestimate it in the
    long term.

73
Its all about the data
  • Inventory databases are currently structured with
    product codes
  • New technology should not require new data
  • Refresh technology when that technology becomes
    cost effective
  • Do not rush into new data structures without
    understanding the impact on existing information
    systems

74
RFID vs Key-entry Bar Code
  • RFID is not a replacement for a bar code!!
  • Use RFID where there is a positive ROI
  • When analyzing your business process, which makes
    the most sense?
  • ALWAYS HAVE A BACK-UP PLAN
  • With RFID back-up, what is the key-entry
    solution
  • Keying 96 1s and 0s?
  • Decimal representation of binary data?
  • Hexadecimal representation of binary data?
  • Octal representation of binary data?
  • For bar code back-up, will you use existing bar
    codes or new ones?

75
Serialization
  • EPC implementation requires re-engineering of
    your business processes
  • Existing inventory data bases are product code
    driven not serial number
  • Appreciate the amount of additional data that you
    will be both filtering and processing
  • Encoding existing serial numbers may be
    preferable to migration to a binary system
  • EPC does NOT require this serialization for its
    arbitration/anti-collision methods

76
Blocks vs Fields of Data
  • Bar codes are one at a time
  • Two-dimensional symbols are often blocks of data
  • Data rich RF tags are blocks of data
  • Serial number only tags require data base /
    communications access to identify the data
  • Are your systems ready for these changes?
  • Are you ready for the investment to enable these
    changes?

77
Implementation Issues
  • Read zone control
  • Application of tags
  • Where in the process
  • Where on the container
  • How are the labels being applied
  • Use ISO standards
  • EPC requires pre-population of data at the
    recipient (X12 856 / EDIFACT DESADV / XML) or
    access to the EPCIS
  • Back-up in case of tag failure
  • Recycling
  • Data concerns
  • Return on investment

78
Application StandardsRadio Frequency
Identification - Open Standards
  • ISO 10374 - Freight containers Automatic
    identification
  • ISO 18185 - Freight Containers - Radio-frequency
    communication protocol for electronic seal
  • ISO 11784 Radio-Frequency Identification of
    Animals - Code Structure
  • ISO 11785 Radio-Frequency Identification of
    Animals - Technical Concept
  • ISO 14223-1 Radio-Frequency Identification of
    Animals - Advanced Transponders - Part 1 Air
    Interface
  • ISO 21007-1 Gas Cylinders - Identification and
    Marking Using Radio Frequency Identification
    Technology - Part 1 Reference Architecture and
    Terminology
  • ISO 21007-2 Gas Cylinders - Identification and
    Marking Using Radio Frequency Identification
    Technology - Part 2 Numbering Schemes for Radio
    Frequency
  • ANSI MH10.8.4 - RFID for Returnable Containers
  • AIAG B-11 - Tire Wheel Identification Standard
  • ISO 122/104 JWG - Supply Chain Applications of
    RFID
  • ISO 17363 - Freight containers
  • ISO 17364 - Returnable transport items
  • ISO 17365 - Transport units
  • ISO 17366 - Product packaging
  • ISO 17367 - Product tagging

79
Technology Standards
Radio Frequency Identification Open Standards
  • ISO/IEC 18000 - RFID for Item Management
  • Part 2 - 125 - 150 kHz
  • Part 3 - 13.56 MHz
  • Part 4 - 2450 MHz
  • Part 6 - 860 - 960 MHz
  • Part 7 - 433.92 MHz (active)

Data Standards
  • ISO/IEC 15418 - Application Identifiers Data
    Identifiers
  • ISO/IEC 15434 - Syntax
  • ISO/IEC 15459 - Unique Item Identification
  • ISO/IEC 15961 - Data Protocol Application
    Interface
  • ISO/IEC 15962 - Data Protocol Data Encoding
    Rules and
  • Logical Memory Functions
  • ISO/IEC 15963 - Unique Identification for RF Tags

Conformance Standards
  • ISO/IEC 18047 - RFID device conformance test
    methods (at)
  • Part 2 - 125 - 150 kHz
  • Part 3 - 13.56 MHz
  • Part 4 - 2450 MHz
  • Part 6 - 860 - 960 MHz
  • Part 7 - 433.92 MHz (active)

80
ISO Standards
  • ISO has published air interface, data structure,
    and conformance standards
  • ISO (JTC 1/SC 31) has 27 countries that actively
    participate in standards development including
    China, Korea, and Japan
  • ISO (JTC 1/SC 31) has 28 other regional and
    international organizations with which it
    cooperates in liaison
  • ISO follows established rules and engages all
    member countries in voting and comments to
    developing standards
  • ISO is open

81
Regulations
82
Regulations - ITU
83
Regulatory Differences
  • Usage of channel
  • Primary service
  • Secondary service
  • Cannot interfere with primary service
  • Cannot claim protection of interference from
    primary service
  • Can claim protection of interference from other
    secondary users
  • Industrial, Scientific, Medical (ISM) Bands
  • Narrowband or Spread Spectrum
  • Power level
  • Duty cycle

