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Human Cloning

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'The cloning of mammals, by simple nuclear transfer, is impossible. ... With human cloning, we're not so much saving a life as creating a new being by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Cloning


1
Human Cloning
  • Dr. Ray Bohlin
  • Probe Ministries
  • www.probe.org
  • rbohlin_at_probe.org

2
If we can clone sheep and mice, can we clone
humans?
3
Definition of Personhood
  • Biological Criterion (Francis Crick)
  • If a child were considered legally born when two
    days old, it could be examined to see whether it
    was an acceptable member of human society

4
Definition of Personhood
  • Cultural Criterion Ashley Montagu
  • A newborn baby is not truly human until he or
    she is molded by cultural influences later.

5
Definition of Personhood
  • Mental Criterion (Joseph Fletcher)
  • Humans without some minimum of intelligence or
    mental capacity are not persons

6
Sanctity of Life vs. Quality of Life
7
Key Questions
  • Who will decide?
  • What criteria will we use?
  • Will our standard stay permanent?

8
Why is cloning so difficult?
  • All the cells of your body are differentiated.
    Stomach cells, brain cells, liver cells, muscle
    cells never change into something else.

9
Why is cloning so difficult?
  • But the DNA in all cells of your body is the
    same. The instructions to make you over again are
    present in each of your cells.

10
Why is cloning so difficult?
  • But in brain cells, for instance, only those
    genes needed for brain cell function are turned
    on. Everything else is switched off.
  • It was a mystery as to how to turn all those
    genes on again to form a new organism

11
Why is cloning so difficult?
  • Cloning frogs was mildly successful in the 60s
    and 70s
  • But attempts in the early 1980s to clone sheep,
    cows and mice were unsuccessful despite one
    dubious report of success with mice.
  • The cloning of mammals, by simple nuclear
    transfer, is impossible. Davor Solter, SCIENCE,
    Dec. 1984

12
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13
Cloning Dolly
starved
fusewith
Mammary gland cell
enucleated egg
potential embryo
14
Scientific Issues - Sheep
  • Inefficient - 277 fusions, 1 lamb
  • How long will Dolly live?
  • Will Dolly be fertile? Yes!
  • Other clones are large and fragile with subtle
    genetic abnormalities
  • Some questioned Dollys authenticity but this was
    answered recently.

15
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16
How were mice cloned?
17
How were mice cloned?
18
Cloned mice
19
Scientific Issues - Mice
  • Success rate is 2-3 compared to 0.3 for Dolly.
  • Attempts to clone neuronal and testicular cells
    were unsuccessful.
  • Successive generations were cloned.
  • Technique more applicable to humans.

20
Why Clone Animals?
  • Sheep are being cloned to reproduce genetically
    engineered sheep. These sheep are engineered to
    mass produce human proteins in their milk.

21
Why Clone Humans?
  • Doug Dorner, sterile because of leukemia
    treatment at age 16 The more he read the more
    excited he got. Technology saved my life when I
    was 16, he says, but at the cost of his
    fertility. I think technology should help me
    have a kid. Thats a fair trade. Time,
    2/19/2001, p. 51

22
Why Clone Humans?
  • Randolphe Wicker, 63 I can thumb my nose at
    Mr. Death and say, You might get me, but youre
    not going to get all of me, he says. The
    special formula that is me will live on into
    another lifetime. Its a partial triumph over
    death. I would leave my imprint not in sand, but
    in cement.

23
Why Clone Humans?
  • Jack Barker, Minneapolis marketing specialist,
    36, says, Ive come to the conclusion that I
    dont need a partner but can still have a child,
    he says. A clone would be the perfect child to
    have because I know exactly what Im getting.
  •  
  • Cloning, he hopes, might even let him improve on
    the original I have had bad allergies and
    asthma. It would be nice to have a kid like you
    but with those improvements. p. 55.

24
Why Clone Humans?
Source of organs for transplants Christie and
Travis Silva
Same sex couples Christine DeShazo Michele Thomas
25
Why Clone Humans?
  • Why not? Were just another animal species?
  • Children for childless couples

26
Why Clone Humans?
  • We can learn a great deal about human embryology

27
Why Clone Humans?
  • Some have suggested that cloning could replace a
    deceased child

28
Why Clone Humans?
  • Clones could be a source of rejection-free organ
    transplants

29
Why Clone Humans?
  • Cloning could create extra copies of desirous
    individuals

30
What is Life?
  • There is no clear-cut definition for what is
    life. And this is something, I think, that
    society is going to have to think about, is going
    to have to make some definitions. And those
    definitions may not be permanent, they may change
    as new technologies are developed. There is a
    fine line, and the line, at the early stages, is
    really based on your intentions of what they are
    to be used for as opposed to necessarily what
    they are.

31
What is Life?
  • So the question of what is life seems to change,
    I think, in peoples minds based on what their
    concerns are or their own interests are in how we
    might use whatever it is we are producing.
  • James Robl, Quoted in The Cloning Revolution,
    Films for the Humanities and Sciences (1998)

32
Biblical Principles
  • Genesis 126-28
  • Created in Gods Image
  • Therefore we are distinct from the animals
  • Stewardship
  • Exhortation to be fruitful and multiply

33
Naturalistic/Evolutionary Principles
  • An organisms sole purpose is to survive and
    reproduce
  • We are just another animal species
  • The species persists through time

34
The Ethics of Cloning
  • Usefulness of animal cloning
  • Distinction between animals and humans
  • Wastefulness of experimental process
  • Cloned expectations
  • Mythical reproductive rights

35
Usefulness of Animal Cloning
  • Reproducing genetically engineered animals to
    harvest them for pharmaceuticals and organs for
    transplant.
  • Preserve endangered species

36
Usefulness of Animal Cloning
  • Resurrecting extinct animals?
  • NOT!!

37
Violation of Human Dignity
  • Distinctions between man and animals
  • Child becomes a thing to be designed, sold and
    marketed

38
Human Experimentation
  • No matter how much animal experimentation is
    done, human embryos will be sacrificed

39
Cloned Expectations
  • People cloned for certain traits will have high
    expectations
  • Clones are identical twins, not parent and child

40
Summary
  • Tremendous waste of human life at embryonic
    stages.
  • Degradation of human dignity - humans
    designed/created for purposes other than
    procreation.
  • Dangerous family situations
  • Unwise personal expectations
  • Beneficial research goals achievable by other
    means.

41
The drive toward human cloning is being powered
by a selfish mythical right to total reproductive
freedom and further fueled by a profound lack of
moral courage on the part of science and society.
We are unwilling to say that there are some
experiments we will not perform.
42
Biblical Clones?
  • Rebecca a thirtysomething San Francisco Bay
    Area resident, spent seven years trying to
    conceive a child with her husband. Having been
    to hell and back with IVF treatment, Rebecca is
    now as thoroughly committed to cloning as she is
    to Christianity. Its in the Bible be fruitful
    and multiply, she says.

43
Biblical Clones?
  • People say, Youre playing God. But were not.
    Were using the raw materials the good Lord gave
    us. What does the doctor do when the heart has
    stopped? They have to do direct massage of the
    heart. You could say the doctor is playing God.
    But we save a life. With human cloning, were not
    so much saving a life as creating a new being by
    manipulation of the raw materials, DNA, the
    blueprint of life. Youre simply using it in a
    more creative manner.

44
Questions about Cloning
  • Will Clones be unique individuals?
  • Does a clone have to start as a baby?
  • Will cloning affect genetic diversity?
  • Can homosexuals use cloning to have children?
  • Will clones have a soul?
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