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Qualitative methods

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Title: Qualitative methods


1
Qualitative methods
  • Caroline Green
  • November 2007

2
Quantitative and qualitative data
  • What are the differences?
  • Quantitative numerical data
  • Qualitative - non-numerical data

3
Qualitative data
  • Non-numerical data, mostly in the form of
    meanings
  • what people say
  • pictorial e.g. graffiti
  • content of stories, songs,myths
  • uncategorized, unedited recordings of
    behaviour

4
Qualitative approaches
  • Protocol analysis (Ericcson and Simon
    (1980,1983,1993))
  • Grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss(1967),
    Strauss and Corbin(1990))
  • Action research (Lewin(1946))
  • Ethnography
  • Feminist research
  • Discourse analysis

5
Protocol Analysis
  • Verbal protocols recordings of what people say
    when carrying out a task under instructions to
    verbalise all thoughts.
  • Used most in problem solving tasks to provide
    extra information about strategies etc

6
Grounded theory
  • Advocates research with no prior commitment to
    expectations.
  • Theory emerges from repeated sampling of
    qualitative data from local circumstances in
    their social context

7
Action Research
  • Used when social change envisaged social change
    effected consequent changes observed.
  • Tied to applied work context is participative

8
Ethnography
  • Used more in anthropology sociology
  • Concentrates on field research of and within the
    lifestyle of the social group of interest.
  • Strongly associated with intensive participant
    observation

9
Feminist research
  • Exposure of male bias in theory and research
  • Aims at ultimately, a world free of male, or
    perhaps any oppression.
  • Research tends to be action oriented with
    interventions aimed at some measure of increased
    awareness

10
Discourse analysis
  • Discourse constructs our social world
  • Looks at what people do with their talk and the
    social actions performed with speech

11
Positions in the qualitative-quantitative debate
  • No qualitative data
  • Qualitative data convert to quantitative data
  • Qualitative data can support quantitative
    findings
  • Qualitative and quantitative methods equal but
    different
  • Quantitative methods only

12
Contrasting principles of the 2 approaches
  • Hypothetico-deductive method
  • vs
  • Inductive analysis

13
Contrasting principles of the 2 approaches
  • Reductionism
  • vs
  • Holism

14
Contrasting principles of the 2 approaches
  • Positivism
  • vs
  • Constructivism relativism

15
Contrasting principles of the 2 approaches
  • Knowledge facts gained from the world
  • Vs
  • Knowledge social construction

16
Contrasting principles of the 2 approaches
  • Significance testing
  • Vs
  • Data gathering and analysis not separated

17
Contrasting principles of the 2 approaches
  • Research on subjects population sample
  • Vs
  • Research with participants

18
Contrasting principles of the 2 approaches
  • Structure and control elimination of extraneous
    variables
  • Vs
  • Flexibility look for all possible contributory
    information

19
Contrasting principles of the 2 approaches
  • Numbers
  • vs
  • Human meanings in social contexts

20
Contrasting principles of the 2 approaches
  • Laboratory or controlled environment
  • vs
  • Naturalistic

21
Contrasting principles of the 2 approaches
  • Reliability tests
  • vs
  • Reliability no overall qualitative agreement

22
Contrasting principles of the 2 approaches
  • Validity tests
  • vs
  • Validity set of criteria

23
Criteria for achieving validity in qualitative
research
  • Trustworthiness and genuineness
  • Triangulation
  • Respondent validation
  • Peer agreement
  • Independent audit
  • Internal coherence
  • Reflexivity

24
Practical issues in qualitative research
  • Can be very time consuming to conduct
  • Can take more of participants time compared to
    an experimental approach
  • Analysis can be resource intensive

25
Bibliography
  • Richardson, J.T.E. (Ed).(1996) Handbook of
    Qualitative Research Methods for Psychology and
    the Social Sciences. Leicester BPS Books
  • McQueen, R. and Knussen, C. (2006) Introduction
    to Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology.
    Harlow Prentice Hall. Chapter 12.
  • Eysenck, M. (Ed.) (1998). Psychology an
    integrated approach. Harlow Addison Wesley
    Longman. Chapter 21.

26
Web reference
  • http//jan.ucc.nau.edu/mid/edr725/class/index.htm
    l
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