84
Which Technology
  • How far?
  • How fast?
  • How many?
  • How much?
  • Geometry of tagging space
  • Interferers (physical and radio)

85
Radio Regulation Recommendations
86
Recent Developments
  • 860 - 960 MHz
  • Includes Industrial, Scientific, Medical (ISM)
    band
  • Technology enhancement (frequency agile and
    listen before talk) permits
  • 902 - 928 MHz used in Region 2 (U.S.)
  • 865.6 - 867.6 MHz nearing finalization in Region
    1 (Europe)
  • 908.5 - 914 MHz regulations finalized in Region 3
    (Korea)
  • 950 - 956 MHz regulations in process in Region 3
    (Japan - Jul 05)
  • China published in band regulations on 1
    October 2005
  • ISO/IEC 18000-6 (860-960 MHz) re-opened to
    address new developments, such as Gen2

87
Recent Developments
  • 433.92 MHz
  • ISM band permitted by ITU (implemented in Region
    1 but for different parameters in Regions 2 and
    3)
  • ITU receptive to Regions 2 and 3 supporting
    Region 1 for a 433 MHz allocation for freight
    containers
  • Chairman of ISO TC 104 (Freight containers) has
    made request to ITU and WCO to embrace both
    passive (860 - 960) and active (433.92 MHz)
    calling out 18000-6 and 18000-7
  • Approved in Korea
  • Approval expected in Japan (Q1 06)
  • Received support through new (April 2004) FCC
    rules, specific to RFID, that increases both
    power and duty cycle.
  • China regulations published on 1 October 2005
    including 434 MHz for RFID

88
Recommendations
  • Commence the development of industry standards
    using ISO 1736x as model
  • ISO 17363 - Supply chain applications of RFID -
    Freight containers
  • ISO 17364 - Supply chain applications of RFID -
    Returnable transport items
  • ISO 17365 - Supply chain applications of RFID -
    Transport units
  • ISO 17366 - Supply chain applications of RFID -
    Product packaging
  • ISO 17367 - Supply chain applications of RFID -
    Product tagging
  • Use common air interface, syntax, and semantics
  • Data structures can follow existing suite of
    industry bar code standards (plus unique
    identification)

89
How far, how fast, how many, how much, attached
to what?
90
U.S. Standards
91
U.S. Standards Efforts . . .
  • AIM
  • RFID Experts Group (REG) (see later slides)
  • RFID Emblem (05)
  • AIM Global Standard UHF RFID for Food Animal
    Identification (05)
  • U.S. TAG to JTC 1/SC 31
  • ASC MH 10/SC 8
  • ANS MH10.8.1 (00) - Linear Bar Code and
    Two-Dimensional Symbols Used in Shipping,
    Receiving, and Transport Applications
  • ANS MH10.8.2 (02) - Data Identifier and
    Application Identifier Standard
  • ANS MH10.8.3 (02) - Syntax for high capacity ADC
    media
  • ANS MH10.8.4 (02) - Radio frequency
    identification (RFID) tags for returnable
    containers
  • BSR MH10.8.8 - Radio frequency identification
    (RFID) for packages, parcels, and flat mail
  • BSR MH10.8.9 - Product identification using
    technologies other than optically readable media
  • BSR MH10.8.10 - RFID for product packaging
  • ATIS BCSC
  • RFID guideline development for the telecom
    industry meeting 3 May 2005

92
. . . U.S. Standards Efforts
  • Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG)
  • AIAG ARF-1 (91) - Application standard for RFID
    devices in the automotive industry
  • AIAG B-11 (02) - Tire and wheel identification
    label standard
  • AIAG RF returnable containers working group
  • CEA/JEDEC
  • RFID discovery meeting, 29 June 2005
  • CompTIA
  • RFID Professional Skills Certification SME
    Meetings, 31 May, 1-2 June 2005
  • INCITS T6
  • ANS/INCITS 256 (01) - Radio frequency
    identification (RFID)
  • INCITS T20
  • ANS/INCITS 371.1 (03) - Real time locating
    systems (RTLS) - 2450 MHz
  • ANS/INCITS 371.2 (03) - Real time locating
    systems (RTLS) - 433 MHz
  • ANS/INCITS 371.3 (03) - Real time locating
    systems (RTLS) - Application Program Interface

93
AIAG B-11 Tire Tag
  • ANSI INCITS 256 (T6) and ISO/IEC 18000, Part 4
    Part 6 compliant
  • 902 - 928 MHz for U.S. / 869 MHz for Europe
  • 2450 MHz for Japan
  • Molded into tire, applied with adhesive, or
    label
  • 1024 bits
  • ISO 15418/MH10.8.2 Data Identifiers
  • Successfully demonstrated in the U.S. the E.U.
  • 18000, Part 6c with User Memory
  • Molded into tire, applied with adhesive, or label
  • 2048 bits
  • EPC as UII MB01
  • ASC MH10 DIs for OEM data MB11
  • User Memory ISO/IEC 15961/15962 compliant
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